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Houston_P_If planning is everything, maybe that’s the problem?

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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference …

Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
Oct 2013

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. If planning is everything... maybe that’s the problem? Reflections on efforts to protect agricultural land in Australia’s peri-urban regions Peter Houston “Beyond the Edge” La Trobe University October 2013
  • 2. Key messages... • The failure of planning to support agriculture in peri-urban regions – the contradiction between traditional planning thought and contemporary planning practice – the role of rural land in metropolitan areas: insights from theory and research • The success of “double protection” in Barcelona (where planning isn’t everything) • Conclusions and directions
  • 3. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy – – – – tenets of modern town & country planning planning education and professional norms public opinion planning documents (what they say)
  • 4. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms – managerialism and planning system trends – COAG criteria for capital city planning – “Red tape reduction”, “One stop shop”, “Performance indicators” etc – metropolitan strategic plans (what they do) – the case of the Virginia horticultural district
  • 5. Virginia horticulture district – Major horticulture ‘cluster’ based on favourable climatic, soil and water conditions – Greenhouse, high tech hydroponic and field production systems – $95 million (3%) of total SA agricultural value (2003) – $73.5 million (15%) of total SA horticultural value – 22% of total SA horticulture processing value – Major public and private infrastructure investment – Largest concentration of greenhouse structures in Australia (700 ha+) and major site of recycled water use – Access to a major market and freight routes – ‘Drought-proof’ horticulture
  • 6. Metropolitan Adelaide Planning Strategy, 1998.
  • 7. Land zoned for Horticulture in the City of Playford, 2005
  • 8. Late 2004: Inter-modal freight facility and mixed use proposal
  • 9. Late 2005: Northern Expressway and alternative inter-modal site
  • 10. 2006: Buckland Park Country Township proposal
  • 11. 2007: Edinburgh Parks employment lands proposal
  • 12. Early 2008: Expansion of Buckland Park proposal
  • 13. Mid 2008: Urban Growth Boundary shifted west to Expressway route
  • 14. Early 2009: Draft 30 Year Plan nominates growth new urban areas Buckland Park South, Virginia South and Angle Vale
  • 15. Late 2009: Final 30 Year Plan adds further growth areas Virginia North and Angle Vale South
  • 16. Early 2011: Minister adds land between Angle Vale and Expressway
  • 17. Mid 2013: Playford Structure Plan adds further urban growth areas
  • 18. Playford Growth Area Structure Plan, May 2013 – 50% reduction in land zoned for primary production without: – discussion/justification of the case for departing from the 1998 strategy; – consideration of the significance of the Virginia horticultural district; or – acknowledgment of the significance of horticulture sector to northern Adelaide – Still ear-marked for protection and nominated as “an important feature of Adelaide's food-bowl” – But no detail about how that will happen
  • 19. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique: the role of rural land in metropolitan regions (Bunce 1991) – “… the inherent conflict between preservational objectives and the municipal planning mandate.” – “… agricultural designations tend to be used as holding categories for future development, while urban-rural boundaries appear to be devices for phasing development rather than protecting rural land.”
  • 20. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique: insights from Policy Network Analysis (Bell & Wanna 1992) – Framework for explaining the fortunes of - industry sectors (automotive, textiles, tourism, wool) and - policy agendas (deregulation, trade, industrial relations) – “Strong” and “weak” policy networks – Peri-urban regions as a stage for competing sectoral policy networks...
  • 21. Urban development policy network ? • State planning agencies · Agriculture policy network • Urban land authorities, ? ? Housing and Infrastructure Peri-urban agencies · · · • Local government regions ? · • Government-industry coordination committees · Peri-urban land • Industry lobby groups ? (HIA, UDIA, PCA, REIA) · • Professional bodies (PIA) ? ? • Commonwealth/State primary industries agencies • ABARES/ABS/CSIRO • Industry lobby groups (NFF, State Federations, Producer groups, AFI) • Industry R&D bodies (GRDC, Horticulture Australia, RIRDC) · • Agribusiness • R&D forums (AHURI, SOAC) Principal focus: Metro/urban development Principal focus: Major commodity groups/ broadacre industries
  • 22. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona: “double protection” as an antidote to captured planning (Paül & Haslam-McKenzie, 2013)
  • 23. Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat – Situated in the Barcelona metropolitan region (5 mill.) – Approx 3,500 ha including 2,000 ha of farmland – 621 farms/1,200 farmers (80% f/t, 20% pt) producing field vegetables, tree crops, livestock, greenhouses – No EU subsidies! – Consortium of 4 levels of government (Catalan, Provincial Council, District Council, 14 municipalities) and the farmers’ union – Land use plan (2004) AND a Management Plan (2002)
  • 24. Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat – BLAP Management Plan – Infrastructure and services for farmlands – Production and marketing systems that generate higher farm incomes – Farm modernisation and services to increase viability – A quality space integrated with the surrounding natural environment – Raise awareness of the natural and cultural heritage of the PABL – Sold almost entirely into Barcelona’s fresh food markets and alternative food networks – Farmers benefiting from consumer interest in locally grown food
  • 25. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona: “double protection” as an antidote to captured planning (Paül & Haslam-McKenzie, 2013) – “local commitment to ... governance initiatives are as important and perhaps more effective than adherence to narrow government policies and regulations. Land-use tools are needed, but they are not enough by themselves”
  • 26. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona 5. Conclusions and future directions
  • 27. References: Bell, S. and Wanna, J. (eds) 1992. Business-Government Relations in Australia, Harcourt Brace, Sydney. Bunce, M. 1991. Local planning and the role of rural land in metropolitan regions: the example of the Toronto area. in van Oort et al. (eds) Limits to rural land use. Proceedings of an international IGU conference, 21-25 August 1989. Pudoc, Wageningen. Paül, V. & Haslam-McKenzie, F. 2013. Peri-urban farmland conservation and development of alternative food networks: Insights from a case-study area in metropolitan Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Land Use Policy vol. 30, pp. 94–105.

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