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Yokohari_M_Designing a sustainable future for suburban landscapes with rural greenspace

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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference …

Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
October 2013

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  • 1. LaTrobe University, Bundoora, October 2013 Designing a sustainable future for East-Asian peri-urban areas through integrating rural greenspace Makoto YOKOHARI The University of Tokyo
  • 2. Urban (8%) Agricultural (12%) Forest (70%) 370,000km2
  • 3. hectors % 71.1 80 70 53.3 52.8 47.3 43.5 41.0 60 50 2970.4 10000 1000 169.6 55.8 52.6 100 40 14.1 30 20 78.6 12.2 10 2.27 10 1 0 Proportion of the land area for agricultural uses Average farmland size per farm household Small and labor intensive Japanese agriculture
  • 4. Kanto, 70km N of Tokyo
  • 5. http://mainichi.jp/select/jiken/graph/20110311/43.html
  • 6. Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake  January 17, 1995  Dead: 6400  Injured: 44000
  • 7. Great Kanto Earthquake  September 1, 1923  Victims: 1,484,000 (58%)  Dead: 58,000  Burnt-down houses: 215,000(62%)  Burnt-down area: 3342ha(42%)
  • 8. Seismic hazards and mega-cities SOURCE: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, United Nations Population Division
  • 9. Flood in Bangkok Bangkok (2011), Beijing (2012), Manila (2012)…..
  • 10. Disaster risks Comprehensive Risk index by Munich Reinsurance Company Paris 25 London 30 New York 42 Paris NYC Tokyo 710 Tokyo
  • 11. Need to develop a sustainable and resilient planning concept suitable for areas prone to natural disasters
  • 12. What kind of a planning concept?
  • 13. Cities in medieval Europe Cologne, Germany 16th century Paris, France 16th century
  • 14. Greater London Plan (1944) and the London Green Belt by Patrick Abercrombie
  • 15. Urban Rural Juxtaposition of homogeneous land units
  • 16. Urban Rural Inter-unit functional relations
  • 17. Seismic hazards and mega-cities SOURCE: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, United Nations Population Division
  • 18. Loss of inter-unit functional relationships No way to survive?
  • 19. Engawa Public? Private?
  • 20. Container plants placed along roji (paths) in shitamachi Public? Private?
  • 21. Agricultural lands in residential neighborhoods Urban? Rural?
  • 22. Edo
  • 23. Land use of Edo in the mid 19th century More than 40% of the land area was for agricultural uses
  • 24. Mixture of urban and rural land uses in the mid 19th century Edo
  • 25. Night soil Edo Agricultural products Farm households Edo: One of the most successful sustainable cities based on the urban/rural land use mixture
  • 26. 1906 Mitaka Kichijoji
  • 27. 1937 Mitaka Kichijoji
  • 28. 1956 Mitaka Kichijoji
  • 29. 1998 Mitaka Kichijoji
  • 30. Urban Rural What modern urban planning aimed…
  • 31. Urban Rural What actually happened in Japan…
  • 32. Chaotic?
  • 33. Urban agricultural units providing food to neighboring urban land units in emergency events
  • 34. international rural peri-urban intera-urban
  • 35. international rural peri-urban intera-urban Food supply from intra- and peri-urban areas for redundant and thus resilient food supply
  • 36. Agricultural lands with prime soil found in and around the urban core Soil quality top mid low railroad station urban land use
  • 37. Percentage of agricultural lands with prime soil and that of built up lands agricultural land with prime soil built up land R2 = 0.77 Distance from the urban core (railroad station)
  • 38. Multi-functionality / ecosystem services of agricultural lands in peri-urban areas Microclimate control (Reduction of summer heat) Scenery conservation Water retention Bio-diversity conservation
  • 39. Heat island
  • 40. Farmland patches as “cool spots” in a residential neighborhood
  • 41. 2C Coverage ratio of paddy fields per unit (%) Relationship between the coverage ratio of paddy fields and the temperature differences between paddy fields and the urban core
  • 42. Peri-urban landscapes with various agricultural greens A suitable planning concept for East-Asia
  • 43. Who’s going to cultivate the lands?
  • 44. household household 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 MAFF (2006) 4000 Tokyo Met(2006) 3000 2000 1000 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 Farm households (Tokyo Met) Major Sub-major Minor Farm households (23 wards) 15-29 30-49 2005 Subsistence (46.3%) Farm operation (Tokyo Met) MAFF (2006) Declining agriculture in Tokyo Over 65 (52.8%) 2005 50-59 60-64 Age of farmers (Tokyo Met) MAFF (2006)
  • 45. Estimated demographic transitions of Japan More than 25% of the population become over 65 within 20 years
  • 46. Past Future (estimate) Transitions in the population of Japan : 1955 to 2055 Shrinking population, shrinking cities, and shrinking economy
  • 47. Urban residents retired at the age around 60 willing to practice agriculture as their second life Let them come out from their backyard and collaborate with farmers
  • 48. Agriculture experience gardens Nerima, Tokyo Instructed by local farmers
  • 49. Local “urban” residents working, not volunteering, as semi-professional farmers on suburban farmlands
  • 50. Size of farmland Group A Group B, Group C Group E large small Community garden Group D Group F Professional farming Number of grown vegetables Group F Group D Group C large small Professional farming Group A Group E Group B Community garden
  • 51. Urban hobby farmers kg/m /year 9.1 2 kg/m /year 6.2 Professional farmers 2
  • 52. Peri-urban landscapes with a smallscaled mixture of fragmented urban and agricultural land uses May not be “beautiful” but “functional” to create sustainable and resilient cities in East Asia Thank you!