Houston_P_If planning is everything, maybe that’s the problem?

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Beyond the Edge: Australia's First National Peri-urban Conference
La Trobe University
Oct 2013

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Houston_P_If planning is everything, maybe that’s the problem?

  1. 1. If planning is everything... maybe that’s the problem? Reflections on efforts to protect agricultural land in Australia’s peri-urban regions Peter Houston “Beyond the Edge” La Trobe University October 2013
  2. 2. Key messages... • The failure of planning to support agriculture in peri-urban regions – the contradiction between traditional planning thought and contemporary planning practice – the role of rural land in metropolitan areas: insights from theory and research • The success of “double protection” in Barcelona (where planning isn’t everything) • Conclusions and directions
  3. 3. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy – – – – tenets of modern town & country planning planning education and professional norms public opinion planning documents (what they say)
  4. 4. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms – managerialism and planning system trends – COAG criteria for capital city planning – “Red tape reduction”, “One stop shop”, “Performance indicators” etc – metropolitan strategic plans (what they do) – the case of the Virginia horticultural district
  5. 5. Virginia horticulture district – Major horticulture ‘cluster’ based on favourable climatic, soil and water conditions – Greenhouse, high tech hydroponic and field production systems – $95 million (3%) of total SA agricultural value (2003) – $73.5 million (15%) of total SA horticultural value – 22% of total SA horticulture processing value – Major public and private infrastructure investment – Largest concentration of greenhouse structures in Australia (700 ha+) and major site of recycled water use – Access to a major market and freight routes – ‘Drought-proof’ horticulture
  6. 6. Metropolitan Adelaide Planning Strategy, 1998.
  7. 7. Land zoned for Horticulture in the City of Playford, 2005
  8. 8. Late 2004: Inter-modal freight facility and mixed use proposal
  9. 9. Late 2005: Northern Expressway and alternative inter-modal site
  10. 10. 2006: Buckland Park Country Township proposal
  11. 11. 2007: Edinburgh Parks employment lands proposal
  12. 12. Early 2008: Expansion of Buckland Park proposal
  13. 13. Mid 2008: Urban Growth Boundary shifted west to Expressway route
  14. 14. Early 2009: Draft 30 Year Plan nominates growth new urban areas Buckland Park South, Virginia South and Angle Vale
  15. 15. Late 2009: Final 30 Year Plan adds further growth areas Virginia North and Angle Vale South
  16. 16. Early 2011: Minister adds land between Angle Vale and Expressway
  17. 17. Mid 2013: Playford Structure Plan adds further urban growth areas
  18. 18. Playford Growth Area Structure Plan, May 2013 – 50% reduction in land zoned for primary production without: – discussion/justification of the case for departing from the 1998 strategy; – consideration of the significance of the Virginia horticultural district; or – acknowledgment of the significance of horticulture sector to northern Adelaide – Still ear-marked for protection and nominated as “an important feature of Adelaide's food-bowl” – But no detail about how that will happen
  19. 19. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique: the role of rural land in metropolitan regions (Bunce 1991) – “… the inherent conflict between preservational objectives and the municipal planning mandate.” – “… agricultural designations tend to be used as holding categories for future development, while urban-rural boundaries appear to be devices for phasing development rather than protecting rural land.”
  20. 20. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique: insights from Policy Network Analysis (Bell & Wanna 1992) – Framework for explaining the fortunes of - industry sectors (automotive, textiles, tourism, wool) and - policy agendas (deregulation, trade, industrial relations) – “Strong” and “weak” policy networks – Peri-urban regions as a stage for competing sectoral policy networks...
  21. 21. Urban development policy network ? • State planning agencies · Agriculture policy network • Urban land authorities, ? ? Housing and Infrastructure Peri-urban agencies · · · • Local government regions ? · • Government-industry coordination committees · Peri-urban land • Industry lobby groups ? (HIA, UDIA, PCA, REIA) · • Professional bodies (PIA) ? ? • Commonwealth/State primary industries agencies • ABARES/ABS/CSIRO • Industry lobby groups (NFF, State Federations, Producer groups, AFI) • Industry R&D bodies (GRDC, Horticulture Australia, RIRDC) · • Agribusiness • R&D forums (AHURI, SOAC) Principal focus: Metro/urban development Principal focus: Major commodity groups/ broadacre industries
  22. 22. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona: “double protection” as an antidote to captured planning (Paül & Haslam-McKenzie, 2013)
  23. 23. Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat – Situated in the Barcelona metropolitan region (5 mill.) – Approx 3,500 ha including 2,000 ha of farmland – 621 farms/1,200 farmers (80% f/t, 20% pt) producing field vegetables, tree crops, livestock, greenhouses – No EU subsidies! – Consortium of 4 levels of government (Catalan, Provincial Council, District Council, 14 municipalities) and the farmers’ union – Land use plan (2004) AND a Management Plan (2002)
  24. 24. Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat – BLAP Management Plan – Infrastructure and services for farmlands – Production and marketing systems that generate higher farm incomes – Farm modernisation and services to increase viability – A quality space integrated with the surrounding natural environment – Raise awareness of the natural and cultural heritage of the PABL – Sold almost entirely into Barcelona’s fresh food markets and alternative food networks – Farmers benefiting from consumer interest in locally grown food
  25. 25. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona: “double protection” as an antidote to captured planning (Paül & Haslam-McKenzie, 2013) – “local commitment to ... governance initiatives are as important and perhaps more effective than adherence to narrow government policies and regulations. Land-use tools are needed, but they are not enough by themselves”
  26. 26. 1. Traditional planning thought, the views of planners and espoused policy 2. Contemporary planning practice, priorities and paradigms 3. An emerging critique 4. Insights from Barcelona 5. Conclusions and future directions
  27. 27. References: Bell, S. and Wanna, J. (eds) 1992. Business-Government Relations in Australia, Harcourt Brace, Sydney. Bunce, M. 1991. Local planning and the role of rural land in metropolitan regions: the example of the Toronto area. in van Oort et al. (eds) Limits to rural land use. Proceedings of an international IGU conference, 21-25 August 1989. Pudoc, Wageningen. Paül, V. & Haslam-McKenzie, F. 2013. Peri-urban farmland conservation and development of alternative food networks: Insights from a case-study area in metropolitan Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). Land Use Policy vol. 30, pp. 94–105.

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