Yokohari_M_Designing a sustainable future for suburban landscapes with rural greenspace

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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
October 2013

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Yokohari_M_Designing a sustainable future for suburban landscapes with rural greenspace

  1. 1. LaTrobe University, Bundoora, October 2013 Designing a sustainable future for East-Asian peri-urban areas through integrating rural greenspace Makoto YOKOHARI The University of Tokyo
  2. 2. Urban (8%) Agricultural (12%) Forest (70%) 370,000km2
  3. 3. hectors % 71.1 80 70 53.3 52.8 47.3 43.5 41.0 60 50 2970.4 10000 1000 169.6 55.8 52.6 100 40 14.1 30 20 78.6 12.2 10 2.27 10 1 0 Proportion of the land area for agricultural uses Average farmland size per farm household Small and labor intensive Japanese agriculture
  4. 4. Kanto, 70km N of Tokyo
  5. 5. http://mainichi.jp/select/jiken/graph/20110311/43.html
  6. 6. Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake  January 17, 1995  Dead: 6400  Injured: 44000
  7. 7. Great Kanto Earthquake  September 1, 1923  Victims: 1,484,000 (58%)  Dead: 58,000  Burnt-down houses: 215,000(62%)  Burnt-down area: 3342ha(42%)
  8. 8. Seismic hazards and mega-cities SOURCE: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, United Nations Population Division
  9. 9. Flood in Bangkok Bangkok (2011), Beijing (2012), Manila (2012)…..
  10. 10. Disaster risks Comprehensive Risk index by Munich Reinsurance Company Paris 25 London 30 New York 42 Paris NYC Tokyo 710 Tokyo
  11. 11. Need to develop a sustainable and resilient planning concept suitable for areas prone to natural disasters
  12. 12. What kind of a planning concept?
  13. 13. Cities in medieval Europe Cologne, Germany 16th century Paris, France 16th century
  14. 14. Greater London Plan (1944) and the London Green Belt by Patrick Abercrombie
  15. 15. Urban Rural Juxtaposition of homogeneous land units
  16. 16. Urban Rural Inter-unit functional relations
  17. 17. Seismic hazards and mega-cities SOURCE: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, United Nations Population Division
  18. 18. Loss of inter-unit functional relationships No way to survive?
  19. 19. Engawa Public? Private?
  20. 20. Container plants placed along roji (paths) in shitamachi Public? Private?
  21. 21. Agricultural lands in residential neighborhoods Urban? Rural?
  22. 22. Edo
  23. 23. Land use of Edo in the mid 19th century More than 40% of the land area was for agricultural uses
  24. 24. Mixture of urban and rural land uses in the mid 19th century Edo
  25. 25. Night soil Edo Agricultural products Farm households Edo: One of the most successful sustainable cities based on the urban/rural land use mixture
  26. 26. 1906 Mitaka Kichijoji
  27. 27. 1937 Mitaka Kichijoji
  28. 28. 1956 Mitaka Kichijoji
  29. 29. 1998 Mitaka Kichijoji
  30. 30. Urban Rural What modern urban planning aimed…
  31. 31. Urban Rural What actually happened in Japan…
  32. 32. Chaotic?
  33. 33. Urban agricultural units providing food to neighboring urban land units in emergency events
  34. 34. international rural peri-urban intera-urban
  35. 35. international rural peri-urban intera-urban Food supply from intra- and peri-urban areas for redundant and thus resilient food supply
  36. 36. Agricultural lands with prime soil found in and around the urban core Soil quality top mid low railroad station urban land use
  37. 37. Percentage of agricultural lands with prime soil and that of built up lands agricultural land with prime soil built up land R2 = 0.77 Distance from the urban core (railroad station)
  38. 38. Multi-functionality / ecosystem services of agricultural lands in peri-urban areas Microclimate control (Reduction of summer heat) Scenery conservation Water retention Bio-diversity conservation
  39. 39. Heat island
  40. 40. Farmland patches as “cool spots” in a residential neighborhood
  41. 41. 2C Coverage ratio of paddy fields per unit (%) Relationship between the coverage ratio of paddy fields and the temperature differences between paddy fields and the urban core
  42. 42. Peri-urban landscapes with various agricultural greens A suitable planning concept for East-Asia
  43. 43. Who’s going to cultivate the lands?
  44. 44. household household 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 MAFF (2006) 4000 Tokyo Met(2006) 3000 2000 1000 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 Farm households (Tokyo Met) Major Sub-major Minor Farm households (23 wards) 15-29 30-49 2005 Subsistence (46.3%) Farm operation (Tokyo Met) MAFF (2006) Declining agriculture in Tokyo Over 65 (52.8%) 2005 50-59 60-64 Age of farmers (Tokyo Met) MAFF (2006)
  45. 45. Estimated demographic transitions of Japan More than 25% of the population become over 65 within 20 years
  46. 46. Past Future (estimate) Transitions in the population of Japan : 1955 to 2055 Shrinking population, shrinking cities, and shrinking economy
  47. 47. Urban residents retired at the age around 60 willing to practice agriculture as their second life Let them come out from their backyard and collaborate with farmers
  48. 48. Agriculture experience gardens Nerima, Tokyo Instructed by local farmers
  49. 49. Local “urban” residents working, not volunteering, as semi-professional farmers on suburban farmlands
  50. 50. Size of farmland Group A Group B, Group C Group E large small Community garden Group D Group F Professional farming Number of grown vegetables Group F Group D Group C large small Professional farming Group A Group E Group B Community garden
  51. 51. Urban hobby farmers kg/m /year 9.1 2 kg/m /year 6.2 Professional farmers 2
  52. 52. Peri-urban landscapes with a smallscaled mixture of fragmented urban and agricultural land uses May not be “beautiful” but “functional” to create sustainable and resilient cities in East Asia Thank you!

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