Sandhu_H_Future proofing peri-urban agriculture

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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference …

Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
October 2013

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  • 1. Future Proofing Peri-urban Agriculture: Methods to Quantify and Value Ecosystem Services Dr Harpinder Sandhu School of the Environment, Flinders University of South Australia Harpinder.Sandhu@flinders.edu.au Beyond the Edge: Australia's First Peri-Urban Conference, October 1, 2013
  • 2. Key global issues • Population increasing • Food demand will double by 2050 • Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services • Climatic variability and change
  • 3. Ecosystem Services • Nature’s services – Gretchen Daily, 1997 • Nature article by Costanza et al. (1997) US $ 33,000,000,000,000 p.a. Gross global production: US $ 18,000,000,000,000 p.a.
  • 4. Trends of Natural Capital and Ecosystem Services
  • 5. Agriculture poses risks to Ecosystems 1.89 1.66 Drivers of Ecosystem Change 236 1.5 135 10.1 0.74 87 0.5 6.55 20 3.75 3 1900 1950 2000 2020 2050
  • 6. • 3-4% to the national GDP • 60% of total area • 65% of natural resources • Need to incorporate ES into decision making The largest industry on the planet 1.3 billion people, $4 trillion in global GDP (6 %)
  • 7. How do we turn things around?
  • 8. Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes Sandhu et al. 2010 Env Sc Policy, Sandhu et al. 2012 Ecol. Econ., Sandhu et al. 2013
  • 9. Relevance of ES to different agricultural industries Low relevance Medium relevance High relevance August 2010 Sandhu et al. 2012 Ecol. Econ.
  • 10. Monetary value of Ecosystem Services Inventory and characterize targeted goods and services Market Values (i.e., water markets) Primary Economic Studies Value Transfer Apply values to Site Depict and interpret results
  • 11. Canterbury and Surrounding Region
  • 12. Ecosystem Service Value Calculation Value of Ecosystem Services ($ ha-1 per year): n V ( ES i )   A( LUi )  V ( ES ki ) k 1 Where A(LUi) = Area of land use/cover type (i) and V(ESki) = Annual value per unit area for ecosystem service type (k) generated by land use/cover type (i).
  • 13. Economic value from field experimentation Table 1 - Summary of mean economic value of ecosystem services in organic and conventional fields. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ecosystem services Biological control of Pests Mineralization of plant nutrients Soil formation Food Raw materials Carbon accumulation Nitrogen fixation Soil fertility Hydrological flow Aesthetic Pollination Shelterbelts Total economic value of ES Non-market value of ES Economic value in $ ha-1yr-1 Organic fields Conventional fields 50 0 260 142 6 5 3990 3220 22 38 22 20 40 43 68 66 107 54 21 21 62 64 880 200 4600 3680 1480 670 Sandhu et al. 2008 Ecological Economics
  • 14. Example Results: GIS Mapping by Parcel
  • 15. Putting it all together Server Project Website and Economic Analysis User ArcIMS® System Valuation Database Project Team Sharepoint Collaboration Data Input
  • 16. Web-based Map Server: Farm Parcels and Field Research http://ecovalue.uvm.edu/evp/modules/nz
  • 17. GIS map showing total economic value of ES for arable land in Canterbury based on conventional farming Legend Conventional agriculture Non-market ES ($US) 0 1 - 100,000 100,001 - 200,000 200,001 - 400,000 400,001 - 600,000 600,001 - 800,000 800,001 - 1,000,000 1,000,001 - 2,000,000 2,000,001 - 3,000,000 3,000,001 - 4,200,000 Sandhu et al. 2008 Ecological Economics
  • 18. Application of ES concept in peri-urban areas • To generate better social, environmental and economic outcomes from peri-urban areas (integrate land–use planning and NRM planning) • To guide decision support system (incorporate ES into planning and decision-making relating to resource allocation in peri-urban development)
  • 19. Decision making in peri-urban areas Direct drivers of ecosystem change  Natural  Biological  Land use change Decision Making Policy Options Management Options Indirect drivers of ecosystem change  Economic  Social  Political  Cultural Ecosystem Services     Provisioning services (food, water, wine ) Regulating services (clean air, water) Cultural services (recreation, aesthetics) Supporting services (nutrient cycling, soil health, pollination) Urban and Peri-Urban Areas impacts dependenc e         Habitat Personal safety Social cohesion Freedom of choice Health Education Governance Economic opportunities