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  2. 2. Hands free and mother free infant care (maternal nipple deprivation)
  3. 3. Hands free and mother free infant care (maternal nipple deprivation)
  4. 4. young babies often loose suction ontheir pacifier and let it slip out. Since theydo not yet have the skills to catch it thebaby looses the pacifier and begins to cry.If you are tired of searching for your babyslost soother at night, in the car, or even onthe grocery store floor, then a Pacimal orWubbanub could brighten yourday.Pacimals and Wubbanubs are both softplush toy animals, with medical gradesilicone pacifiers attached.They aredesigned for very young babies (0-6months) who do not yet have the co-ordination to find their pacifier and put itin their mouth. The plush toy makes is easyfor little hands to cling on to and holdclose, and while they are hugging the toy, itkeeps the soother in their mouth and off “most children like to hug their plush toysthe floor. tummy to tummy, with the head facing them”
  5. 5. “most children like to hug their plush toystummy to tummy, withthe head facing them”
  6. 6. The face is only a static lookalike of a humanface but it is inanimate – it is the face of aflat, expressionless, depressed mother.There is no possibility of synchrony or reflectionof emotional expression between baby and thisstatic face.
  7. 7. Maternal nipple deprivation• Given the commercial pressures exerted on young mothers , the family breakdown, the increasing lack of cohesion in our society, the lack of role models to breastfeed, the unpreparedness of many young women to be around the clock mothers, is it any wonder that human babies exhibit stereotypical behaviours just like other mammals when there is full or partial maternal nipple deprivation.
  8. 8. The effect of breastfeeding mothers’ groups established in the 1960s onwards
  9. 9. Oral Tactile Imprinting is a genetically determined by evolution survival strategy tolatch the infant to the source of nutrition and protection - it precedes visual attachment
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  12. 12. Proximity - Sleeping with babyMax was confiscated in Faranah. … Oncewe got him, he was in such bad physicalcondition, that we didn’t think we’d beable to save him… For the first 2 weeksat the center he was under 24 hour care–he even slept in the director’s bed.He’s now come around and each new laugh is a smallvictory.Accessed 8/7/2010
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  15. 15. Maternal Nipple Deprivation Inanimate Pacifiers for furry animals = dummy
  16. 16. Nonpuerperal lactation Feedback inhibition of lactation Kitten nurses on dogWatch this animal blooper! Kitten has a serious craving for fresh milk, however, a spayed 5 year old dog probably isnt the best source.Views: 11,660Read more: nursing-kitten.html#ixzz0seO5FJ4s Kittens dont seem to only suckle when theres milk, Bam is an unneutered male, and he adopted two baby girl kittens, slept in a tiny basket with them and let them suckle him til his poor lil man boobies were red! He looked after them when their mum rejected them way too early. Accessed 8/7/2010 =1006041615365
  17. 17. Early Human DevelopmentVolume 12, Issue 3, December 1985, Pages 279-284doi:10.1016/0378-3782(85)90149-5 | How to Cite or Link Using DOICopyright © 1985 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Cited By in Scopus (2) Permissions & ReprintsSpontaneous non-nutritive sucking in continuously fed infantsJean-Claude Lepecqa, Marie-Thérése Rigoardb and Piero Salzarulo, baLaboratoirede Psycho-biologie de IEnfant, UA 315 CNRS, EPHE Séme Section, Paris, FrancebINSERM U3, Paris, FranceAccepted 9 July 1985. Available online 17 March 2004.AbstractIn order to investigate the effects of a deprivation of the nutritive sucking (NS) on the activity of non-nutritive sucking (NNS), we examined 8 infants (ages 1–13 months) continuously fed by intracavalcatheter. They had no NS experience at all from birth. Eight age-matched normally fed infants servedas controls. The infants were examined for a full 24-h period by polygraphic recordings andbehavioural observation. The amount of NNS was computed for the whole 24-h period andseparately for each behavioural state (waking, quiet sleep, paradoxical sleep and ambiguous sleep).All the continuously fed infants showed a typical pattern of NNS. There were no differences inamount of NNS between continuously fed and control infants in any behavioural state. These resultssuggest that NS does not contribute to the long term maintenance of the NNS activity.Keywords: oral behaviour, feeding; sleep; infants; total parenteral nutritionAddress all correspondence to: Dr. P. Salzarulo, INSERM U3, 47, Boulevard de lHôpital, 75651Paris Cedex 13, France.
  18. 18. RESULTS ASSOCIATED WITH BREASTFEEDING FAILUREPublic Health Nutrition: page 1 of 11 doi:10.1017/S1368980010001953 Chronic disease and infant nutrition: is it significant to publichealth? Julie P Smith* and Peta J Harvey Australian Centre for Economic Research on Health, College of Medicine and HealthSciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
  19. 19. Mammals can only survive a fixation on the thumb after parturitionif there is human intervention as is given to the human baby. accessed 11/3/2010Ultrasound last week. At 12 weeks’ gestational age and a little over6cm in length, Baby is growing well. His/her favorite pastimes arethumbsucking (As depicted in this picture).
  20. 20. A study published in the January 2010 issueof Molecular Psychiatry:Behaviourists at Cummings School ofVeterinary Medicine at Tufts Universitycollected blood samples from Dobermansthat exhibited compulsive behaviour, likeblanket-sucking, as well as fromunaffected, healthy Dobermans.. theyteamed up with the Medical GeneticsProgram at University of MassachusettsMedical School for a widespread “genomeassociation” study.
  21. 21. • The team found that dogs exhibiting more compulsive behaviours like sucking their own body parts, were more likely to express a CDH2 gene. That gene, located on chromosome 7, mediates communication between neurons in the brain.• And what we now know about dogs might help explain certain human disorders, like OCD and autism spectrum disorder, by examining whether the same CDH2 gene is also implicated. Dr Nicholas Dodman, a professor at Cummings and the study’s lead author, said the CDH2 gene is located in the same area – the brain’s hippocampus –in humans and dogs.• gene-in-dogs-could-help-explain-human-disorders/19343100
  22. 22. REFERENCE:Molecular Psychiatry (2010) 15, 8–10;doi:10.1038/mp.2009. 111ACanine chromosome 7 locus confers compulsive disordersusceptibilityN H Dodman1, E K Karlsson2,3,7, A Moon-Fanelli1,7, M Galdzicka4, M Perloski2, L Shuster5, K Lindblad-Toh2,6 and E I Ginns41Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, NorthGrafton, MA, USA2Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA3FAS Center for Systems Biology, HarvardUniversity, Cambridge, MA, USA4University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA5Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA6Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, UppsalaUniversity, Uppsala, SwedenCorrespondence: NH Dodman, E-mail:
  23. 23. Baby Giraffe usesKates arm as apacifierBoatubiasProfile About thisblog Read EntryPicture 5 of 10Readmore:
  24. 24. OXYTOCIN• The effects of oxytoxin ..
  25. 25. OXYTOCIN: role in breastfeeding• Controls the expulsion of milk• Stimulates milk production• Redistributes heat in the mother’s body to warm the breastfeeding baby• Helps the body release stored nutrients• Increases the mother’s ability to extract nutrition in the digestive process
  26. 26. Oxytocin continued• Reduces blood pressure and stress hormones in the mother• Creates calm in most breastfeeding women in proportion to the oxytocin levels in blood• Makes the mother more interested in close relationships .The more spikes in oxytocin content in her blood the more open to relationship development she becomes• Induces social memory and calmness in baby
  27. 27. BREASTFEEDING• Breastfeeding,mediated in part by oxytocin, provides not only nutrition for the baby, but also allows a new mother to manage stress more effectively including the stress of birth and infant care
  28. 28. • Breastfeeding women are less reactive to physical stressors. There are hormonal differences between breast and bottle-feeding mothers. The stress hormone cortisol is lower in breastfeeding mothers. (Altemus. Et al.,JCEM 1995)
  29. 29. • Bottle-feeding mothers have higher systolic blood pressure.• Bottle-feeding mothers have higher basal heart rate. (Altemus,et al.,Psychosom.Med. 2001)
  30. 30. Oxytocin in the body• Oxytocin is a peptide found practically unchanged in all mammal species• Oxytocin is produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus• Oxytocin is both a hormone which acts in the body through the bloodstream and a signaling substance in the nervous system.• The female sex hormone oestrogen can increase the number of oxytocin receptors and stimulate oxytocin production
  31. 31. Oxytocin and relationships• Touch releases oxytocin in animals and probably in humans• The release of oxytocin creates emotional bonds between people such as mother and child• Good relationships are important for health especially with respect to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Breast cancer survival has also shown to be longer in women with close relationships
  32. 32. Effects of oxytocin injections on behaviour• The following changes in behaviour have been observed in animals (especially rats) after oxytocin injections:• A rapid development of maternal behaviour(even in females who have never had babies)• Stimulated and facilitated mating• More social contact between individuals• A calming,even sleep-inducing effect (with high doses of oxytocin)
  33. 33. Effects on behavior continued• Less anxiety, (increased boldness and curiosity(with low doses of oxytocin)• A diminished sensation of pain• Facilitated learning,even in individuals with learning difficulties• Frightful faces trigger activity in the amygdala. In subjects who have sniffed oxytocin there was a dramatic reduction suggesting that oxytocin mediates trust. Kirsch P et al. J Neurosci 25(49): 11489-93 2005
  34. 34. DEPRESSION• Dorheim et al (2009)”Sleep and depression in postpartum women. A population based study.” Sleep 32(7) 847-845.• Their study of 2830 women at 7 weeks postpartum found that not exclusively breastfeeding is a major risk factor for depression.
  35. 35. Depression• People suffering from depression had uncommonly low levels of oxytocin• Rats treated with oxytocin become calmer and less fearful and also increase their social contacts• Women who before pregnancy had symptoms of anxiety and OCD often experience a reduction during nursing presumably due to oxytocin secretion
  36. 36. Depression• Breastfeeding women have high oxytocin levels in their blood during the entire nursing period display calmer behaviour and greater interest in social interchange with family and friends than women who do not nurse
  37. 37. Depression• Monoamines such as serotonin, dopamine and noradrenalin act as signalling substances• Neurons that contain serotonin stimulate the release of oxytocin• This may explain why selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) like Prozac increase the serotonin level and indirectly increase the oxytocin level
  38. 38. • Doan et al (2007) “J Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing” 21(3) 200-206, study compared sleep of exclusively breastfed infants versus those supplemented with formula. Mothers who exclusively breastfed slept an average of forty minutes longer. Parents of formula fed infants had more sleep disturbance.
  39. 39. Oxytocin• Found entirely unchanged in virtually all species of mammals• An ancient evolutionary substance composed of nine amino acids• Traditionally regarded as a female hormone associated with birth and breastfeeding however released to a similar extent in both sexes through pleasant warm and rhythmic touch
  40. 40. Oxytocin and maternal caregiving“Does Breastfeeding Protect Against Substantial ChildAbuse and Neglect? A 15-year cohort Study” StrathearnL. et al, Pediatrics 2009; 123;483• Oxytocin is a hormone important in childbirth and breastfeeding• Sucking on the mother’s nipples stimulates the release of oxytocin• Oxytocin has important effects in the brain to help with long-term child rearing• Oxytocin brings about a “calm and connected” effect
  41. 41. Maternal-perpetrated child maltreatment• 15 year-7,223 Australian mother infant pair cohort study (Strathearn et al 2009)• 512 substantiated reports of child maltreatment which was 4.3% of cohort• Mothers were almost three times more likely to abuse their children if they had been fed on artificially manufactured milk• Breastfeeding decreased the risk of maternal- perpetrated child maltreatment.`
  42. 42. MATERNAL-PERPETRATED CHILD MALTREATMENT CONTINUED• If mothers breastfeed for less than 4 months they were more than twice as likely to neglect their child compared with mothers who breastfed for more than 4 months• The authors speculated that the abuse lowering effects of breastfeeding may be due to oxytocin, which reduces anxiety, elevates mood, increases maternal responsiveness, lowers maternal stress, and increases relationship development
  43. 43. Breastfeeding and longterm positive effects on children• 14 year longditudinal study from Western Australia. (Oddy et al 2009)• Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with better child mental health assessed by Child Behavior Check List at every point up to 14 years. The longer the duration of breastfeeding the better the child mental health.
  44. 44. • The first emotional relationship is formed through the infant’s behaviour of sucking and this occurs before the predominantly and visually dependent period named by J. Bowlby as “Attachment”.
  45. 45. • John Bowlby states “Because the human infant is born so very immature and is so slow to develop, there is no species in which attachment behaviour takes so long to appear” page 228. “Attachment is altogether absent at (human) birth and is not strongly in evidence until after an infant is past six months” Page 279 “During the first two or three months of life the young gorilla lacks the strength to clasp its mother’s hair securely and receives support from its mothers arms” Page 237 Ref. Attachment, Penguin, 1978,
  46. 46. SIGMUND FREUD• Referred to the autoerotic tactile sucking “latchment” of very early infancy preceding visual “attachment” by the term cathexis.
  47. 47. Take Home Message• The connection between the latchment and attachment of the mother and the child is crucial to ensure the formation of a secure and lifelong bond between them.• There are numerous beneficial factors associated with the release of oxytoxin in both the mother and child.• The the standard of caregiving is improved significantly, and there is a sense of increased closeness within their relationship.• Such a bond is crucial to to ensure optimal maternal caregiving an increased emotional bond, effective nourishment, and an overall sense of security and safety within their relationship.