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  1. 1. Job SatisfactionIntroduction:Job satisfaction is in regard to ones feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature oftheir work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, e.g, the quality ofones relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment inwhich they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc.There is no strong acceptance among researchers, consultants, etc., that increased jobsatisfaction produces improve job performance, in fact, and improved job satisfactioncan sometimes decrease job performance. For example, you could let sometime sitaround all day and do nothing. That may make them more satisfied with their "work" inthe short run, but their performance certainly didnt improve.Personality type, coping skills, procedural justice, locus of control, andorganizational involvement are all factors that affect job satisfaction. This studylooks at other factors such as age, education level, sex, shift, and part or full-timestatus to see how they affect job satisfaction. Employees of the Wal-MartSupercenter in St. Joseph, Missouri filled out surveys intended to gatherinformation about what makes people satisfied with their jobs, and what types ofpeople are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs. Results showed that therewere three major predictors of job satisfaction: thinking all employees are treatedequally by their boss, sex (females were more satisfied than males), and employeesseeing themselves having a future in their present job. Factors hypothesized to besignificant predictors of job satisfaction, such as education level and age, did notturn out to be significant at all. Shift was significant, however, in that first shiftworkers were more satisfied with pay than were second or various shift workers.There have been many studies performed to determine variables that affect jobsatisfaction. Some have looked at factors such as organizational involvement, locusof control, age, identification with role, dual career families, and commitment toorganization. Others have examined stress, Type a behavior, coping strategies,Participation in decision making, procedural justice, emotional exhaustion, race,And education.Prause and Dooley found that a larger percentage of intermittently unemployed andnon full-year poverty wage workers expressed dissatisfaction with their jobs whencompared to the employed and full-year poverty wage workers. This suggests superiors 1 Human Resource Management
  2. 2. and subordinates may tend to accentuate their differences and be moreprone to stereotype one another. These are at the functional core of many jobs.The study by labor economists of job satisfaction is stillin its infancy. This may be, in part, because economists are suspicious of the usefulnessof data on reported well-being. However, it is known that satisfaction levels arecorrelated with observable phenomena (such as quit behavior).Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction1. Work Itself:-(a)Skill Variety(b) Task Identity(c) Task Significance(d) Autonomy(e) Feedback2. Pay Structure: - It should be more attractive & lucrative. Some people getSatisfaction only because of the salary and Compensation and they stick toThe organization for a long time.3. Advancement Opportunities:-There should be good scope and opportunityTo grow. Opportunity should be given to employees at regular interval.4. Supervision:-Proper supervision should be there in every organization. Ithelps the employee not to deviate from their path. And Employee works in aproper way.5. Co-Workers:- It is an important factor. Employee feels comfortable whentheir colleagues are good. They feel happy, because they can gainknowledge, culture, & so many things.6. Environment: - Company should be free from dispute, politics. Employeeslike to work in friendly environment.7. Compensation & Benefits:-Employee wants more compensation & benefits.Benefits attract employees like perquisites, fringe benefits, and clubmemberships etc.8. Training:-What kind of training is given to employees. Employees aregaining how many benefits out of it.9. Climate:-City & Neighbors:-Employees wants to work in a good climate.Sometimes city also matters that it is affordable to him a comparison ofsalary.10. Ethics & Principle: - The ways a firm is doing business. Some people are 2 Human Resource Management
  3. 3. very ethical. They will never compromise with their values & principles.Relationships of the Big Five Traits with Job SatisfactionNeuroticismBecause of their essentially negative nature, neurotic individuals experience morenegative life events than other individuals in part, because they select themselvesinto situations that foster negative effect. To the extent that such situations occur onor with respect to the job, they would lead to diminished levels of job satisfaction.Neuroticism has been described as the primary source of NA, and the link betweenNA and job satisfaction was documented in meta-analysis.ExtraversionWhereas Neuroticism is related to the experience of negative life events, extraverts arepredisposed to experience positive emotions, and positive emotionality likelygeneralizes to job satisfaction, as demonstrated meta-analysis of PA-jobsatisfaction relationships. Evidence also indicates that extraverts have more friendsand spend more time in social situations than do introverts and, because of theirsocial facility, are likely to find interpersonal interactions (such as those that occurat work) more rewarding .Openness to ExperienceOpenness to Experience is related to scientific and artistic creativity, divergentthinking, low religiosity, and political liberalism. None of these psychologicalstates seem to be closely related to job satisfaction. Furthermore, it is noted that"Openness to Experience is a double-edged sword that predisposes individuals tofeel both the good and the bad more deeplyµ, rendering its directional influence onaffective reactions like subjective well-being or job satisfaction unclear.AgreeablenessMcCrae and Costa (1991) argued that Agreeableness should be related to happinessBecause agreeable individuals have greater motivation to achieve interpersonalintimacy, which should lead to greater levels of well-being. Indeed, they found thatAgreeableness was positively related to life satisfaction, although at a relativelylow level (mean = .16). Assuming these same communal motivations exist on thejob, then the same process should operate with respect to job satisfaction·s Rg anand Lingl (1995) apparently agreed, commenting that Agreeableness "involvesgetting along with others in pleasant, satisfying relationships". 3 Human Resource Management
  4. 4. ConscientiousnessOrgan and Lingl (1995) argued that Conscientiousness should be related to jobsatisfaction because it represents a general work-involvement tendency and thusleads to a greater likelihood of obtaining satisfying work rewards, both formal(e.g., pay, promotions) and informal (e.g., recognition, respect, feelings of personalaccomplishment). Indirectly, the subjective well-being literature also suggests apositive relationship between Conscientiousness and job satisfaction.Creating Job SatisfactionGetting the most from your job."Find a job you like, and you add five days to every week."H. Jackson Brown, Jr.For many of us, the idea of having a job that is truly satisfying - the kind where workdoesnt feel like work anymore - is pure fantasy. Sure, professional athletes, skipatrollers, and golf pros may have found a way of doing what they love and gettingpaid for it. But is there actually anyone out there who dreams of sitting at a desk andprocessing paper, or watching products fly by them on conveyor belts, or working tosolve other peoples problems?Career dreams are one thing; practical reality is often another. When they happilycoincide, seize the opportunity and enjoy it! Luckily, when they do not, its good toknow that it is possible to get job satisfaction from a practical choice of career. Jobsatisfaction doesnt have to mean pursuing the ultra-glamorous or making money fromyour hobby. You can work at job satisfaction, and find it in the most unexpected places.The heart of job satisfaction is in your attitude and expectations; its more about howyou approach your job than the actual duties you perform. Whether you work on thefarm, a production line, in the corner office or on the basketball court, the secret is tounderstand the key ingredients of your unique recipe for job satisfaction.Building Job SatisfactionOnce you have identified the blend of status, power, or intrinsic enjoyment that need tobe present in your work for you to feel satisfied, you then need to work on some of ourseven ingredients for a satisfying job. These ingredients are: 4 Human Resource Management
  5. 5. y Self-awareness y Challenge y Variety y Positive attitude y Knowing your options y Balanced lifestyle y A sense of purposeSelf-AwarenessThe first step in the search for job satisfaction is to know yourself. If youre to be happyand successful, you need to understand your strengths and weaknesses. This will helpyou identify what types of profession will allow you to build on those strengths, andminimize those weaknesses. A useful framework for conducting this type of analysis isa Personal SWOT analysis.It is difficult to feel satisfied with something you arent very good at, so rather thanspend time beating yourself up about it, take a long hard look at the things at whichyou excel, and try to find a position that uses some of those skills too.The greater the match between your preferences and the requirements of the job, themore potential for job satisfaction you have. The remaining six ingredients determinehow much of that potential you actually achieve.ChallengeEven if the job itself is not all that challenging, you can make it challenging. Some greatideas here include: y Set performance standards for yourself - aim to beat your previous record, or set up a friendly competition among co-workers. y Teach others your skills - nothing is more challenging, or rewarding, than passing your skills and knowledge on to others. y Ask for new responsibilities - these will give you opportunities to stretch yourself. y Start or take on a project that uses skills you would like to use, or want to improve. 5 Human Resource Management
  6. 6. y Commit to professional development - take courses, read books or trade magazines and attend seminars. However you do it, keep your skills fresh and current.VarietyClosely related to the need for challenge is the need to minimize boredom. Boredom is acommon culprit when it comes to job dissatisfaction. When your mind is bored you lackinterest and enthusiasm and even a well-matched job becomes dissatisfying. Somecommon methods to alleviate boredom at work include: y Cross train and learn new skills. y Ask to be moved to a new assignment or department requiring the same skills. y Ask to work a different shift. y Volunteer to take on new tasks. y Get involved with committee work. y Go on an extended leave, or take a sabbatical.Positive AttitudeAttitude plays a huge role in how you perceive your job and your life in general. If youare depressed, angry or frustrated, youre much less likely to be satisfied with anything.Making a change to a positive attitude is a complex process that requires a lot of workand a strong commitment. However, over time, you can turn your internal dialoguesaround and start to see most events in your life as positive and worthwhile. Here aresome tips: y Stop negative thoughts from entering your brain. y Reframe your thoughts to the positive. y Put the events of the day in the correct context. y Dont dwell on setbacks. y Commit to viewing obstacles as challenges. y Accept that mistakes are simply opportunities to learn. y Become an optimist.To help you with your quest to become positive, Mind Tools has a useful article titledRational Positive Thinking, which helps you to identify and change negative andunhappy thinking patterns 6 Human Resource Management
  7. 7. Know Your OptionsWhen you feel trapped, you can start to get anxious. At first you wonder what else isout there for you. This progresses to the point where you become convinced thatanything other than the job youre doing has got to be more satisfying. To combat this,continuously scan your environment for opportunities. When you feel you haveoptions, you have more control. When you make a positive choice to stay with a job,that job has much more appeal than if you feel forced to stay because you feel you haveno alternative. y Keep a list of your accomplishments. y Update your resume on a regular basis. y Keep up to date on employment trends. y Research other jobs that interest you. y Adopt an Im keeping my options open approach.Maintain a Balanced LifestyleYoull have heard many times that you need to keep your life and work in balance.When you focus too much on one at the expense of the other you risk putting yourwhole system in distress. When work takes over your life, it is easy to resent it and loseyour sense of perspective: Suddenly everything about your life is clouded withnegativity.The Life Career Rainbow and The Wheel of Life are two great tools to use when seekingto attain and maintain an appropriate work life balance.Find a Sense of PurposeLast, but certainly not least (for many people) is the need to find a sense of purpose inthe things you do. Even if you have a boring job, it helps a lot if you can see the realbenefit youre providing for people.Even the most mundane job usually has purpose if you dig deep enough. And if itdoesnt, should you be wasting your life doing it? 7 Human Resource Management
  8. 8. ConclusionIn all cases there is evidence of large perceived increases in strain over time. Roughlyhalf of all Worlds· workers believe that there has been in their workplace a significantrise in effort, responsibility and stress. Approximately a quarter believe that thetightness of supervision has gone up significantly.The overall distributions, weighted to be representative of the World are as follows:a) Sleepb) Unhappinessc) Lost confidenced) Difficultiese) Strainf) WorthlessIt is not easy to know what to make of the numbers. Taken at face value, theySeem remarkable, and perhaps worrying for the Western democracies. A naturalresponse is to wonder if human beings accidentally or deliberately exaggerate theirdifficulties.Therefore, Work plays a significant role in our lives. In our quest to be happy andproductive, having a strong sense of job satisfaction is important. When you aredissatisfied with your job, this tends to have an influence on your overall outlook onlife. While you may not be in the career of your dreams right now, it is still yourresponsibility to make sure that what you are doing is satisfying to you.By knowing the key elements that go into job satisfaction, you can choose to takecontrol and make the changes you need to feel really satisfied and motivated by whatyou do. Make one small change at work today that makes you feel good or different -build on that change and create a satisfying environment for yourself.Referenceshttp://www.mindtools.com 8 Human Resource Management