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  1. 1. French Canadian Folk Music Image courtesy of Music 2I03 - Dr. Marcia Ostashewski Latoya Francis Jocelyn Gugelyk Amisa Khan Alexi Leibl Nathanal Nicholas Childs 0858505 0743253 0672287 0551027 0668798
  2. 2. Genre <ul><li>Themes and Structure </li></ul><ul><li>There are certain themes which remained popular in French Canadian folk songs such as the skylark, which is a small bird that is prized for its feathers, and the blacksmith, which is often portrayed as being a strong fearless figure whose workplace is associated with hell. (Brault, 45) </li></ul><ul><li>One very popular children’s folk song, even to this day, is “Alouette!”, which is a song about plucking the feathers off of a skylark. The reason for the song’s popularity today is because it lends itself to boisterous singing even for those who don’t speak French. (Brault, 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Other typical examples of Canadian folk songs include royalty, war, patriotism and love. ( Barbeau, 123) </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally French Canadian Folk music had stanzas wrung together with rhymes (Barbeau, pg#). </li></ul><ul><li>This genre also includes metric designs and musical phrases of varied length with no particular rule yet not completely formless (Barbeau, pg#) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development <ul><li>Folk music is passed from generation to generation carrying many historical and traditional elements but still being recreated by local variants </li></ul><ul><li>French-Canadians, though sharing history and culture with France, created songs upon their own Canadian heritage as well </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest origins of French Canadian folk music date back to the 17th and 18th century. (Citation?) </li></ul><ul><li>French settlers and voyagers sang their folk songs as they travelled the New World . For voyagers this was a way to set the rhythm of their paddles. (Citation?) </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  4. 4. Development <ul><li>The repertoire of French Canadian folk music has vastly expanded since its modest beginnings. </li></ul><ul><li>However, for some folk singers this has become a shame as their music and traditions have become commercialized. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada significantly aided in the dissemination of French folk music throughout Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>It was the first scholarly compilation of Quebec folk songs published in 1865 by Ernest Gagnon. (McGee, 44) </li></ul><ul><li>There were 104 songs in the collection which was c irculated throughout Canada and France. (McGee, 44) </li></ul><ul><li>Songs in the compilation included “Un Canadien Errant” ,”C’est dans la vill’ de Bailtonne” and “Vive la Canadienne”. (McGee, 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Theses songs including most of French folk repertory originated in France in the Middle Ages and was altered for 19 th century Canadian life. (McGee, 44) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dissemination <ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada </li></ul><ul><li>These changes in the original Medieval versions often involved changing the lyrics to reflect Canadian experiences while the melody stayed the same. (McGee, 44) </li></ul><ul><li>Chansons Populaires du Canada allowed for Folk music to be published and officially associated with the music industry. </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  7. 7. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation also contributed to the dissemination of French Canadian folk music </li></ul><ul><li>Confederation was established in 1867 joining the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. (McGee,60) </li></ul><ul><li>This improved development and communication across the country. ( McGee, 61) </li></ul><ul><li>To the citizens, Confederation represented Canada’s unity and defined their identity as a nation. (McGee,60) </li></ul><ul><li>This new found sense of identity amongst Canadians created a growing demand for patriotic representations including those in the form of music. (Kallmann, ??) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dissemination <ul><li>Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>This demand for patriotic and national songs was meet by French Canadian Folk music which had always had strong patriotic themes. (Kallmann,??) </li></ul><ul><li>This demand along with the improvements in communication allowed for French Canadian Folk music to be disseminated throughout the nation. </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  9. 9. Dissemination <ul><li>Music Business </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920, Chansons of Old French Canada was copyrighted by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company and published by Chateau Frontenac. (Carl, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>A later publication proclaimed a more French-Canadian influence than the previous cover. </li></ul><ul><li>The notation “Ce recue il est publie par la Cie du Chemin de Fer Pacifique Canadien” replaced the Chateau Frontenac in English on the title page. (Carl, 1998) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dissemination <ul><li>Music Business </li></ul><ul><li>In 1929 the Hudson’s Bay Company published HBC Patrol for Piano. </li></ul><ul><li>This included nine medley alternating between French and English songs </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Red River Valley”, “Vive la Canadienne”, “Johnny Canuck”, “Alouette”, “En Roulant Ma Boule”, “The Maple Leaf Forever” and ending with “O Canada”. </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  11. 11. Dissemination <ul><li>Music Business </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements by Dow Brewery of Montreal, in 1926 and 1928 made the gap between business and folk music even smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>These were two sided advertisements with one side in English and the other in French. </li></ul><ul><li>These advertisements were later compiled into a publication called “Chansons d’aurtrefois” or “Songs of the Bye-gone Days”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallee </li></ul><ul><li>Was born in Vercheres, Quebec on December 29, 1842. (Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>His father Augustin, was a amongst other things, a bandmaster and teacher who introduced Lavallee to music. (Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>By the age of 10, Lavallee had mastered the violin, piano, organ and cornet. (Ford, 62) </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  13. 13. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallee </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 13 Lavallee was sent to Montreal to study music. </li></ul><ul><li>(Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>While in Montreal he was adopted by Leon Derome who introduced Lavallee to musical theatre. (Riddell, 94) </li></ul><ul><li>By age 15 Lavallee left Canada with a theatrical ensemble to the United States where he won first prize in a New Orleans competition in both cornet and piano. (Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>While in New Orleans Lavallee formed an association with a Spanish violinist Olivera and as an accompanist toured South America, the West Indies and the Southern States. (Riddell, 94) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallee </li></ul><ul><li>After a stint in the American Army he returned to Montreal in 1863 as a teacher of music. (Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor returns in teaching music caused Lavallee to leave Montreal and tour with a black minstrel troupe throughout the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>(Riddell, 95) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1870 while in New York , Lavelle was appointed Musical Director of the “Grand Opera House.” (Riddell, 95) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1872 the Opera House closed and Calixa returned back to Montreal where he met his old friend Derome who helped organize a period of study in Paris for Lavallee. (Ford, 62) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Artist <ul><li>Calixa Lavallee </li></ul><ul><li>Upon returning to Montreal in 1875 he was appointed Choirmaster at St. James’ Cathedral. (Riddell, 96) </li></ul><ul><li>His love for theatre could not be quieted and he began producing and composing operatic productions. (Ford, 62) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1880 at the suggestion of the Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec he and Judge Adolphe Routhier prepared text and music for the national anthem, “O Canada.” (Ford, 63) </li></ul>Image courtesy of
  16. 16. Song Click Image to hear O Canada Image courtesy of
  17. 17. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 1-4 (Introduction) First hearing of main motive -opens with a single drum beat -Violin plays melody line -Xylophone come in half way through and plays several melody notes -Trumpet come in part way through and plays one note with a varied rhythm until end of phrase Bars 5-8 Antecedent1 Oh Canada! Our home and native land. -Violin plays melody -cello plays harmony Bars 9-12 Consequent1 True Patriot love in all thy sons command.
  18. 18. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 13-16 Antecedent2 With glowing hearts we see thee rise, the True North strong and free! -Xylophone doubles violin on melody, staccato -cello plays harmony -trumpet plays between phrases -Trombone plays three successive descending notes after second phrase Bars 17-20 Consequent2 From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. Bars 21-22 Antecedent3 God keep our land -opening short cymbal crash -harp plays runs at opening, between phrases and at end of second phrase -all instruments are played forte, energetic, exciting -thicker, more intense harmonies -violin plays melody -trombones harmonize -cymbal crash at beginning of second phrase -drums begin to play near end of second phrase Bars 23-24 Consequent3 glorious and free!
  19. 19. Song O Canada Bars Phrasing Corresponding English Lyrics Analysis Bars 25-28 Antecedent 4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. - Continuation of instrument parts from previous two phrases - Opening short cymbal crash - Trumpet doubles melody with violins - Horns play syncopated runs between phrases Bars 29-32 Consequent4 O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. -opening short cymbal crash -return of main motive -Slight ritardando at end -melody ends on a closing cadence -harp run at end of phrase -closing short cymbal crash -Closing high-hats, continue and fades out after other instruments are silent
  20. 20. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding English lyrics are the official English lyrics of the Canadian National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played with different variations during antecedent and consequent phrases 1 and 3. </li></ul>Image courtsey of
  21. 21. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The main motive is played identically in the melody of the introduction phrase and final phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>In the introductory phrase, the main motive in the melody is very exposed without a lot of harmony and embellishment, and played at a medium volume. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Song <ul><li>O Canada </li></ul><ul><li>In the final phrase, the main motive in the melody is enhanced with thick harmonies, ornate embellishments from many different instruments, and at a very loud volume. Furthermore, the final phrase slows slightly at the end (ritardando). </li></ul><ul><li>All of these features create a climactic effect and a feeling of coming full circle from the motive at the beginning. The overall affect is one of musical satisfaction and closure. </li></ul><ul><li>In many versions the melody’s closing cadence goes up and in this version the melody’s closing cadence goes down. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Performance <ul><li>Performance Venues </li></ul><ul><li>Composers and musicians similar to Lavallée performed in venues such as the Theatre Royal. It was the first hall in Canada dedicated exclusively to the performing arts. (citation ?) </li></ul>Image courtesy of,_Drury_Lane
  24. 24. Performance <ul><li>O Canada Performances </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1880 the St. Jean Baptiste Society wanted a patriotic rallying song for their national festival. Calixa Lavallée introduced his national anthem which became an astounding success. (citation ?) </li></ul><ul><li>O Canada was first exposed to the public during June 1880 on the campus of Laval University in Quebec City, written and performed by Calixa Lavallée on piano. (citation?) </li></ul><ul><li>This was later performed by a brass band on June 24 1880 at a banquet in Quebec City held for the governor general. The performance was repeated and sung by a choir the next day before an audience of 6000 in the gardens of Spencer Wood. (citation ?) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Works Cited Barbeau, Marius. &quot;Folk-Songs of French Canada.&quot; 13.2 (1932). Canada Dept. of Canadian Heritage. National Anthem: O Canada . Web. 29 Oct. 2009. Brassard, Francois. &quot;French-Canadian Folk Music Studies - A Survey.&quot; 16.3 (1972). French Canadian Folk-Songs. Barbeau, Marius. 1, s.l. : The Musical Quarterly, 1943, Vol. 29. Kellmann, Helmut. A History of Music in Canada, 1954-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.1987. Laforte, C. (2009). Folk music, Franco-Canadian. The Canadian encyclopedia . Retrieved (2009, November 18) from =TCE&Params=U1ARTU0001243#ArticleContents McGee, Timothy J. The Music of Canada . Markham: Penguin Books Canada Ltd., 1985. Morey, Carl.  (1998). Nationalism and commerce: Canadian folk music in the 1920s. Canadian Issues, 20, 34.  Retrieved November 18, 2009, from CBCA Reference. (Document ID: 390994981). Riddell, RG, Canadian Portraits: CB.C Broadcasts , Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1940 Ford, Clifford, Canada’s Music: An Historical Survey , Agincourt: GLC Publishers Limited, 1982