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Jan Willem - Importancia de las vias navegables y puertos interiores en el commercio exterior
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Jan Willem - Importancia de las vias navegables y puertos interiores en el commercio exterior

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Importancia de las vias navegables y puertos interiores en el commercio exterior

Importancia de las vias navegables y puertos interiores en el commercio exterior

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  • 1. 1Importancia de las vias navegables ypuertos interiores en el commercio exteriorBy Jan Willem KoemanPharos Port ConsultancyThe NetherlandsIn Cooperation with the RoyalDutch Embassy and theRotterdam Maritime Group
  • 2. 2Contents• What is IWT?– What is it for?– How does it work?– Why would you choose for IWT?• How important is an IWT system for the nationaleconomy?• How could an IWT system be developed?
  • 3. 3Set-up• I will refer quite frequently to the Dutch situation• Because, though we might not have invented IWT, wehave perfected it subtantially• We have the feeling that something can be learned fromour approach• Nevertheless, where and if possible,I will present resultsfor IWT systems in other countries• In the end I will demonstrate the requirements for thedevelopment of an IWT system for a situation inColombia
  • 4. 4What is IWT?
  • 5. 5What is IWT?• A network system consisting of:– Waterways;– Seaports;– Inland ports;– A fleet of inland vessels and– A sophisticated interaction between thesecomponents• It is not just the infrastructure that makes things work!
  • 6. 6Waterway network• Western Europe: 26.400 km of inland waterways
  • 7. 7Waterway world network
  • 8. 8Sea ports network• 9 ports of the Hamburg-Le Havre range• Total throughput 1,065 billion tons
  • 9. 9Inland Ports Network• Biggest European inland portDuisburg (Germany) 40million tons• Second Liège (Belgium) 14million tons• Netherlands: 389 inland ports,total throughput 380 milliontons
  • 10. 10Fleet of vessels• Western Europe: 15.000 vessels• Netherlands: 6.500 vessels
  • 11. 11Fleet of vessels• Standardised fleet for standardised waterways
  • 12. 12Highly specialized vessels
  • 13. 13What is being transported?• If Inland Waterway Transport wouldn’t have existed, itwould have been invented for dry bulk cargoes (ore,coal, building materials, grains etc.):– Relatively low value cargoes– With modest speed requirements• Same applies to liquid bulk cargoes (fuels, chemicalsetc.).• But surprisingly enough the major growth in IWT inWestern Europe takes place in the container trade– High value cargoes– With relatively high speed requirements
  • 14. 14What is being transported?• As a consequence the following commodities aretransported by IWT:– Coal– Ore– Petroleum– Iron & Steel– Project cargoes– Grain– Chemicals– Aggregates– Intermodal containers
  • 15. 15Rotterdam Development of IWT• Rotterdam forecasts reflect the growing importance ofthe container trade:0501001502002503003502005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040mlntonsGeneral cargo/RoroContainersLiquid bulkDry bulk
  • 16. 16Why would you choose for IWT?• Cost• Reliability• Safety• Sustainability
  • 17. 17Cost• Cost comparison for asimple base case• Container transport from aport to a hinter-landdestination:– 100 km end-haulage• Conclusion:– It is definitely cheaper inthe long run05010015020025030035040050 100 150 200 250 300distance (km)transportcost(€/box)truckrailbarge
  • 18. 18Reliability• The capacity of most of the inland waterways ismore or less limitless• No congestion and, as a consequence, reliableschedules• It may be more slowly, but always on time!
  • 19. 19Safety• American research showed that for each bargetransportation fatality there are:– 22 fatalities related to rail and– 155 truck related fatalities122155
  • 20. 20Sustainability #1• Shift to IWT will ease the capacity demand on rail androad:One 15-barge tow216 wagons + 6 locomotives1,050 tractor-trailers
  • 21. 21Sustainability #2• In terms of CO2 produced per ton of cargo, inlandbarges have a significant advantage over trains andtrucks
  • 22. 22IWT market position Netherlands• IWT market leader in:– International transport– Bulk transport• Road is still market leader in container transport,however IWT is gaining impact• IWT is competitive for distances from– 20-40 km without pre- or end-haulage– 60-100 km with pre- or end- haulage– 180-220 with both pre- and end-haulage
  • 23. 23How important is IWT?
  • 24. 24How important is the sector?• IWT is essential for:– Hinterland transport of the maritime cargo of theseaports and– Continental transport that has nothing to do with themaritime cargo of the seaports
  • 25. 25Barge share in hinterland transport• In 2010 the share of barge transport in the totalhinterland transport of the Port of Rotterdam was asfollows:0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%Dry bulk Liquid bulk General cargo/Roro Containersbargeshareinhinterlandtransport
  • 26. 26IWT impact on seaports• The main reason Rotterdam could expand to becomethe biggest port in Europe is their location at the mouthof the river Rhine and all it’s tributaries• Barge hinterland traffic is the port’s major asset• New Maasvlakte 2 project (biggest port expansionoutside China) will attract 20 million TEU of additionalcontainer cargo
  • 27. 27IWT impact on seaports• If the impact of IWTwould not increase thetruck volume wouldquadruple in the nextthree decades.Unacceptable from asocietal point of view!• So a tremendous modalshift from road to rail andespecially to IWT isrequired as a license tooperate the new portexpansionBARGE20%35%35%2010 2035RAIL39,7% 45%12,2% 20%ROAD35%48,1% 35%
  • 28. 28IWT Continental Transport• It is not only seaport related activities that contribute tothe importance of the IWT sector– Total throughput in the 389 Dutch inland ports is 380million tons– Hinterland transport related to the seaports accountsfor 200 million tons– Continental transport accounts for 180 million tons
  • 29. 29US research on IWT impact• If cargo going through St. Louis by barge were shiftedfrom the river system to the city’s already crowdedInterstates– Highway costs over 10 years would increasefrom $345 million to over $721 million– Truck traffic on St. Louis Interstates wouldincrease by 200%– Traffic delays would increase by almost 500%– Maintenance costs would increase 80% to 93%
  • 30. 30Inland ports #1• Inland ports can be classified as follows:– Multifunctional port– Industry port– Agro port– Builiding material port– Container port
  • 31. 31Inland Ports #2• Multifunctional ports have an important national andregional function in the development of economiccentres of industry and logistics• Industry and agricultural ports are essential nodes in thetransport of raw materials and finished products. Scaleand cost benefits of IWT contribute to the success of theindustries• The construction sector is largely dependent on thefacilities of the inland ports classified as Builidingmaterial port• Container ports offer excellent possibilities for thetransport of finished products and the distribution ofconsumer goods
  • 32. 32Total IWT impact on Dutch economy• Recent study showed that IWT related activities in theNetherlands provide:– Direct employment opportunities of over 66.000 jobs– Direct added value of 5,7 billion Euro– Indirect backwards added value of 8,9 billion Euro• With respect to the impact on the national economy theinland ports are as important as the seaports in theNetherlands, accounting for some 7% of GDP
  • 33. 33How to develop IWT?
  • 34. 34Development of IWT• Developing an IWT system requires the development ofa network system consisting of:– Waterways;– Ports;– Fleet of inland vessels and– Sophisticated interaction between these components
  • 35. 35Development of waterways• Most striking example in NW Europe– Canal Seine Nord– Connection between Seine and Rhine/Scheldtestuaries– Total investment 4,2 billion Euro
  • 36. 36Development of ports#1• The inland port of Alphen (some 40 km from Rotterdam)was in decline. Diminishing throughput should becounteracted by revitalisation• Research showed a potential market of 100.000 TEU.Two sailings/day to Rotterdam/Antwerp• Combined investments of public and private parties ledto opening in 2010 and succesfull operation this year
  • 37. 37Development of fleet• New vessel types are being developed to cope withchanging market conditions• Apart from the obvious scale enlargement the marketalso asks for scale diminishment: to be competitive onthe smaller destinations a type of small container bargehas been developed and is succesfully operational since5 years
  • 38. 38Development of interaction #1• Essential in the development of IWT is the developmentof the interaction between all elements of the IWTnetwork to arrive at an optimal chain performance• A succesfull example is the Barge Programme set up bythe Port of Rotterdam to achieve the modal shift requiredfor the succesful operation of the new Maasvlakte 2project
  • 39. 39Development of interaction #2
  • 40. 40Development of interaction #3• MV will be the largest containercomplex outside Asia• Handling 33 million TEU• Generating 20 million TEU of hinterland containers• Will that work?Growth of hinterland volume(x 1 mio TEU containers)200920092009 2035203520350,02,04,06,08,010,0weg barge railx3x5x6
  • 41. 41Development of interaction #4• We will provide all facilities within our port
  • 42. 42Development of interaction #5• But who will create 9 million TEU inland port capacity?• And if so, it is not only infrastructure that will make thingsrun• Logistics determine the operational efficiency of thesystem• How can we get a grip on logistics?• We did set up a barge programme, together with themarket
  • 43. 43Development of interaction #6• A co-operation has been set-up between:– National and provincial governments (investments inand maintenance of inland waterways, locks andtraffic management systems)– Port authorities (port development and operation ofseaports and inland ports)– Terminal operators (development and operation ofterminal facilities)– Barge operators (development and operation of bargefleets)– Shippers (defining chain requirements)
  • 44. 44Development of interaction #7• Four fields of interest:Portshift (market share) Modal shift (barge share)
  • 45. 45Development of interaction #8• Four fields of interest:Better planning Cleaner vessels
  • 46. 46Development of interaction #9• The aim is to synchronize the investments of all partiesand to tune these to the requirements of the transportchain• Parties have to fundamentally change their roles:– the Port of Rotterdam will invest in hinterlandterminals– Terminal operators will invest in barge connections• Traditional thinking will not help us to meet thesetremendous challenges
  • 47. 47Possibilities in Colombia
  • 48. 48Possibilities and Chances Colombia• Colombia has one majorRiver: The Magdalena• The river connects the seaports with major citiesthrough the road network• Opportunities for transport:– Bulk (Coal, Oil)– Containers
  • 49. 49Work Already Executed Colombia• Numerous Studies• Canal del Dique (connectionMagdalena – Cartagena)• Inland berths improvements
  • 50. 50IWT Improvements Colombia #1• There appears to be sufficient study material• Commodities are suited for IWT• What is required as a start is setting up a RiverDevelopment Master Plan• In this Master Plan the different development elements willhave to be elaborated and tuned:– Waterway– Port– Fleet and– (Institutional) interaction
  • 51. 51IWT Improvements Colombia #2• The River Development Master Plan will result inDevelopment Plans covering the following activities:– Institutional– Dredging > create and maintain larger water depths– Nautical aspects– Construction barges / pushers– Intergrated logistics– Access roads cities - river– Development of Inland ports
  • 52. 52Conclusion
  • 53. 53Conclusion• IWT is essential for the efficient and sustainablefunctioning of the transport sector in any country that hasthe potential to develop IWT• In this way IWT contributes to a significnt extent to thecountry’s economy and the external trade• The Dutch approach proves to be succesfull in developingnew IWT markets• We think that this combined approach (development ofinteraction) can be copied in other countries with the sameresults• If this sounds like an IWT promotion so be it. I only wantedto convince you of some of my deeply felt convictions

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