Transcript of "Biotechnology by latif hyder wadho"
What is Biotechnology?General DefinitionThe application of technology to improvea biological organismDetailed Definition The application of the technology to modify the biological function of an organism by adding genes from another organism A wide ranging scientific field which includes the manipulation of living organisms that results in new products or processes by that cell.
Gregor Johann MendelDiscovered the Laws Governingthe Genetic Inheritance of Traitsby Scientific Experimentation.Founded Modern Genetics.
Gene - a piece of DNA that controls the expression of a traitAllele - the alternate forms of a gene
Genetic EngineeringThe process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
But nature does not contain all the genetic variation man desires•Fruits with vaccines•Grains with improved nutrition
Clothing (Spider Silk) Elastic, light weight fiber 5 times stronger than steel One method involves inserting the gene from a weaving spider into a fertilized goat egg. The resultant “spider-goat” produces milk that can be manufactured into strong fibers.
Spider Silk To make flak jackets, rope, textiles, sutures, artificial tendons, and bandages for burn victims
Synthetic biologyCreating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicalsBased on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
Molecular BiotechnologyChanging the genetic make-up of an organismAltering the structure and parts of cellsUses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
Medicine Agriculture Environment Forestry Food and beverage processing
MedicineSome new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapyTherapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent diseaseBiopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through BiotechnologyCalled designer drugs
EnvironmentalProblems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
Plant BiotechnologyImprove plants and the products produced from themInsect and disease resistanceEngineered to have desired characteristics
Animal BiotechnologyImprove animals or the products they produceAnimals may be used to produce products that promote human health
Food and BeveragesUse of technology in producing and processingSome Biotechnology principles have been employed for hundreds of yearsYeast in baking bread
EfficiencyMust keep the cost of improving products as low as possibleBiotechnology results in greater efficiencyResults in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
BiotechnologyBiotechnology helps to meet our basic needs.Food, clothing, shelter, health and safetyUsed to make products more useful or desirable………..