Williams_D_Peri-Urban environments: the x factor for plant pests and diseases

  • 69 views
Uploaded on

Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference …

Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
Oct 2013

More in: Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
69
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Peri-urban environments: The ‘X Factor’ for plant pests and diseases David Williams, Jacky Edwards, Greg Lefoe, Ian Porter, Brendan Rodoni & Alan Yen
  • 2. What am I talking about? • • • • Definitions of per-urban Implications for biosecurity Some case studies Concluding remarks
  • 3. Peri-urban areas • Delineation difficult • Victoria – Riverland – Melbourne hinterland – Most of eastern Victoria Aslin et al (2004) Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra What about Geelong, Bendigo, Ballarat, Wodonga, Shepparton, Wangaratta, Horsham, etc?
  • 4. Mosaic • Urban and rural residential • Commercial and “lifestyle” hobby farms • Water catchments and storage • Other rural industries, including intensive animal production • Nature reserves • Recreation facilities • Transport routes and hubs
  • 5. Biosecurity • Protection of people, farms, animals and plants from entry and spread of unwanted exotic animals, pests, diseases and weeds (Maller et al . 2007. Biosecurity and small landholders in peri-urban Australia. Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra ) • Global peri-urban focus on animal diseases that could impact on humans but virtually none on plant pests & diseases • Hobby farms and consumer demand – New animal and plant industries – New invasive species – New pathways to infest commercial farms and environment • Neglected farms
  • 6. Biosecurity 2 • • • • • • • Border protection Containment & eradication Pest infested zones Areas of low pest prevalence Pest free areas of production Pest exclusion zones Pest risk zones
  • 7. Case study: Fireblight • Bacterial • Major threat to pome fruit, particularly major Australian varieties of apple and pear • Reported in RBG Melbourne 1997 • 1200 host plants removed • Many high value plants • Compensation • Awareness program
  • 8. Case study: Plum pox • Virus of stone fruit • Infects apricots, plums, peaches, nectarines, ornamental prunus • No cure except destruction of trees • Eradicated in Pennsylvania 1999 • 300 sq.mile quarantine zone • 1600 acres removed • all prunus within 500m radius of infected tree • Failure in Canada 2000 • high density of Prunus • adopted threshold level of infection rather than removal of trees around infected trees
  • 9. Case study: grapevine leaf rust • Private garden grapevine Darwin 2001 • Surveys within 15kms found 45 infected plants • Eradication program implemented • Resistance from some residents • • • • No commercial vineyards in region Greek culinary purposes Public awareness campaign Police escorts for survey teams • Declared successful 2007
  • 10. Case study: Myrtle rust • Potted nursery plants NSW 2010 • Quickly spread to coastal NSW & Qld • Expected to hit eastern Victoria forests • 1st detection in Victoria at wholesale nursery in Melbourne • Delimitation survey – Suburban parks and gardens – Country towns – Movement of infested nursery stocks
  • 11. Case study: Oriental fruit moth (OFM) • • • • Endemic introduced pest Known to infest pome & stone fruit overseas Had been “restricted” to stone fruit in Australia Change of orchard pest management – pheromone-mediated mating disruption replaced pesticides • Increased populations in pome fruit not treated for OFM • Mated females move back into nearby stone fruit • Farmers & urban residents cooperated
  • 12. Case study: Elm leaf beetle • Elms are important landscape trees in urban centres • Avenues of Honour in country towns • Dutch Elm Disease not in Australia but vectors present • Elm leaf beetle (ELB) defoliates elms • Causes tree stress • Susceptibility to disease • ELB hitch hikes on vehicles Avenue of Honour, Bacchus Marsh, contains an elm for each soldier from the local area . (image from http://vegefarmer.blogspot.com.au/) • Spraying difficult, expensive, & has potential side effects
  • 13. Case study: Elm leaf beetle cont. • Integrated management • Monitoring • Biological control • Safer pesticide application • Complexity of tree ownership • Friends of the Elms Inc. Infested elms adjacent to a busy urban traffic corridor Aggregation of beetles sheltering in a log
  • 14. Case study: Danger of exotic psyllids Asiatic citrus psyllid Tomato potato psyllid Image: Uni. Nebraska • Sap sucking insects capable of transmitting plant viral and bacterial diseases. • Asiatic citris psyllid (ACP) & Tomato potato psyllid (TPP) are high risk incursions • Both species can infect commercial crops with bacterial disease – ACP: Citrus species – TPP: Solanaceous crops (potatoes, tomatoes, egg plants, capsicums)
  • 15. Case study: Danger of exotic psyllids • Both species utilise non-commercial host plants – ACP: Murraya paniculata (ornamental), native Citrus species? – TPP: about 40 spp of Solanaceous plants (native & exotic) • Potential entry pathways – Natural wind dispersal (ACP from Papua New Guinea or Timor Leste; TPP from New Zealand) – People (ACP feeds on curry plants and live specimens have been intercepted at the airports – likely that it could establish in an urban or peri-urban backyard first)
  • 16. Concluding remarks • Peri-urban zone • incursion bridge between urban and rural • complex nature of land uses • Owners do not derive main income from property • Non-commercial farmers not members of industry organisations so difficult to trace • Risk zone for establishment and spread before detection • Informal networks increase risk • Awareness and education critical • Social media can help or hinder • Municipal emergency planning should include biosecurity planning • Biosecurity response success depends on what intelligence is available