2 1st Century Journalis m A Practical Guide International edition Belgrade - Bratislava - Budapest – Bucharest – Prague – Zürich *** work-in-progress version of 2nd English edition *** Last modified: 10 May, 2007 Edited by László Turi, 2007
Get prepared for the challenges of newspaper industry Digital revolution keeps changing newspaper layout, style, topics and business model. Your grandfather, your father and you in your childhood could see similar product which was called „newspaper”. This traditional concept has been challenged by digital media in the past decade. With this course you will get a systematized overview of trends in newspaper industry, exercises will help you to get a personal experience.
Demistify the internet So-called internet gurus tend to glorify their importance by techno bla-bla. Behind those few buzzwords that have meaning at all, you will find the golden rules of the traditional media re-mastered to the digital age. With the exercises you will gain self-confidence to raise the right questions and understand what is behind the hype.
Use your competences in new media You as a print journalist have plenty of experience, you know everything about journalism. You may want to try out yourself on the web. The exercises will help you to start your own blog or publish in the online version of your newspaper. You will get hints, ideas and best practices concerning your local market.
Preface „ 21st Century Journalism” was preceeded by a general study of the Eastern European online market, where we analysed the threats and opportunities in our industry. Based on this study, we invested an additional 3-month team work involving a group of online experts to summarize trends and best practices. Online journalism is a moving target, therefore the booklet will be updated according to the needs. This is not a bible, just a starting point to provide tailor-made education for editorial boards. The internet is a global phenomenon, but usage patterns are changing from culture to culture, so we emphasize country particularities in this material. „ 21st Century Journalism” training is targeted to journalists open to meet the challenges of online world and devote time to in-work training. The first courses have already been successfully completed in Romania and Hungary, others are being planned. In addition to train on-job journalists, the material has also been presented to students of Budapest University of Economics and Nepszabadsag-Ringier School of Journalism. During the trainings it turned out that students require written and illustrated material for further thinking. This booklet fulfills this need, but it is not intended for self-study. Training online journalism is a mutual learning between students and teacher. Therefore this a living material building on feedbacks and interactions of the training sessions. In addition we received a lot of inspiration from consultants and experts. The authors appreciate all comments and cooperation initiatives. Budapest, 2007. Laszlo Turi & Andras Nyiro [email_address] & andras.nyiro@ 21stCenturyJournalism.com
Credits Author and editor : Laszlo TURI, New Media Research & Development, Ringier AG . - Graduated in humanities, with 12 years of experience in multimedia development. Among other positions in new media, he worked in the mobile content development team of T-Mobile Hungary. Concept : Andras NYIRO, Director of New Media Research & Development, Ringier AG . - Known as one of the most influential characters in the development of Hungarian new media culture. Founder of seminal multimedia and internet magazines, former director of mobile content services at T-Mobile Hungary. Newspaper trends : Patrick BERTSCHY, Ringier AG . - Graduated in law, with journalist experience at German and French speaking Swiss newspapers and magazines. He also hold other positions in Swiss publishing industry. Special thanks Petr BEDNAR, Online Director, Ringier Czech Republic and Slovakia Stephane CARPENTIER, Art Director, Ringier AG Laurentiu CIORNEI , Content manager of www.evz.ro Gábor FLÓRIÁN, layout György JUHÁSZ, Director of Online Department at Ringier Hungary. Zoltán KAPRINAY, Regional Content Manager, Ringier e-media Pál LÉDERER, Director of Online Department at Népszabadság. Dezső ORBÁN, Senior developer of Ringier e-media services. Béla PAPP, Managing Director of Ringier Hungary. Ferenc PÉCSI, dotkommentar.hu Claudiu SERBAN, publisher, Ringier Romania
First you will get a short overview about the milestones of newspaper history from the early days of industry to today , with special emphasis on the influence of technology to media developments.
You will analyse three trends of newspaper industry in detail: changes of newspaper format, content and business model. You will understand why present day newspaper are so different from what our parents’ daily readings.
You will learn about numbers: how to measure success? What are the key performance indicators in print, online and mobile?
Who reads your newspaper? You will learn more about readers’ segmentation, about their expectations and about their special needs and habits.
<H3>How did technology influence media? Milestones relevant for Western Europe, especially UK. Based on Raymond Williams: Communications, London 1966 Daily Mirror’s record: 7million copies. (Queen Elizabeth’s coronation) 1953 2006 1985 1955 1937 1930 1900 1880 1866 1700 1556 Freesheet. Metro is the largest newspaper. Integrated newsrooms. More online visitors than daily print copies. Layoffs due to electronic printing. 1/3 of adults read newspapers. Desktop publishing, web 1985 ITV (Independent TV, UK) launch, end of BBC’s broadcast monopoly, ad-revenue based. Print sales starts dropping TV – regular BBC broadcast 1936 50% of adults read dailies. 50% revenue on advertising. Formulatin of publishing empires. BBC (1927) Radio – regular broadcast 1922 1/5 of adults read daily papers, 1/3 read Sunday papers. Daily Mirror - the 1st tabloid Display advertising, reduction of price/copy, growth of sale „ Reuters”. Sunday papers with popular content („tabloid style”) Transatlantic telegraph news 1866 Instead of hand printing, steam powered printing. Railway distribution. 1814 Local news appears. Earlier just European news. Content controlled via censorship, instead of publishing licences. „ Notizie scritte” - a regular, paid government publication in Venetia Gutenberg 1447 Media development Technology
Print media faces challenges Symptoms of decline Newsstands - In France there were 33,540 newsstands in 1995. Today, only 28,275. If this trend continues, newsstands will disappear by 2035. Revenues - In the UK revenue of i nternet advertising surpassed that of the press in 2006. Survival on the Internet - The print publication of InfoWorld, the iconic IT weekly magazine, has been stopped.The brand name survives on the Internet. Jaipur, North India, 2007 : In the past few years Kathir made a modest business by reselling to tourists those newspapers that air travellers left on plane. But he has just started searching for a new business, because tourists read the new on the Internet and mobile. Sources: Innovations in Newspapers, March-April 2007, http://www.innovationsinnewspapers.com/ , Reuters, 26 March, 2007, http://www.reuters.com/ , Photo: Zsolt Veszelovszki.
<H3>Print media as a changing physical object If you ask your designer to define a newspaper, than she will talk about a 3-dimensional object. This object has length, width, thickness. It is coloured or black-and-white and its paper has a given quality and color. If the newspaper wants to be different from other products, than the designer has to change some of these parameters time to time. In recent years we have seen that newspapers were shrinking and became more colourful. But the most successful products are breaking sometimes these trends. Design is the art of exceptions. When she works with these parameters of the object, she modifies the opportunities of the editor. You will have less or more space for text and images, you will have to use different type of emphasis and references. Source: Gerald Grow, „Magazine Covers and Cover Lines” in Journal of Magazine and New Media Research , 2002 http:// www.bsu.edu/web/aejmcmagazine/Testfolder/ , Coury Turcyzn „The Decline of Western Magazine Culture” in PopCult ( http://popcultmag.com )
Size and style Attracting younger readers is the main reason for the Guardian’s change to a „Berliner” format, with colour throughout. Young and especially female readers are put off by the unwieldiness of broadsheets, and both the Times and the Independent have seen a bounce in circulation since turning tabloid. Going all the way however, says Carolyn McCall, chief executive of Guardian Newspapers, would have meant dumbing down the front page by including fewer headlines. From: The Economist, September 10, 2005. Tabloid: 380x300 mm (halfsize of broadsheet) Broadsheet: 600x380mm Berliner or midi: 470x315 mm
Case study: change of format 2004 It was redesigned to Berliner-format The Guardian used to be a broadsheet 2005 This was a response to the moves by The Times and The Independent to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. The advantage that The Guardian saw in the Berliner format was that though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is thus equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The new presses mean that printing can go right across the 'gutter', the strip down the middle of the centre page, allowing the paper to print striking double page pictures. The switch cost £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses. … The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. In December 2005, the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6% higher than the figure for December 2004. Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian)
Case study: radical change of format and style
Design and look:
Lot of text
Importance of big coloured picture
Look strict and ponderous
C ontinuously declining circulation : 19.3% between 2000 and 2003
It was decided to reduce size but to keep exactly the same stories than the broadsheet version.
Dual production for 8 months
The problem: unsuccessful broadsheet format (2003)
In the digital world text, image and sound are described by 0 and 1. All this content is produced by computers, everything can be easily mixed. The traditional boundaries of genres and media types are blurring or disappearing.
Bigger pictures (or different sizes) makes the article more lively .
Shorter texts work more accessible and less time-consuming .
Words like “ catch ”, “ chilling ” or “ brazen” are very strong and emotional
Source: Helen Gambles, U. Wales http ://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/hlg9501.html
Tabloid style and idea:
Subscriptions are limited, title page must sell the product
Simply and sensationally written
Give more prominence to celebrities, sports, crime stories and even to hoaxes than reference papers.
They also more readily take a political position (either left- or right-wing) on news stories, ridiculing politicians, demanding resignations and predicting election results.
The style and idea of popular tabloid press grew out from Sunday papers.
Both titlepages were published on 13 Dec, 2006 They tend to borrow style and layout temporarily from each other to surprise readers and attract their attention.
Daily paper or weekly magazine? The April 9, 2007 issue of Osterreich. The daily paper includes 3 glossy inserts edited in magazine style. A new Austrian daily blurs the lines between newspapers and magazines, and some say this is the future for newspapers in general. The compact, full-colour Osterreich, launched in September 2006 mixes magazine and newspaper styles in one package, with several sections printed on glossy paper and stapled on the spine. These are not typical magazine inserts: they are daily sections, with daily deadlines that are paginated and printed along with the other daily sections. To use both newspaper and magazine quality paper in the same publication, Osterreich and its printing partners had to develop an innovative printing and workflow system that allows for both cold and heat set processes during the same printing run. The high-quality paper allows the newspaper to attract a new brand of luxury goods and other advertisers who insist on magazine quality for their ads. Source: WAN Newsletter, April 25, 2007.
De Morgen, a Belgian broadsheet redesigned and switched to berliner format in April, 2006. The most important new design elements:
This new lay-out consists of 5 columns per page, instead of 7, with quite a lot of whitespace.
Some photographs or illustrations span multiple columns.
Colors are largely used. But never work agitated.
Pages: De Morgen, 2006 April
Magazine or product catalogue? Advertising influences magazines Madison Magazin, March 2006, p. 192 Ikea Catalogue, 2007, p. 334 Blurred borderline between commercial product placement and newspaper content. Product marketing behaves as media. Looks like… a product catalogue a magazin page
In newspaper business model there are three main revenue streams: subscription, sold copies and advertising. During the last century the emphasis shifted from subscription towards sold copies and nowadays towards advertisement. Today’s freesheets and internet publications are free for the readers and are purely financed by advertisements.
The free daily newspaper distributed through public transport was introduced in 1995 in Sweden. There are now free newspapers in 49 countries: 40 million copies are read by at least 60 million people daily. Their readership is much younger than that of the traditional newspaper. Most free newspapers are published as tabloids.
Source: World Association of Newspapers http:// www.wan-press.org , „Newspaper Innovation” blog, http://www.newspaperinnovation.com/ Source: FDN Newsletter, April 2007 Weakness Strengths
Losing young readers
Analysis and comments
Lower quality due to lack of lack of original content?
Low editorial costs
Reach new readers
Response to digital media
Diversification of the free newspaper concept Freesheet war in the UK market „ Newspaper moguls Rupert Murdoch and Lord Rothermere are going head to head in a free newspaper fight, which media analysts believe could fatally damage the paid-for Evening Standard. […] Those who have seen a dummy of thelondonpaper have described it as colourful and more like a magazine than a newspaper, with a youthful approach.„ Source: Online Press Gazette, 17 Aug, 2006, http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/article/170806/murdoch_rothermere_london_free_newspaper_war El Crack 10 in Spain 2003 CASH daily in Switzerland 2006 thelondonpaper in London 2006 finance sport afternoon „ Print your own free up-to-date pdf!” - G24, Guardian’s continuosly updated free pdf edition is a reaction to freesheets from a paid daily. The A/4 layout includes ads targeted to internet users. http://www.guardian.co.uk/g24
Key elements of Internet strategies Strategies are usually mixed, clear cases are rare. Le Monde B2C revenue – bundled with subscription Popular strategy in the late ’90s, but today this is rare, eg. Magyar Narancs in Hungary (mancs.hu) promotion Limited online edition – Online is just a selected part of the print newspaper. Example Business model Content Brand enforcement and ad revenue – increase freesheet viewership B2C revenue promotional and ad-revenue ad-revenue Metro New York Times (Times Select) Bild, Sun Guardian, LA Times, E-paper – Facsimile electronic edition of the print newspaper. Premium content – Some parts of the online content is paid-only. Eg. archive or exclusive content. Christmas ornament - No overall strategy for internet and print. Internet is a possibility for extra services that are hanging on the core print content as Christmas ornaments. Web first - Publishes stories first to the web, ending the primacy of the printed newspaper.
Case study: two different approaches http://metro.hu Full-featured newsportal: continuous news update, classified and banner ads. Internet is considered an independent revenue channel. http://citiyam.com Limited online edition: the website is considered a promotional portal only, without content. The only genuine content is a regular afternoon podcast branded as City P.M. Internet is not considered a separate revenue channel. Free newspapers’ attitude towards the primarily free medium of internet is ambigous, they are trying to find their role on the internet.
Internet: an opportunity to publishers Example of the German market In print: two losers Stern and Der Spiegel are two weekl y magazines competing since more than 50 years to dominate the market of news magazines. Even if Der Spiegel was able to beat Stern for the last five years, there is no clear leader on the print market. Source: German Audit Institute http:// www.ivw.de On internet: strategy makes a difference After undecided battle in the starting years, SPIEGEL ONLINE can now be define as the clear winner of the internet market. Print circulation M onthly visits
<H3>Role of the editor Current trend: e ditors don’t set the agenda
Aggregation and personalization techniques:
Reader-driven web services: top-lists, most e-mailed, most popular, most voted, most referred
Computer-edited content: Google News, music radio/TV channels – Pre-defined logic is used to generate pages or programme by topic or genre. The website of this book is also an example of news aggregation. See: http://www.21stCenturyJournalism.com
Personalization: RSS, customization, desktop alerts. - Details will be discussed in various chaptes, later.
Automatic personalization: amazon.com recommendations, intelligent WAP-portals (O2, Vodafone) – Driven by user’s former clicks.
Until the mid-’90-ies traditional media allowed a clear control over appearance of news, stories and other content. With the dawn of internet content aggregators and personalization technologies gave more free hand to the readers. Your article may appear on the internet near to your competitors’ articles (like in Google News) or in surprising context, eg. in the form of a desktop alert or as a link on a homepage. Do not be aftraid to show your readers’ choice. (http://www.msnbc.com/)
Example: Readers creating their own tabloid site Air force demotes Playboy poser The information world is led by tabloid topics. Even on the notorious ly serious BBC, the most popular pages are talking rather about emotion and popular stories than seriousness and politics. BBC: editor's version Actor denies child sex offences Viewers complain over Brits jokes BBC: reader's version 1 2 3 Most popular stories, 15th February 2007 Readers have full control over the selection of content.
Example: Internet as a barometer of public opinion Sources: USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2004-12-01-chile-news_x.htm, Ringier Hungary Research Deptartment Las Ultimas Noticias (LUN, Chile) In 2001 LUN installed a system whereby all clicks onto its website ( www.lun.com) were recorded for all in the newsroom to see. Those clicks drive the entire print content of next day LUN. If a certain story gets a lot of clicks, for example, that is a signal to the editors that the story should be followed up, and similar ones should be sought for the next day. The system offers a direct barometer of public opinion, much like the TV rating system.
56% increase of circulation
New groups of readers
Jumped to top of market from 4th position
Increased profit margin
LUN became market leader in 3 years (Average circulation, in thousands) Web barometer installed
Opportunity to approach young readers with your media mix Japan: Asahi Shimbun’s channels Source: Asahi Shimbun’s media kit http://asahi.com/english Radio, TV and internet users, Czech Republic Source: World Association of Newspapers http://www.wan-press.org/article568.html The above demographic data is not available for Nemzeti Sport . Media consumption (minutes per day) Age groups … when online readers are considered, the story of newspaper readership for many papers transforms from one of slow and steady decline to one of vibrancy and growth. […] The audiences for newspaper websites tend to be younger than those for the printed newspaper, dispelling the common misperception that young people are not engaged by newspaper content. Source: Press release of Scarborough Research Apr 3, 2006, http://www.scarborough.com 142 40 35 30 Internet 193 194 208 205 203 Television 174 178 200 210 202 Radio 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997
Key statistics indicators * Overlapping is limited by the fact that switching between media is often inconvenient for customers. For example print readers often have no chance to browse the internet just when they meet the display ad of a website. And the difference of target group demographics is also an obstacle: for example young mobile users rarely buy „old-fashioned” print edition just to find more details. Ad revenue Revenue share from operators Ad revenue Ad revenue, sold copies Revenues Audience poll Reach surveys research Registrations, WAP unique phone numbers Unique visitors Sold copies + subscriptions actual Number of readers TV Mobile Internet Print Sold copies x reader/copy subscriptions unique visitors unique phone numbers Total reach* US media audit is already based on a combined indicator of print and online reach. Source: Newspapers by the Numbers, 2006, by Newspaper Association of America
What is the ranking of your site in your local internet market?
What is the correlation or difference of daily peaks in your site and that of average internet usage?
In average how many articles were read by a single reader yesterday?
Visit: one user can come back many times UV, unique visitor: the number of PCs from where the users are browsing the given page. In the print world this is „reach”. PI, page impression: number of pages downloaded. This number is interesting for advertisers. Other webmarket audits: Austria: http://www.oewa.at/ France: http:/ www.ojd.com/engine / Germany: http://ww.ivw.de/ UK: http://www.abce.org.uk USA, international: http://www.nielsen-netratings.com Online view statistics in Ringier countries: Czech Republic: http://online.netmonitor.cz/ola2.php Hungary: http://webaudit.hu/index.php?content=12 Romania: http://www.traffic.ro/login/ Slovakia: http://www.iaudit.info/sk/?country=SK Serbia: no audit Switzerland: netreport.wemf.ch/suche_alpha.html Distribution of traffic during the day. Daily statistics of webaudit.hu, the Hungarian Internet audit. Each line is a separate site. !
Collect information about your product and audience Number of video downloads:…. Number of users:… Number of downloads:… Unique visitors: …. Visits:…. Sold copies:… Subscribers:… Readers per copy…. Usage ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Demographics Give a short description about the audience of each channel 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Market position Mark the position of your publication or enter the correct number Online TV Mobile Internet Print
From monologue to dialogue Source: Oliver Reichenstein, The Future of News. Manuscript, 2007. http://www.informationarchitects.jp/
You will improve the journalism. Support the work you do as a journalist by revealing what really matters to people. You will serve your community better. Your work will be relevant to your audience. You can build a relationship with your community. Being an involved institution in your community, should strengthen your ties with the community. You can build consumer engagement. Well delivered stories based on a solid understanding of your target audience should result in a more engaged audience. And that's something every advertiser covets. Traditional media is based on one-way communication. New media is a multi-directional communication. If you want to be successful in such a communication, you will learn more about your audience. What will you gain by this kind of learning?
You know very well how to write news, stories, interview and commentaries. Building on this knowledge we explain you how these genres change when you publish on web or on the small screen of the mobile phone.
News: the classic rules of news are the same in print, internet and mobile. You will learn the differences: how to change the structure of news in an environment where there are no deadlines.
Story telling: you will get an overview on what kind of interactive and multimedia possibilities are offered by the internet. Learn more about experienced multimedia story tellers.
Interview: you will learn the 9 points of a successful online interview.
Commentary: everybody is talking about blogs. You will understand what is a blog and how to use it in your own work.
Genres and the journalist’s role Translation of basic terms Russian Chinese Spanish Commentaire , note Interview Récit Reportage Actualité French Kommentar Interview Story Bericht, Reportage Nachrichten, Aktualität German Comentariu, editorial Interviu P oveste Reportaj Stiri Romanian Komentář, poznámka Rozhovor Reportáž or Příběh Report, Krátká zpravodajská reportáž Zprávy, Hlavní zprávy Czech Glossza, jegyzet Interjú Riport Tudósítás Hír, cikk Hungarian Glosa, poznámka Rozhovor, interview Reportáž Riport (krátka spravodajská reportáž) Správa Slovak Reporting Commentary, note Interview Story News, news feature English journalist has a personal experience personal approach is allowed for the journalist journalist must be objective newsroom work only commentary, note, columns, opinion news, news feature story reporting interview
Genres and channels „ A 30-minutes TV news programme does not contain more text than an average newpaper page. The length of an average TV news story is not more than 30-40 seconds, that is 4-6 printed line.” (J. Horvath: Basics of TV journalism, 2002)
Opinion survey via SMS
Questions via SMS
Readers’ MMS content
Facts in 160 characters
On-event SMS-push, in daytime
deep interview or
Specific story ideas
Visuals tell the story
Simple, short text
TV Internet Print daily
Person of interest
Quotes vs. discussion
Readers and bloggers as sources
Objective or personal
Facts with updates, no deadline
Facts and analysis based on the information available at the time of printing.
News, news feature
Channels and challenges Daily challenges of electronic channels are similar. Be faster than your competitors Write your story for next morning Update Keep your news always up-to-date Channel surfing aggregators, news stolen Content services of mobile operators Maintain readers’ loyalty Competition The next issue must also be sold schedule Bandwith, resolution scrolling Page size, layout Scrolling Space Text and visuals must fit the page 6 sec/shot, 30 sec / news Inconvenient: estimated 3 min per session 1-2 hours/day 15 min / newspaper Time Mind the deadline to deliver the daily by breakfast reading TV Mobile Internet Print daily
Exercise: What info is worth a news story? List, explain the key features that make news valuable in mass media. Give examples. Source: BBC Sport http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport , Times Online http://www.timesonline.co.uk/ !
Proximity 1 dead Briton is worth 5 dead Frenchmen, 20 dead Egyptians, 500 dead Indians and 1000 dead Chinese. (Mc Lurg’s law) Threshold A big story is one that has an extreme effect on a large number of people . Where the immediate effect of an event is more subtle, the threshold may be determined by the amount of money involved. Negativity Bad news is more exciting than good news. Bad news receives more attention because it shocks us and creates discussion. For instance, "what should be done about crime”? Unexpectedness If a dog bites a man, that's not news. But if a man bites a dog, that's news Elite nations, persons Stories concerned with global powers rich, powerful, famous and infamous persons receive more attention. Continuity A story that is already in the news gathers a kind of inertia. This is partly because the media organizations are already in place to report the story, and partly because previous reportage may have made the story more accessible to the public (making it less ambiguous) Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/News_values !
Exclusive story : this is what your newspaper know s or publish es only. Anything can be a good story, if you are able to find the point that is relevant to your readers and you are able to make it emotional and add good photos.
Find what is r elevan t : any hot issue of a small community or a small issue of a large community can be relevant to your readers. These issues can be used as sources for exclusive stories: take a definite position that provokes feedback from your readers.
Stories from other media : feel free to pick up stories from other media and add your own additional infomation and illustration.
Follow-up : go back to your stories that received significant public attention in the past and check what happened since th e n.
Translations : search foreign news sites for stories that can be connected to something local. The more local connection you can find, the more emphasis can be give n to the story. Add your own information and feel free to completely rearrange the original article.
Guidelines for working with sources
The opponent party must also be interviewed.
Avoid pure reporting of events.
Do not let people use you as their spokesman or send a targeted message via your article.
Before participating on press events, do a desktop research, be prepared and raise your questions. Think of your point of the story even before the event.
Source: Editorial guidelines of Blikk, Hungary, manuscript document.
Influences to news style and structure Think of examples! Make the story visual and entertaining. Provide immediate information in concise format. Update the story as it develops with facts, references and multimedia. Summarize and evaluate all the available information. Object No way to re-read, unless recorded. Inconvenient, small interface. No word-by-word reading, just scrolling Readers find images first. Usability Shots must be short. Expect channel surfing. Text must be simple. Must be very fast. Bandwith, display limits visual content. No way to influence context (eg. RSS). Complete by deadline and fit page size. Challenges Print daily Internet Mobile TV ?
Based on the traditional „lead” format: short declarative sentences, facts only
No „reporting” style and news back reference
SMS-like abbreviations are allowed.
Title: clear, short - no metaphors
Lead: date, actual summary, not just to call for attention
Body text - for scanning:
short paragraphs, clear subheadings:
one paragraph = one idea
page length max. 1.5 screensize
max. 1000 chars
Link: limited number of good links, with meaningful text
Telegraph style news is replaced by feature: facts and analysis in short paragraphs.
Title, lead and story length must fit layout.
Reference papers allow metaphoric titles.
TV Mobile Internet Print daily
News structure on internet and mobile Title – It must be understandable without sub headings and images, because on the internet popular automatic news collecting services are copying only titles. Lead – Basic facts: who-what-when-where-why . Sometimes used as title page teaser. Max. one paragraph, used to sell the story. Development – Lead information should be resumed and detailed here. Short sentences, one paragraph contains only one idea. Sub headings must also be informative. Context – help s the reader to better understand the meaning of the provided information . Links – Must be inherent part of the article. The text of the links must be meaningful. SMS From: CNN ------------------------------------------------- A LERT Hijackers seize passenger jet in Mauritania and land on Spain's Canary Islands, police and meda say according to wire reports. //CNN Max. 1500-2000 chars Internet, WAP Inverted pyramid The SMS starts with topic category ID. The body text contains only facts. A single complex sentence of 2-3 clauses. Ends with brand promotion. Lead Development Context
one idea per paragraph (users will skip over any additional ideas if they are not caught by the first few words in the paragraph)
the inverted pyramid style, starting with the conclusion (see later)
half the word count (or less) than conventional writing
Further possibilities to make a story visual: tables, boxes, graphics, infographics.
Source: Jakob Nielsen, How users read on the web http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html Eyetracking heatmap of a webpage. People rarely read web pages word by word; instead, they scan the page, picking out individual words and sentences. News story at cnn.com: main points are highlighted with bullets in a frame. For a developing story, new information is indicated.
Tips on working with images Excerpts from editorial guidelines of Blikk, Hungarian print tabloid. Most of the points are valid for both print and online media, even if images work differently online: web pages offer unlimited image space, but layout is usually limited by story templates. Blikk story about a Hungarian celebrity receiving a very expensive wrist watch. The layout is a good example of handling images visual tools in print: enlargement, framed text, text overlay, supplementary information is text box. (Blikk, 18. Apr, 2007, page 9.)
Photo and the story
Do your best to present the story also in photo, eg. in case of mass events the photos should show many people.
Photos should suit to the general approach of the story. Eg. victims, murders, etc. should not smile on the photo.
Journalist should closely cooperate with the photographer so that the photos can really support the text and add supplementary info.
The title character of the story should appear on the main photo.
The leading photo must be closely related to the event or location mentioned in the title.
Photo on the page
Each page must contain at least one i m age. If more than one photo is used on a page, their tone and content must be different: e.g. photo of men should be accompanied with that of women, portrait should go with full-size image, sad image with a happy one, etc.
Caption should be closely related to the story, but still it must provide new and important details. If possible, the caption must include the name of persons represented, but a simple list of names is not enough.
Make the story visual: besides photos try to include framed boxes, facsimiles, charts, logos and similar visual elements.
Mind the focus of your story. Do not burden it with irrelevant additions. If you insist on publishing some additional info, put them into a framed box.
Framed text is a good way to reinforce the story by listing further facts and data or comparing them. This helps the reader and makes the story more concrete. Also a useful tool to break the monotony of longer text-only pages.
A major crime story on msnbc.com. Although the page displays only one large photo, within a single click reader finds dozens of additional images. Image galleries are represented by thumbnails only. Source: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18169776/ Large image with caption. List of videos. The most recent one is highlighted with a lead and thumbnail. Photos and audio are promoted together. Clickable interactive map contains plenty of additional information. This is a developing story. The updates are highlighted.
Crisis of news confidence A 2005 poll by the Pew Research Center reported that the percentage of Americans saying they can believe most of what they read in their daily newspaper dropped from 84 percent in 1985 to 54 percent in 2004. For televised news, whether broadcast or cable, the results are unfortunately similar. What is the cause of this apparent skepticism? Why has our trust in the news eroded while our cynicism about it seems to grow? One answer I’d suggest is that the explosion of information itself has overwhelmed us. […] …news, information comes to us from a staggering multiplicity of sources. Today, in the United States, there are about 1,700 daily and 6,800 weekly newspapers; more than 1,600 broadcast television stations; and nearly 8,500 cable systems. There are also some 13,000 radio stations, along with the newest development in radio technology, satellite radio services. Most of these media outlets, in some way or another, provide news as part of their daily fare; some of them are based on a 24-hour-a-day news model, often with other programming (often entertainment oriented) bracketing the newscasts. And that doesn’t even begin to count the web-based versions of all these media, along with the independent Internet … Source: Journalism’s crisis of confidence, A Report of Carnegie Corporation of New York, http://www.carnegie.org/pdf/journalism_crisis/journ_crisis_full.pdf . Hawking's small step toward space BBC News, UK - 27 minutes ago Famed astrophysicist flies weightless Canada.com, Canada - 41 minutes ago Stephen Hawking Takes a Buoyant Ride on a Zero-Gravity Flight Washington Post, DC - 1 hour ago Hawking takes off for zero gravity Melbourne Herald Sun, Australia - 2 hours ago Space, here I come - Hawking ic SouthLondon.co.uk, UK - 2 hours ago Hawking enjoys weightlessness on jet flight Ireland Online, Ireland - 3 hours ago Vomit Comet flight is his first step towards space Guardian Unlimited, UK - 3 hours ago Hawking researches free-floating joy Boston Globe, MA - 4 hours ago Hawking floats, flips sans gravity Kansas City Star, MO - 4 hours ago Hawking gets taste of zero-gravity Reuters.uk, UK - 5 hours ago Physicist Hawking gets taste of zero-gravity Reuters - 5 hours ago Stephen Hawking floats in a zero-gravity jet. The Age, Australia - 7 hours ago Stephen Hawking to fly weightless Hindu, India - 7 hours ago Hawking takes zero-gravity flight BBC News, UK - 9 hours ago Stephen Hawking Flies Weightless Guardian Unlimited, UK - 9 hours ago Hawking Flies Weightless Aboard Jet Discovery Channel - 10 hours ago Hawking Flies Weightless Aboard Jet San Francisco Chronicle, CA - 12 hours ago http:// news.google.com
„… credibility is important for Web users, since it is unclear who is behind information on the Web and whether a page can be trusted. Credibility can be increased by high-quality graphics, good writing, and use of outbound hypertext links. Links to other sites show that the authors have done their homework and are not afraid to let readers visit other sites. „ - Jakob Nielsen Source: How users read on the web http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html Readers do not trust a single source, therefore expect links to related stories and other background information. The possibility of comparing mainstream sources reinforces the credibility of news on the web. Newsreaders on the internet welcome mainstream journalism and expert openion, but same time wish to express their own view of the story
Below we describe a simple role play that can be used in teaching news sourcing and news writing for online and mobile services.
Trainer or experienced journalist makes up a story about a breaking news event, eg. a major accident in the city. He acts as a spokesperson for various news sources: eg. police, ambulance, public transportation company, etc.
Students act as news editors of some radio on news site and their task is to call the spokesperson and get information. They have to tell what kind of spokesperson they wish to speak to, introduce themselves and raise one question per call. This is an example: „I am calling city ambulance station. My name is Bill of the local radio. Please, give me information on the victims of the accident.”
Trainer should simulate the respective spokesperson’s approach: „Our car has just arrived to the locality. Please, call five minutes later.” Even a local eyewitness can be simulated by the trainer. If students run out of ideas trainer should drop some information that provokes further questions.
Trainer is recommended to indicate the number of questions on the blackboard in order to show the progress of the exercise.
Trainer should define timing: eg. due to the programme schedule of the radio, sourcing must be completed in 20 minutes. After that students have 15 minutes to write the news story in maximum 6 to 8 sentences with a title of maximum 4 words.
At the end of the exercise students read out their news story and the trainer evaluates them and gives further tips and advices. Advices should include guidelines for style, structure, phraseology.
Police: I I I I Ambulance: II Fire patrol: II City transport: III Taxi company: I Blackboard is used to show the progress of the role play.
Write a news article in 3 versions: internet, WAP, SMS. (The story might be based on a citizen video of a public riot or other event of interest.)
Do you have a standard procedure? Follow this:
Rank the available items of information by importance, not by chronological order
Make the text concise, omit info without importance
Add background info, if space-time allows
Create a short, clear title
Post each version on the weblog of the course.
Source: YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAZAMKAnBaE Your own story
Exercise: Create news story in 3 versions In 1972 the Watergate story was published in the print daily Washington Post. The story was written on typewriter and published only in print. Use the original article and create versions for web, WAP and SMS. Consider changing the structure, length, adding links, etc. GOP Security Aide Among 5 Arrested in Bugging Affair By Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein Washington Post Staff Writers June 19, 1972 One of the five men arrested early Saturday in the attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee headquarters is the salaried security coordinator for President Nixon’s reelection committee. The suspect, former CIA employee James W. McCord Jr., 53, also holds a separate contract to provide security services to the Republican National Committee, GOP national chairman Bob Dole said yesterday… Read the original article here: Washintgon Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/scandal/watergat.htm. Source: University of Texas, http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/online/woodstein / Famous print article from the past
Mi a multimédia story telling: screenshoton mutogatni az elemeket (Being Black és a cigány site: bbc.co.uk/kent/romany_roots/
Mi kell hozzá: tools -> a legegyszerűbb eszközök, a minimál program, mert minnél egyszerűbb az eszköz, annál önállóbb vagy. Az anyaggyűjtéshez elég a jó mobiltelefon. Mi a minimum: 2Mpix kamera, hangrögzítés, tárhely,.. Stb. Jó oktató site: http://makeinternettv.org/
A nagy projektek nem élnek meg, home-video a target, ha nagyobb beruházással indulsz, a belépési küszöböt nem tudod meglépni. Kevin Sites és Being Black anyagok a legegyszerűbb videóval elkészíthetők, ingyenes a video vágó, stb.
Further tips: Online Journalism Review http://www.ojr.org/ojr/wiki/video/
All internet reporting formats are available on mobile, but with limited quality.
MMS: involve your reader in finding sources, ask them to send their photos, videos.
Eg. in Blikk (HU), Compact (RO), Blesk (CZ)
„ Sites such as CNN, the Washington Post and MSNBC.com are multimedia sites. They have text. They have video clips… But the main stories on these sites are often linear and produced in either text or video or audio to stand alone. … Rarely are video, text, still photos, audio and graphics integrated into the same story. ” Source: Knight New Media Center http://journalism.berkeley.edu/multimedia/course/choose/
With or without personal experience, factual or personal view included .
Reporting with interpretation: news analysis.
Reporter vs. correspondent: factual vs. added opinion.
Eg. Kevin Sites’s war reports (see later) or Picture-Projects ( http://www.picture-projects.com/ )
Often based on a news feature story.
Editor driven, multiple sources
Links to external content
Calls for reader interaction and content
E.g. Washington Post multimedia series (see later)
level of multimedia integration Source: Multimedia Reporting and Convergence by Jane Stevens http://journalism.berkeley.edu/multimedia/course/choose/
Video camera, PC-based video editor
Voice recorder, sound editor
Digital still camera, image editor
Web editor tool
Multimedia story-telling is not an omnipotent tool: fits best for process descriptons and for presenting new conceptual information . More: http://www.poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004/main.htm Más példákat ide
Exercise: questions to a video journalist Travis Fox is an Emmy-nominated video journalist of washingtonpost.com
Watch some of Trevis Fox’s best videos, then guess his replies to the below questions. The videos are available on washingtonpost.com (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/photo/bestofthepost/foxtravis/index.html)
D o you frame shots differently for the Web and for TV, or do you work with the same material for both?
Do you cut it differently for TV than you do for the Web?
What new ways of conveying a news story have you tried ?
What about the role of video journalist within the paper and Website?
Are there compelling pieces like that that you decide not to cover?
What impact do you expect from technical changes?
Trevis answered the above questions in an interview. Check your guesses on the following pages. ?
D o you frame shots differently for the Web and for TV, or do you work with the same material for both? T he video screen is smaller on the computer monitor, therefore we should shoot tighter . But shooting tight is a good technique, whether you are shooting for television or for film. People typically sit closer to their computer screens than to their televisions, so proportionally the Web video looks bigger. I don't think it makes any difference… . you should have everything on a tripod to be stable because any sort of camera shake would cause the pixels to be refreshed, which would slow down your processor,
Do you cut it differently for TV than you do for the Web? On television you want it to be fast moving because you don't want anyone to click on their remote control and go to the next channel, right? You want to keep their attention all the time. Whereas on the web you don't want someone to go to a different Website. Obviously you want it to be tight and you want it to be fast moving.
What new ways of conveying a news story have you tried ? T ook the various media and combined them in a way that was logical , using a blog for user feedback and conversation; using the panoramas to give you a sense of place; and using videos to give you a sense of people, the character, the location, and then combing the two to give you a full picture of the story… .. a good model--not covering news on a day in and day out basis but the kind of stories that have legs and can go on for several weeks , several months, several years even .
What about the role of video journalist within the paper and Website? We don't want them to turn into television reporters, obviously. … we want to give them the time that they need to do newspaper reporting. But we want to be able to leverage their expertise into the video.
Are there compelling pieces that you decide not to cover? Certain stories are better in video but not so good in still pictures. And some stories are tough to do in either medium… . A story about the new budget on Capital Hill would probably be tough to do in either stills or a video. That would be more of a print story or a Flash graphics story.
What impact do you expect from technical changes? What's really going to be exciting is the Internet as a delivery means not as an end media. For us to really compete with television, we have to get our videos to your living room television screen. Because no matter how good it is on the computer it's never going to be as good as when it's on your TV or when it's on your high-definition plasma screen, right?
Illustration only. (From the demonstration of Microsoft WindowsXP Media Center Edition)
An interview is a conversation between two people who often have different aims.
The interviewer is looking for something that will interest his audience.
The interviewee may be trying to make a particular point.
The best interviews elicit the sort of answers that satisfy both these aims.
Basic types of interview
The news interview - this is where the reporter just wants the facts. Perhaps you've just witnessed a car accident or an armed robbery. The questions you will be asked are factual ones: Who, Where, When and What happened?
The information interview - this is an amalgam of facts and opinions. Perhaps you have been invited to give your views on a social or ethical issue. More time is spent on answering questions such as: How and Why?
The in-depth interview - this is usually done completely on the interviewee's wavelength. These interviews deal with very personal matters, for instance, celebrity interviews or people with a story to tell.
Recommendations: - questions should not be too general; - several questions should not be put at the same time; - should not be too long; - should not trigger "yes" or "no" answers; - should not suggest the answer; - should not be hypothetical or rhetoric. Questions such as: "What do you think about...?", "What do you have to say about...?", "What is new in...?", "What do you have to add?" are considered inappropriate. Source: Diocese of Ely http://www.ely.anglican.org/news_events/radio_tv_interview.html
Choose a hot topic of your forums. All communities have their own heated debates. This can either be politics, lifestye, ethics or any kind of every-day issue.
Invite a person who is famous and has got a definite view in this debate, but open to alternative views.
Prepare your guest to very straight questions and recommend him or her to give at least a short reply to as many questions as possible.
Announce the interview in advance, you may even use a teaser campaign for this within the forum and ask the members to collect and post their questions.
Make the arrangements in a way that your guest arrives at least an hour before the announced time of the online interview. Use this time to show the guest the preliminary questions arranged by the main topics. Use a web camera and ensure a typist whose only task is to type the guest’s answer.
During the interview when you post a question, mention all the members who posted questions in this topic. Do not forget that you are only a moderator, the interview is actually run by the members of the forum.
Filter only the most extreme and intolerable notes which are against the constitution. Posts that are aggressive but not against law, should not be filtered out, but ignored in the interview.
After the interview immediately start to work on an edited version of the text. Reverse the order of comments to serve those who did not have a chance to follow the interview live.
Ask your guest to follow up the forum for a while and add comments if needed.
Blog : a website created in less than 5 minutes
What is a blog?
A blog is a free easy-to-use web site, where everybody can quickly post thoughts, comments and interact with people .
Unlike some years ago, today’s technology enables everybody to install its own site very easily.
Users or journalists are free to develop, improve and animate their personal blog.
Blogging has become a new media and communication tool. A blog i s a personal diary. A daily pulpit. A collaborative space. A political soapbox. A breaking-news outlet. A collection of links. Your own private thoughts. Memos to the world . http://www.blogger.com
Journalist blog – the example of Compact (RO) Name and picture of the blogger, Horia, editor in chief of Compact, RO. Editors of Compact, with their own blogs. Short, personal commentary pointing out to a debated issue. Display the blog in a good position in your menu. Readers can comment the article of Horia. You can read the full debate about the topic. If Horia feels it necessary, he answers readers’ comments. http://compact.info.ro
Blogs are not newspapers Many bloggers differentiate themselves from the mainstream media, while others are members of that media working through a different channel. Some institutions see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" and pushing messages directly to the public. Some critics worry that bloggers respect neither copyright nor the role of the mass media in presenting society with credible news.
Blogs are not only diaries Blogs often provide commentary or news and information on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic.
Blogs may help journalists Bloggers' credibility problem, however, can be an advantage for the bloggers and for the mainstream journalists who take an interest in them. News organizations are sometimes reluctant to tell stories that will upset important people. But when bloggers or activists make sensational claims, then they become stories themselves, and journalists can use them as cover for reporting the underlying scandals.
Blogs should be part of newspaper sites Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs -- well over 300, according to CyberJournalist.net's J-blog list. Requires regular activity.
Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog http://www.nolblog.hu/
Blog content vs. newspaper content Newspaper sites Blog sites „ 66% of people maintaining blogs don't label their acts as journalism. The other 34% considered their blogging as journalism because they engage in journalistic functions like fact-checking and linking to sources…” Source: Pew Internet Project http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/186/report_display.asp ) News, factual report Commentary, diary report Newspaper sites are dominated by news and factual reports, even though they include some commentary as well. Whereas blogs are mostly used for personal self-expression, even if not exclusively.
In most online communities, 90% of users are lurkers who never contribute, 9% of users contribute a little, and 1% of users account for almost all the action.
There are about 1.1 billion Internet users, yet only 55 million users (5%) have weblogs according to Technorati. Worse, there are only 1.6 million postings per day; because some people post multiple times per day, only 0.1% of users post daily .
Although participation will always be somewhat unequal, there are ways to better equalize it, including:
Make it easier to contribute
Make participation a side effect, eg. in Amazon: „people who bought this book, bought these other books as well”
Long tail: even the smallest counts O ur culture and economy is shifting away from a focus on a relatively small number of "hits" (mainstream products and markets) at the head of the demand curve and toward a huge number of niches in the tail. As the costs of production and distribution fall, especially online, there is now less need to lump products and consumers into one-size-fits-all containers. Source: Chris Anderson http:// www.thelongtail.com
The importance of niche markets is growing in the new economy. We have to be present with products on both side of the curve. Big hits provide high visibility, on the long tail side the newspaper will generate loyalty.
User generated content, citizen journalism, blogs are on the long tail. None of these services will generate big hits, but will tie readers to our brands. In the head of this diagram we have to see the articles written by journalists.
When you are posting an entry in the blog of your newspaper, you are in fact talking to two groups of audiences: on the one hand you are talking to the loyal readers of your newspaper brand, on the other hand you should expect readers who find your entry via search engines. The below tips work for both groups.
Keep your pages short . Because blogs tend to feature short bursts of content, with each entry on its own page, by nature they are optimized for easy finding via web search engines like Google. Therefore one of the most important optimization principles is to keep your pages short and highly topical.
Keep your pages on-topic . It is important to stay on-topic with each entry. People don’t have a lot of time, and they like to land on Web pages that are clearly about one thing. That goes for blog entry pages as much as for any other type of page.
Be mindful of keywords . Search engines match Web pages to keywords people search for. If you want better visibility in search engines, use the keywords you think your readers would be searching with. Don’t use them arbitrarily or indiscriminately: write your entries to the point, so that they are clearly topical to your readers and to the search engines.
Make your entry titles count . Blogs are famously informal and personal, but you miss an important chance to optimize your entry pages by not putting key topical words in your titles. And your readers might thank you for being clearer in your headings, too.
Source: Blogging for Dummies, by Brad Hill. Wiley, 2006.
First you will go through on the tips&tricks of news editing on the internet. You will learn how to use efficiently international and local news sources and you will also read about citizen reporting which is a new source for journalists.
Story management: all what you learnt so far about news and channels will be put together. You will understand how online and mobile can reinforce the success of print. Best practice examples are showing the advantages of the integrated multimedia journalism.
Readers' community: the journalist's role is changing. To be successful on the internet you will learn how to behave as a moderator on your local market.
Mobile: Read a short outlook about news on the small screen of the mobile phones.
Usability background: your webpage is in strong competition with the others for the eyeballs. You have less then 2 minutes to convince readers that your page is worth coming back and visiting regularly. Overview of usability studies.
Personalized news agency http://www.netvibes.com News channels can be organized into tabs. Registration allows you to use the same settings both on your office and home computer. To add a new feed or function just drag its name to the rigth side of the window. News channels. You may select feeds from Netvibes directory or add your favourite.
Personalized startpages with multilingual menu: http://www.netvibes.com (Netvibes) http://www.live.com (Microsoft Live) http://www.google.com/ig (Google homepage) In addition to news channels Netvibes allows you to add and customize plenty of further functions: check you e-mail, search, to-do list, etc.
News aggregators They give an overview of the current news market and same time generates traffic to your site. Google News: Relies on the collective judgment of online news organizations to determine which stories are most deserving of inclusion and prominence on the News homepage. Personalized alert: e-mail, RSS http://hirlista.hu http://news.google.com Hungarian examples: www.hirlista.hu, www.hirkereso.hu, www.hirstart.hu
Citizen reporting How does a Blog differ from mainstream news? Blogs are not held to the same standards as traditional news outlets. Blogs are typically referred to as “grassroots”, or “citizen journalism”, but should be taken with a grain of salt. You have to consider the source, so don’t believe everything you read. That being said, blogs can often do a better job at reporting what’s happening than traditional sources. A good example of that was Interdictor’s Live Journal blog ( http://mgno.com/) . There was more accurate coverage during hurricane Katrina ( http://interdictor.livejournal.com/98501.html) than on any of the major three news networks. So for every example of someone complaining about the lack of quality found in weblogs, there are plenty of examples of people doing really good work as well. If you’re looking for “hard news”, then you’ll want to search CNN over Google. Source: Simply Digital http://www.simplydigital.info/episode-5-weblogs/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5181396.stm Best practice: A journalist generating a blog as a desktop research: the „School Security” story http://www.buzzmachine.com/index.php/2006/10/03/school-security-networked-reporting/
Mind your sources! The case of incorrectly identified Virginia Tech killer Read more on running your blog as a journalist in the chapter „Commentary” In April 16, 2007 one student of Virginia Polytechnic Institute killed 32 fellow-students. The tragedy happenned in a large, technology oriented community of young people, who were left for some hours without mainstream official information about hyperlocal events. In the absence of any official information from police on the identity of the killer, internet detectives claiming to be in-the-know have been calling attention -- on message boards and online aggregators like Digg -- to the LiveJournal blog of a particular 23-year-old gun maniac in Virginia. Even Fox News started writing about the blogger. It's easy to see why this rumor would get traction. The man's blog features photos of him holding firearms, as well as dark hints of obsessive love, and confirmation that he attends Virginia Tech. Within a few hours over 150 people have entered angry comments on the blog. The story was revealed by Wired magazine. They intentionally did not name or link to the blogger, to maintain the credit of their media. Instead the journalist searched for the blogger’s phone number and called it. Few hours later the blogger posted a message, and explained why he let the rumor live for so long : „ My original intention was to wait until I got AdSense on my site and donating all the proceeds to Charity. However, this situation has now spiraled out of control. I am now confirming that I am not the shooter.” Source: Wired News, http://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/2007/04/internet_names_.html On Digg.com users share intersting blog posts and other content by submitting links to the site, but they rarely check the truth value of the promoted content.
Measuring news update With RSS newsfeeds not only sources, but competitors and your own channels should also be followed. Each major sports newssource has a news feed. You can find it usually under the name „RSS”. Feedreader is one of the several freely downloadable software, that can be used to aggregate news from different sources. 2. 4 hours later the first Hungarian source, Index.hu displayed this story. 3. In this case Nemzeti Sport published the story with more than 6 hours delay. This can be either a result of unawareness or conscious editorial policy, determining other focuses. 1. Original news appears on autosport.com Download Feedreader here: http://www.feedreader.com/download
Google for journalists http://video.google.com/ http://translate.google.com „ And now, for just a moment, I would like you to imagine what today’s life would be without all that. What life would be without Google... and how much more time we’d be spending on solving our problems.” Source: Philipp Lensen, 55 Ways to Have Fun With Google http://www.55fun.com/book.pdf . http ://video.google.com/ - search by keywords Video search http://www.google.com/language_tools - language specific search Language http://images.google.com/ - search by keywords Image search http://blogsearch.google.com Blog search How? Function
http://maps.google.com http://www.google.com/ link: yoursite.com - A list of sites that link to your site. If they are credible, the site may also be credible - although that is hardly a guarantee Web reference define: word - Gives dictionary defintions for (English) words. Definition teaspoons in 1 litre - Eg. 202 teaspoons in a litre. This works even with very old, obscure or scientific units. Unit exchange 10 USD in HUF Currency exchange How? Function
More about Google 30 additional Google search tricks More Google services What are they working on actually at Google?
Generate more reading-sessions during the day, attract readers to return
Provide content for all the channels of your brand
Win the news competition, publish information first and get back references from competitors
News Cycle: Amount of information Time Event Entry All available information about the event is reported. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Development The event is explained, first backgrounds and relations with other topics researched and presented sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Follow-up Follow-up news about the event is generated, other relations to other topics presented, open question answered. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Conclusion Review of the event, the consequences and the entire report published. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd
A detailed study reveals that the use of these channels is governed by a well-designed priority that ensures CNN’s lead in the news media.
SMS breaking news alert is used to distribute the very first wire version of the story, basic facts only. By the time alerts are distributed, the wire (Reuters) version is published on web and WAP.
On WAP version bulleted highlight and detailed source references are ignored and sometimes even the text of the story is slightly modified. Front page headline text is used also for RSS and desktop alert.
As soon as CNN is ready with its own version of the story, the web and WAP versions are replaced with a new text referring to own sources. Follow-up can also be based on local news agencies.
Desktop alert, ticker
Pipeline (premium video on demand)
CNN video (free streaming video)
Podcast audio and video
Offline versions (on DVD, VHS, fax, e-mail)
CNN Mobile TV
SMS breaking news alerts
CNN mobile news (WAP)
CNNtoGO (for US mobile customers)
A sample news story The event: passenger plane hijacked from Mauritania - Febr 15, 2007 21:03 Reuters published breaking news, only two sentences (reuters.com) 21:20 Breaking news on cnnmobile.com WAP site. Source: Reuters 21:40 Breaking news published on cnn.com, still based on Reuters. 21:48 SMS alert is sent to subscribers. RSS and desktop alerts based on the headline text. 1:51 (next morning) CNN’s own story published in „international news” section 16:22 All details of the hijacking, based on AP An Air Mauritania flight landed in the Canary Islands after it was hijacked Thursday by a man who was subdued by passengers.
21:03 – Reuters wire story Air Mauritania hijack ends, suspect arrested - radio LAS PALMAS, Spain (Reuters) - The hijacking of an Air Mauritania plane ended in the Spanish Canary Islands on Thursday, a Spanish government official told RNE national radio. A single suspect was arrested, Spanish media said. Emergency services earlier said several people had been wounded by gunfire. No further details were immediately available. "Fortunately the hijacking incident has ended favourably," Jose Segura, a government representative in the Canary Islands, told RNE. He added that 71 passengers and 8 crew were on the plane.
21:20 – CNN breaking news on wap Hijacked jet lands on Spain islands An Air Mauritania Boing 737 passanger plane hijacked on an internal flight has flown to the Spanish Canary Islands after stopping for fuel in the Western Sahara, Mauritanian official said. "It has gone to the Canaries," a source closed to the presidency told Reuters. The head of the Mauritanian state news agency said the plane had already touched down. Earlier, a police officer at Nouakchott airport told Reuters the plane had been hijacked on a flight to the northern port town of Nouadhibou and had flown instead to Dakhla in Western Sahara to take on fuel. "There was at least one armed person on board. We don't know his identity," the state news agency chief, Moussa Hamed, said."
21:40 – CNN top story on web Hijacking ends on Spanish island Story highlights * Passenger plane hijacked from Mauritania in WestAfrica * Plane lands at airport in Canary Islands, territory of Spain * One person arrested, government reports * Earlier reports say gunfire occurs LAS PALMAS, Spain (Reuters) -- The hijacking of an Air Mauritania plane Thursday ended in the Canary Islands, a Spanish government official told RNE national radio. An Air Mauritania Boeing 737 passenger plane with 71 passengers and eight crew members aboard was hijacked after take off from the airport in Nouakchott, Mauritania’s capital, Mauritanian officials said. A single suspect was arrested, Spanish media said. Emergency services earlier said several people had been wounded by gunfire. No further details were immediately available. "Fortunately the hijacking incident has ended favorably," Jose Segura, a government representative in the Canary Islands, told RNE. Earlier, a police officer at Nouakchott airport said the plane had been hijacked on a flight to the northern Mauritania port town of Nouadhibou and had flown instead to Dakhla in Western Sahara to take on fuel. The Canary Islands, off the northwest coast of Africa, are a territory of Spain.
21:48 – SMS breaking news alert Find the the teaser page of mobile services on cnn.com. A lot of newspaper site offer similar SMS alert services. CNN asks for your personal and payment details. Credit card payment is done via secure connection. Select channels. You will be charged with a monthly flat fee per each alert channel that you subscribe to. 8 minutes later CNN alerts journalists via SMS service. Learn how to use such a service. CNN’s SMS alerts are strongly recommended for journalists covering international news. Be careful: too many SMS alerts may disturb your work. 21:48 - From: CNN CNN Alert Hijackers seize passenger jet in Mauritania and land on Spain's Canary Islands, police and meda say according to wire reports. The service is indepent of your mobile operator, you pay directly to the content provider and your operator does not charge you. After subscribing you receive the first SMS when the next breaking news event happens.
1:51 (next morning) – CNN’s story Passengers subdue armed hijacker Story highlights • NEW: Air Mauritania flight landed safely in Canary Islands • Canaries official: Plane had 71 passengers and 8 crew • Hijacker arrested; his identity not yet released LAS PALMAS, Spain (CNN) -- A man armed with two pistols hijacked an Air Mauritania flight Thursday but was subdued by two passengers, a Spanish official said. The plane landed safely in the Canary Islands and no one was hurt, the official said. The senior Spanish government source said a man had been trying to commandeer the Boeing 737 to Paris. He was arrested by the civil guard after the jet landed at Gando Airport, the source told CNN. Jose Segura, the central government's chief representative in the Canaries, told Ser, a Spanish radio station, that the plane was carrying 71 passengers and eight crew members. Reports differed on the hijacker's nationality, with one senior Spanish government source saying he is Moroccan and Segura describing him as Mauritanian. Abass Bass, a representative of the Mauritanian Embassy in Washington, described the incident as a "tentative hijacking." "The information we had from Mauritania is that the passengers fought back and they took the hijacker and now everything is OK," Bass told CNN. Bass said the flight had been scheduled to be an interior one, from the capital city of Nouakchott to Nouadhibou, in northern Mauritania, near Morocco.
16:22 – Detailed story on CNN, using AP’s report Fast-thinking pilot foiled hijack Story Highlights • NEW: Air Mauritania flight landed safely in Canary Islands • Canaries official: Plane had 71 passengers and 8 crew • Hijacker arrested; his identity not yet released TENERIFE, Spain (AP) -- A fast-thinking pilot, with the help of passengers, fooled a gunman who had hijacked a jetliner flying from Africa to the Canary Islands, braking hard upon landing then quickly accelerating to knock the man down so travelers could pounce on him, Spanish officials said Friday. A lone gunman brandishing two pistols hijacked the Air Mauritania Boeing 737, carrying 71 passengers and a crew of eight, Thursday evening shortly after it took off from the Mauritanian capital of Nouakchott for Gran Canaria, one of Spain's Canary Islands, with a planned stopover in Nouadhibou in northern Mauritania. He wanted to divert the plane to France so he could request political asylum, said Mohamed Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mauritania's top police official. The hijacker has been identified as Mohamed Abderraman, a 32-year-old Mauritanian, said an official with the Spanish Interior Ministry office on Tenerife, another of the islands in the Atlantic archipelago. He spoke under rules barring publication of his name. Mauritania has said the hijacker was a Moroccan from the Western Sahara. The hijacker ordered the pilot to fly to France, but the crew told him there was not enough fuel. Morocco denied a request for the plane to land in the city of Djala in the Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara, so the pilot headed for Las Palmas in Gran Canaria, the original destination. Speaking to the gunman during the hijacking, the pilot realized the man did not speak French. So he used the plane's public address system to warn the passengers in French of the ploy he was going to try: brake hard upon landing, then speed up abruptly. The idea was to catch the hijacker off balance, and have crew members and men sitting in the front rows of the plane jump on him, the Spanish official said. The pilot also warned women and children to move to the back of the plane in preparation for the subterfuge, the official said. It worked. The man was standing in the middle aisle when the pilot carried out his maneuver, and he fell to the floor, dropping one of his two 7mm pistols. Flight attendants then threw boiling water from a coffee machine in his face and at his chest, and some 10 people jumped on the man and beat him, the Spanish official said. Around 20 people were slightly injured when the plane braked suddenly, the official said. Spanish officials -- and some passengers -- had initially been concerned that the hijacking was terrorism-related; it came on the day a trial began of 29 people accused of the 2004 Madrid train bombings. "We were afraid. We thought it was people from al-Qaida or the Algerian GSPC who were going to cut our throats," said Aicha Mint Sidi, a 45-year-old woman who was on the plane. The GSPC is a Muslim extremist group. "I trembled during and after the hijacking. I thought the plane was going to blow up any minute, either in mid-air or on landing," said another passenger, Dahi Ould Ali, 52. Both spoke after returning to Nouakchott. The hijacker was arrested by Spanish police who boarded the plane after it landed at Gando airport, outside Las Palmas. Air Mauritania identified the heroic pilot as Ahmedou Mohamed Lemine, a 20-year-veteran of the company.
New media requires new style of project management
Conventional project management
Accomplish a plan
Use the plan to reach the result
Pre-define the processes of the project
Corrections must consider the base plan
Just one attempt is allowed.
Target. Target. Shoot.
Extreme Project Management
Fulfill a desired goal
Explore the desired goal.
Use the preliminary results in the procedure
Correct anything that is possible
Several attempts, finally success
Shoot. Target. Shoot.
“ An extreme project is a complex, high speed, self-correcting venture in search of a desirable result under conditions of high uncertainty, high change and high stress.” Doug De Carlo
Example: launch in 6 weeks The site of this book, www.21stCenturyJournalism.com was launched by a team of four persons within 6 weeks. The project followed the methodolgy of Extreme Project Management. All tasks of the site launch were carried out by the project team. The total outsource cost is USD 100.
Manager and owner of the concept.
Static content Book for sale at amazon.com Logo Selection of dynamic content: Best 50 RSS feeds Videoblog on YouTube Automatic tagging via Yahoo’s free Term Extraction service Domain registration, hosting ( siteground.com ) Project tasks: Creation of the site concept Freeware content management system ( Joomla ) Design and its deployment
Risk management programmer designer content editor Why didn’t tell me that the design will include Flash? My PHP code can not embed Flash. The layout cannot tolerate long texts. Either you edit the text content or I have to create a new design. Until the content management system contains so many bugs, I can update the blog once a week only. manager Guys, our project is delayed. What is your problem? Question: How would you prepare for and manage all these risks?
Project plan for launching a site Weekly breakdown of all the major tasks to launch a site like www.21stCenturyJournalism.com . In reality the tasks consisted of 1-2 days periods followed by tests, discussions and these often resulted minor changes in all details.
Diffusion of innovations Source: Brad Griffin, Why Don’t Good Ideas Fly?, http://www.cyfm.net/article.php?article=Dont_Good_Ideas_Fly.html , Roger Clarke, A Primer in Diffusion of Innovations Theory, http ://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/InnDiff.html
Some inventions 'take the world by storm' (archetype: the Sony Walkman).
Others seem to fail, lie dormant for decades, but when 'their time has come', their use grows quickly, even explosively (archetype: the fax machine).
Most achieve slow penetration at first, then their adoption grows more quickly, but later slows down again.
Who are the early adopters? Earlier adopting individuals tend not to be different in age, but to have more years of education, higher social status and upward social mobility, be in larger organisations, have greater empathy, less dogmatism, a greater ability to deal with abstractions, greater rationality, greater intelligence, a greater ability to cope with uncertainty and risk, higher aspirations, more contact with other people, greater exposure to both mass media and interpersonal communications channels and engage in more active information seeking. Extensive marketing - Required to reach early adopters: on the Internet viral marketing is the most effective. Intensive marketing – Use it when adoption rate slows down: find inner reserves of growth.
Examples of viral marketing The Blair Witch Project is a low-budget American horror film released in 1999. The narrative is presented as a documentary pieced together from amateur footage. The advertisements for the film were designed to reinforce the 'documentary' concept. This was done so extensively that the three main actors were listed for a time as "missing, presumed dead" on IMDb movie catalogue . Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blair_Witch_Project Movie marketing Free e-mail services Users of Yahoo mail participate in marketing the service. When Gmail was first announced, access to the service was limited to those who have an invitation from an existing account holder, from Blogger, or through their mobile phone. Google stated that the invitation system intended to initially reduce the amount of abuse.
Example…. (cont.) Hi turilaszlo As I've seen, you are uploading videos on Youtube and sharing them for the public. Very nice! Well... I want you to invite, sharing your clips also on http://www.clipser.com. We went just live a few weeks ago and are now looking for lots and lots of people, uploading their videos on our site to get bigger and make and share our profits with all the people that participate. Are you becoming curious? :) The thing is as easy as watching clips. You will get for every upload, every invite and every watch of your video a few Clipser Dollars which will be transformed in procentual relation of all Clipser Dollars into real currency, once we've built up our audience and have a mentionable cashflow. Check it out now! You'll get all the information about us, about the Clipser Dollars and the reward program on our homepage. regards, FP PS: Feel free to ask and suggest things if you're still curious or you have great ideas! And feel free to tell your friends about us! ;) Viral marketing mail of a startup video sharing company. The e-mail was sent to YouTube users’ inbox. YouTube sent e-mail notification. In fact they promoted their future competitor. Video sharing service
Let readers distribute your content On Digg, users share intersting online content by submitting links to the site. Digg audience can promote content by voting. del.icio.us allows users to save their bookmarks online. It also gives users the ability to "tag" their bookmarks and see how many other people have bookmarked the same pages, Reddit allows users to submit news articles. Users may vote on the articles and Reddit uses those votes to find articles to recommend to you. Users of Google's personalized homepage can save bookmarks and label them with keywords. The service is available in many languages. In MyYahoo you can save bookmarks to your personal page, tag and share. Facebook is made up of many networks - individual schools, companies or regions. Users of Facebook can "share" news stories on their profile page. E-mail this The most common form of viral marketing for content. Since it does not require third-party service, there are no language issues. Make your content freely available on the web to attract users to your site. The popular viral marketing services and tools help you to share your content, thus they do the lion’s share of the work instead of you. Source: WashingtonPost.com, MarketingTerms.com RSS – consider it a marketing tool. (See more about RSS feeds earlier.)
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117788946503386423.html - newspaper sites buying search keywords for major stories
Make your content freely available to drag readers to your site
Intensive: Hidden reserves of newspaper websites Even if editors invest a lot of effort to update news, readers consider most daily paper site as a static one. You should make your continous updates visible to get your readers visit you both in the morning and evenging as well. A reggel 8-as csúcsot kell kihasználni arra, hogy akkor vmi olyasmit mondani, ami miatt később visszajön. És ez egy egyszerű üzenet legyen: gyere vissza délután ezért v. azért – tiszta szituáció legyen: du. interjú lesz. A newspaper website A web-only magazine . Make your site more intesively used Source: Webaudit.hu. The charts show two Hungarian websites . Segment your readers by providing personalized, local information. Pl. Google analytics alapján nézd meg, honnan jönnek a userek: ott hirdess, ahonnan jönnek. Ahol lefele megy a görbe, az egy lehetőség a használat intenzitás növelésére. A bővítés lehetőségét keresni ott, ahol vmi elindult, pl. vidéki látogatók. Pl. helyi híreket adni v. más nyelvet v. valami ötlet a szegmentált elérésre. 0 24 0 24
Only print and online integration, training is limited to a few journalists and ad sales representatives, management does not completely backs the strategy Selecteds journalists Added channels Cross-media projects Media company More sophisticated application of multimedia and online interactivity. Other media added to the media mix (e . g. TV, radio). Frequently, management holds back any further large scale applications of convergence Cross-media journalism projects and advertising sales campaigns. Staffs are cross-trained. True engagement by management and the lower ranks. All journalists and ad sales persons are cross-trained. Multimedia integration strategy at every level of the company Source: A Guide to Practical Convergence by Martha L. Stone, INMA, 2006 In practice the solutions are mixed and there is no way to rank them. Each editorial team must find its own ideal solution, considering their content, audience and market position. A pure integration of organizational units on its own will not help to improve the newspaper. See actual examples on the next page. <h2>Organization theories
Practice Guardian, The Times Guardian: "web-first" principle for foreign and business news only currently. Times: "web-first" principle for foreign news only and plans to extend this to all articles in a few years . Financial Times Total consolidation of print and online news desks, all journalists are required to work 3 early morning shifts per month. Telegraph Fully integrated newsroom, with print and online journalists working together, and seven-day production. Editorial heads are to take responsibility for all output. Delays the publication of print articles on its website until later in the day in a bid to encourage more internet users to buy the newspaper . Edipresse In all of the publications the newsroom was transformed into a multimedia platform, where all journalists write for several media: print, web, television, radio, and mobile. Newsrooms are reorganized according to covered subjects - in contrast to services - with a central desk. Washington Post No integrated newsroom, just dedicated online editor. Shortened story length, enhanced visual journalism in print. New York Times Continuous News Desk (CND) with 14 full-time editor-reporter. When something big happens, a one-line alert is published immediately. They start with a wire story on the web and replace it with their own copy later. The Web and print newsrooms are separate, but some of the Web journalists are sitting in the print newsroom. Lawrence Journals Groups of journalists are organized into multimedia teams to cover sports, news, etc. Each team has cross-trained journalists with capabilities to tell stories in video, audio and text. Gannett Information Center A platform agnostic 24-hour news aggregator and distributor, which channels all bits of news to the appropriate platform, with focus on the reader and local coverage . (Among others publisher of USA Today.) Europe USA
The number of planned job cuts in the U.S. media sector surged 88 percent last year and that trend will likely continue as readers shift from print to online services . (Reuters, 25th January 2007)
10% layoff at the Daily Telegraph , including the change of Editor-in-Chief .
Also 10% loss in editorial staff at The Financial Times – a total of 50 jobs.
At Washington Post in addition to job cuts part of the newsroom staff and resources were redirected to original reporting, analysis, investigations and criticism.
Boston Globe newsroom employees wrote letter to management to express concern that their future pay is contingent upon revenue increases in print only, while they are involved in working with online as well
At the Telegraph 5-days training was organized for each journalist over a period of 14 weeks. Their policy: “journalists aren’t expected to be experts in all areas of multi-media. The training was an introduction to the different platforms available. People have different talents and we intend to infuse the organization with a range of skills but it’s not a mathematical equation as to what skills lie on each desk. Its about the appropriateness, not all stories will have audio and video angles right now.”
Each journalist at Lawrence Journals (Kansas, US) is cross-trained, for example print reporters can write and present on Lawrence’s TV-channel and photographers became videographers.
The multimedia training sessions at Gannett are meant not to diversify skills, but rather to expand on them: photographers learn more about videography, managing editors about effective use of new technologies and resources, traditional reporters about online editions
Convergency at The Telegraph Central news hub: the news meetings are open and anyone can come and hover and listen. The multimedia newsroom Projected on to the wall: their web site, other web sites and shows and a real-time list of their own top stories and also those of the competitors. Reporters and production staff from all departments are located on a single editorial floor and they work together producing the Telegraph's website, the daily and Sunday editions of the newspaper and a range of other digital publishing products, including audio and video interviews and regular newscasts and alerts available 24-hours a day. Sources: PressGazette Online, http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/article/020407/telegraph_newsroom_multimedia_budget_day Telegraph Media Group Ltd, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/money/main.jhtml?xml=/money/2006/09/05/cnhub05.xml The BuzzMachine, http://www.buzzmachine.com/2007/03/12/in-the-telegraph-newsroom/ Editorial departments span out like spokes from the wheel of the central news hub. Editors of various stripes in the first circle, reporters in the next. The Telegraph’s moving to its new newsroom at the end of 2006 was in fact a deep crisis for the editorial staff. After 10% lay-off, the journalists voted for a strike. Due to negotiations it was cancelled two months later.
Case study: the „Budget Day” * story on various channels 1 month earlier Preparations 12.30pm The Chancellor starts his speech early afternoon Podcast: interview with an expert. 4pm Newspaper articles on predictions 1 week earlier Microsite with live news reports, Your Views comment section and interactive budget calculators. A lot of the content from the next day's newspaper is already going live, but it will be will be fine-tuned and extended for the print edition. First editorial blog at 20pm. Video: reporter and cameraman are interviewing taxi drivers. during the afternoon „ Budget Day”: 21 March, 2007. On this day the Chancellor of the UK announced proposed tax measures. Mobile-optimized e-mail news alert facts analysis reactions 10,000 E-mail news alert subscribers 466,000 Web, total unique users 896,476 Print (daily average) The Daily Telegraph averages
Case study (cont.) Telegraph PM, an A4 free pdf edition, generated by repackaging and renosing stories which have already been published on the web, with the online version including click-throughs to live audio and video content. around 4pm next morning next evening 5.30pm The Business Show – daily video podcast: expert interviews, charts. Video: political satire by Rory Bremner, British comedian. 16-page broadsheet supplement and five pages of news in the main paper. Source: Press Gazette Online, http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/article/020407/telegraph_newsroom_multimedia_budget_day 50,000 Audio/video plays 309,202 Web, unique users of special 45,000 Print (increase) Budget Day extra results
Example: workflow at Nemzeti Sport Print Decision Web SMS Control News Publish Print Control Web News News Publish Old, print focused workflow New, multimedia workflow
At Edipress the original idea was to design a single editing system and a single archive database for all titles, accessible from everywhere. In all of the publications the newsroom was transformed into a multimedia platform, where all journalists write for several media: print, web, television, radio, and mobile. The same news is therefore covered by the editor in different papers, depending on the time of the day and on the media where it will be published. …The new system also affected the structure of the newsrooms; they are now no longer organized by services, but by covered subjects. … newsrooms are designed as multimedia open spaces, with a central desk in charge of managing the information flow and “petals” departing from the center and divided according to covered subjects. At the central desk sits the day’s editor-in-chief, the chief of photography and the responsible for the Internet.
Apropo is the first multimedia publishing brand developed in Romania by Publimedia, a Romanian publishing company owned by Adrian Sarbu. He built up his media empire since 1990, he has interests in market leader TV and radio stations, and owns Publimedia Publishing House, with a lot of newspapers and magazines.
Apropo was launched as a web portal made by Publimedia Publishing House for young people. They are no. 35 in the general ranking of Romanian websites with 425,838 users per month (according to trafic.ro ).
In 2004 Publimedia launched Apropo TV, a magazine made as a direct competitor to Ringier’s TV mania, the best selling tv guide on Romanian market , but they failed. In April Apropo TV was reshaped to Apropo, a bimonthly glossy magazine of celebrity news, with a circulation of 29,000 copies per issue.
The Apropo brand is used on Pro TV, with a weekly show on celebrities called Apropo TV and on Pro FM, with a morning show called Apropo FM.
Mafra is the publisher of iDnes. They built up a multimedia company, the first of this kind on the Czech market.
Content - shared editorial system (Lidové Noviny on its own could not afford it). The integration of content is relevant especially for new media (Internet, radio stations, TV, magazines - e.g. the cross-media projects such as Proměna, Pelíšky slavných, Prague news coverage for the Express Radio). On the other hand, content limits and differences are strictly observed in dailies.
Advertising - Year-on-year comparison of the total advertising area (excl. auto advertising) has shown a decrease by 8.5% (MF Dnes), 8.8% (MF Dnes regional editions) and 10.7% (Lidové noviny) as compared with January 2005. Magazín Dnes + TV lost 23.6% of advertising pages.
Sanoma acquired in Hungary Startlap, a community web site from the top league , and they have successful products like Figyelő Net and Nők Lapja Café .
B92 in Serbia started as a samizdat radio station, later they launched web, and today they have TV broadcast. B92 is one of the most successful local multimedia company in the region. B92 focuses on local content, they do not provide traditional portal services . Their growth potential is limited by the size of the Serbian internet market.
In Hungary some years ago Pesti Est, a free program guide made similar steps. Their goal was brand extension into other market segments. They started est.hu , than a radio station, and they launched such surprising enterprises like Pesti Est Taxi and Pesti Est Café. Today they seem to discontinue this trend, they sold the radio station and the taxi company.
Port.hu is competitor of Pesti Est, however they are present only on the internet, as market leader in their segment. They tried lot of times to expand to print, but they failed. However this is the first Hungarian web company, which is establishing in other countries of the region: they launched port.ro , and they have offices in Prague and Bratislava.
Illustration: Oliver Reichenstein, The Future of News. Manuscript, 2007. http://www.informationarchitects.jp/ Yes, possible Yes, possible Anonymous mails are not published Consumer’s anonymity
Comments via SMS, e-mail
Readers’ page with opinions Two-way interaction TV/Radio Mobile Internet Print
Issues in detail Journalist dominates Journalist dominates Blogger dominates Participants are equal Participants are equal Hierarchy Editor may close article for comment Sometimes added info Comment Moderator is an independent supervisor, not part of the discussion Comments, without info Forum Blogger himself moderates Blogger ads info, even if personal Blog Reader sends info Interviewee adds info Information Moderation n/a Moderator acts as a journalist Get published Online interview
Best practices The moderator’s role Regular readers like to participate, to write, to send pictures about events. They have to be rewarded by citations in the newspaper, always refering to their nicknames. Take seriously their requests, if they want to invite somebody, organize it, if they want to donate to someone, help them, if they want to rename a street, support them, go to the city authorities. Organize them meetings, parties, common events, invite them to visit Ringier, and report about these activities in the newspaper. Anwer each e-mail immediately, an answered mail makes you 10 new readers. EiC should participate in online forums and events. ” Be the photoreporter of Compact” (Romania) 37 readers evaluated this picture: the overall rating is 3.81 of 5. Rules of submitting pictures for publication. Image archive Compact reader, Iounut Grosoiu posted this photo. www.compact.info.ro
Keep the number of externally linked resources to a minimum.
Limit content to what the user has requested.
Take into account the trade-off between having too many links on a page and asking the user to follow too many links to reach what they are looking for.
Avoid free text entry where possible. Provide pre-selected default values where possible.
Provide only minimal navigation at the top of the page.
Ensure that information conveyed with color is also available without color.
Do not use images that cannot be rendered by the device. Avoid large or high resolution images except where critical information would otherwise be lost.
Source: Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0
„ Following a UK field study, 70% of users decided not to continue using WAP. Currently, its services are poorly designed, have insufficient task analysis, and abuse existing non-mobile design guidelines. WAP's killer app is killing time; m-commerce's prospects are dim for the next several years.” Source: Jakob Nielsen, WAP Field Study Findings, 2000 http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20001210.html
Exercise: Mobile abbreviations searching their meaning 1. SMS 2. MMS 3. PDA 4. WAP 5. GPRS C) Short text message E) Multimedia message D) Browsable content on mobile A) Small PC with touchscreen B) Mobile data connection, without time limitation Never mind if you fail this exercise. You as a journalist should not learn all the marketing jargon of the mobile business. If you need technical help, just the free helpdesk of your mobile operator. !
Record podcast interviews with built-in MP3 recorder function.
Enrich your blog with simple self-made videos.
Put the most important reference books to your pocket, eg. dictionaries.
Connect to the content management system of your newsroom.
Receive news alerts in SMS. (See CNN’s service earlier.)
Follow the same RSS newsfeeds as you read on desktop PC.
Subscribe to e-mail newsletters and read them while commuting.
You are making mobile calls all day to reach news sources and confirm information. But the small soap box in your pocket offers far more to a journalist than voice communication. The sound and video recording quality of recent smartphones and are sufficient for publishing videoblogs or audio podcasts. The recorded files can easily be transferred to PC or sent directly to your editor at home. Dictionaries are perhaps the most valuable add-on software for journalists. Tons of books in your pocket. Add-on software are usually shareware: after the trial period you have to register.
The journalists’ … (cont.) Google optimizes your favourite desktop services to the small screen of the mobile. In addition it helps you to keep your personal data synchronized. Search result of the term „define:helium” on www.google.com/xhtml Try the same search on desktop and compare the results. The mobile version of Google’s feedreader transfers your reading experience from desktop to mobile. You do not have to read again on desktop what you have already read on mobile. Configure Google Reader on your desktop and then go to www.google.com/reader/m on your mobile. Gmail offers an almost complete mobile access to all its features at mail.google.com/mail/x Alternatively you may download a free add-on software that provides full compatibility with the desktop version.
How to download wallpaper or ringtone? The first download is not easy, it is not your fault, if something is not working. Call your mobile operator’s (Vodafone, T-Mobile, etc.) free customer care service for help. Unfortunately there is no agreement between mobile phone handset manufacturers for the rules of mobile content downloads. The result is disturbing: SonyEricsson owners have to go through different menu options than Nokia owners. PET PET http://22.214.171.124/aspdl/dls/6915d0b365345532cb41879339113bc8bb6117ac Download Send an SMS with the word advertised in the newspaper You will receive an SMS with a link. You can find it in your browser or message inbox, depending on what mobile you have. Click on the link, this will automatically open in the browser of your mobile phone. Click on the link, this will start the download of your wallpaper. Save it to some folder. Set the image as a wallpaper. If you cannot find this message, call your mobile operator’s customer care. If you cannot download, call your mobile operator’s customer care to activate WAP service on your SIM card.
Operator portals are usually available only in the network of the respective operator.
Title page : What can you find on the titlepage? Articles, images?
Click distance : How much time/click does it take to get the latest news?
Optimized : Are the news optimized for reading on mobile screen?
What is the difference between operator and media portals?
Check further content offers at the operators’ portal: 3G video, content download, services
In Hungary, check tariffs: http://www.tantusz.nhh.hu
Mobile searching and content integration Integrated content services - A couple of years ago Lonely Planet released the mobile versions of its guidebooks, but currently they are rethinking their strategy. All of the building blocks for the ultimate travelling companion are here, but not together in one place yet. Mobile technology and Web 2.0 - The ultimate aim is for you to turn up in Kathmandu, your phone will know where you are, you can read a review of somewhere to eat and what it costs, find out what someone said about the place last night, get a map to direct you there, and submit your own review after you’ve eaten. Hopefully decrasing roaming fees will also support such services. Sources: MocoNews.net, Wall Street Journal Nov 30, 2006 Mobile searching is context sensitive - Google, Yahoo! and Microsoft have all entered the mobile advertising business. Yahoo’s oneSearch and the beta version of Google Mobile provides similar user experience: if a user enters „pizza” as a search term, the result will contain a list of local restaurants as well as phone numbers with a click-to-call feature, the distances to locations and ratings. Mobile browser vs. branded client - Google Mobile goes for using the built-in browser of the mobiles, while Yahoo’s oneSearch also offers a branded downloadable user interface. Ad-supported free services - Vodafone - which has teamed up with Yahoo - is considering to offer customers free mobile TV, cheap calls, free mobile web browsing or free games and music downloads if they accept adverts. Driving or walking? – A travel companion integrating navigation, internet browsing, mp3 and photos Yahoo! Go provides location sensitive search, news, data, images plus your mailbox in a single tool.
Game and music download for a mass market Mobile games: limited audience - Mobile games will only ever appeal to a limited audience: so far only around 5% of mobile users have ever purchased a game. Simple, casual games - For a mass audience casual entertainment game s are far more attractive than more sophisticated game s with console-like features. C asual games so far have not provided sufficient entertainment, and have actually discouraged cell phone users from purchasing another game. Entry barriers - I n most cases it is not possible to try the game before purchasing, contrary to buying PC software . As a result the majority of purchasers do not return after the first experience. Mobile music is expensive - The early adopters of mobile music didn’t care too much about price, it was more the immediacy. Mass market pricing - Mass-market needs to be approached differently. It’s not just about price but new service models, such as music rentals. For example, for €14 per month, users can download an unlimited number of tracks. Asphalt multiplayer mobile game. Too complicated for the average customers. Source: MocoNews.net, Mobile Frontiers, Febr. 2007
Frustrating user experience - Some consumers are so obsessed with TV viewing, they will watch their favourite programme on a handset despite the limited screen size. But according to analysts Informa Telecoms and Mobile, just 10% of handsets sold globally by 2011 - about 120 million - will be able to receive TV broadcasts. many people will just not want to watch television on such a small screen. How will make money on mobile TV? 3G is unsuitable - High-speed connections on the 3G network enable pockets of information to be watched on mobiles, but this bears a heavy load on network. Competing technologies (DAB-IP and DVb-H) are being trialled by phone manufactures to let more people watch the same shows simultaneously. Value chain - However, most of the revenues are likely to go to broadcasters and programme makers. Mobile TV cannot make much direct money to operators. Therefore NTT Docomo decided to invest in TV broadcasters to develop additional revenue streams. Sources: BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6169442.stm , Mobile Frontiers, Febr. 2007 Dilemma of user experience – Mobile phones were primarily designed for holding them close to your ears. Larger screen does not fit to your hands.
News sites fight for readers’ attention More than 50% of the visits are under 2 min „ [On YouTube] the average video length viewed is 2 1/2 minutes long, said Hurley. „ YouTube CEO and co-founder Chad Hurley Source: Market Watch Jul 27, 2006, http://www.marketwatch.com server statistics of nemzetisport.hu Avg. internet usage: 1-2 hours/day and news is just no. 3 motivation Videos are viewed for 2 and half minutes Source: WEMF Report April 2006 http://www.wemf.ch/
Users’ experience of various media channels are studied by usability experts. Jakob Nielsen has specialized in the usability of information technology products, like websites. Website usability is studied with so-called eye-tracking research.
Nielsen’s definition of usability:
Learnability : How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design?
Efficiency : Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks?
Memorability : When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they reestablish proficiency?
Errors : How many errors do users make, how severe are these errors, and how easily can they recover from the errors?
Satisfaction : How pleasant is it to use the design?
Source: Jakob Nielsen, Usability 101 http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20030825.html If the number of users of a product has reached a critical mass, even the most rational innovations in the usability of the product are often refused by the users. For example Microsoft has difficulties to introduce new user interface for its most popular software.
How do you read the title page of a news site?
Research findings of the Poynter Institute:
Most important: flag/logo and top headlines in the upper left.
Headlines dominate, especially in the upper left.
Photographs aren't typically the entry point to a homepage. Text rules on the PC screen.
Smaller type encourages focused viewing behavior, while larger type promotes lighter scanning.
A headline has less than a second of visitor’s attention.
Source: Poynter Institute http://www.poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004
Priority zones of a titlepage Eye-movement on a newspaper homepage
News website comparison at Poynter Best practice
5 typical designs were compared by
The „compact” web design was the winner. (For details see nex page.)
Source: Poynter Institute http://poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004/homepages.htm 2.2 Clicks made 17.1 Details found 12.1 Time spent, sec. 2.4 Clicks made 22.3 Details found 16.4 Time spent, sec.
Compact design Site navigation on left side of homepage Mouse rollover of section links provide pop up menu of all items in section Beyond top story, others promoted with relatively the same headline size. Design is tight and packed, not much empty space used between elements Top story promoted with photo/graphic and significantly larger stylized type. Site/publication name must colorful element on the page. Takes up small percentage of home page. Links to sites/products by same company at top of page. Search on top-most position No full stories on titlepage. About 20 promos/links to other stories. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
Similarly to general design, there are no overall true mandatory rules in web design either. In our days the compact titlepage is a widespread practice, however, those are the most successful who are brave enough to break the rules.
On a compact web page, navigation is used more. On an extended homepage, the navigation is likely to be used less, so be sure there are content links on the homepage to areas of the site you want people to visit.
By removing content from the homepage and making it compact, you can change user behavior: using the navigation to dive into the site for more content.
By limiting the amount of content on a homepage, you can drive viewing to advertising on the page..
People view the top part of a news site's homepage first.
Exercise: Analyse the website of your newspaper: does it have a compact design? Identify the compact features on the page!
Avoid long pages, at least long start pages. The maximum recommended page length is 3 screen on a 1024x768 monitor resolution.
Avoid too many sections. The maximum recommended number of sections in a publication is 10
Clearly distinguish advertisement from editorial content or link. Use (x), or display „avertisment” around the banner, box or link.
Display release date of the news on the start page.
Metatags has to contain the name of the publication, company brand and the titles of the section. Additional keywords are recommended. Metatag is a simple hidden code in the webpage.
The sites must be available with and without www. Example: www.blesk.cz and blesk.cz must point to the same page.
Error messages. 404 – not found errors must be handled with the brand name of the publication, there must be a statement, that the error was on our side, and there must be a site map or menu, which will drive back the reader to the content. Wired Magazine: step-by-step instructions on how to find the desired content. Source: Internal usability guideline of Ringier online sites, January 2006.
Market statistics Please note that this is a fast moving market. Check up-to-date date at the original sources.
Clear winners are telecom companies as well as computer or internet start-ups. Most of them are providing news and entertainment on their homepages and therefore acting as serious competitors to classical media companies (publishing companies are emphasised with orange). Sweden France Germany Switzerland United Kingdom United States Companies in term of internet reach (in %) Web top10 Source: www.nielsen-netratings.com (Dec. 2006 ) Microsoft 79.61 Google 50.86 Aftonbladet Hierta 41.64 Eniro (search engine) 41.28 Bonnier AB 35.42 FöreningsSparbanken 28.46 Blocket (classified) 28.41 TeliaSonera 27.78 Yahoo! 26.92 Counties of Sweden 25.99 Google 71.88 Microsoft 64.11 eBay 55.00 United Internet 45.32 Time Warner 42.51 T-Online 40.96 Amazon 32.24 Yahoo! 30.96 Bertelsmann 28.94 Wikipedia 28.62 Google 76.91 Microsoft 75.61 Swisscom 53.88 Yahoo! 32.09 eBay 30.81 Wikipedia 28.48 SBB (railroad) 27.07 search.ch (post) 25.51 SRG SSR (public TV) 23.73 Apple Computer 22.64 Microsoft 74.47 Google 71.15 Yahoo! 48.93 eBay 47.93 BBC 42.35 Time Warner 29.45 News Corp. Online 27.29 Amazon 25.47 IAC (ask.com) 22.03 Apple Computer 21.51 Microsoft 68.87 Google 63.09 Yahoo! 62.48 Time Warner 59.63 News Corp. Online 37.83 eBay 36.98 IAC (ask.com) 29.20 Amazon 27.52 Apple Computer 22.73 RealNetworks, Inc. 21.66 Microsoft 82.26 Google 80.46 France Telecom 65.06 Iliad (telecom) 55.88 Yahoo! 46.34 PagesJaunes (post) 46.29 PPR 45.85 eBay 44.52 Benchmark Group 32.20 Wikipedia 28.52
Online Print Only dailies, weeklies and bi-weeklies , Period: 3Q 2006 Google has not been audited but is supposed to be on the very top of the list , Period: Nov. 2006 There are no publishers among the online market leaders. But leaders like T-Online, Yahoo! or Google are competitors to publishers for they provide news and content. Example: German publishers - L ost the lead of communication market The only print publishers on the list (emphasised with orange) appear with relative weak figures compare to market leaders Source: www.ivw.de * .Only dailies, weeklies and bi-weeklies ** Google has not been audited but is supposed to be on the very top of the list Nr Title Periodicity Circulation 1 Bild Daily 3.6 mio. 2 TV 14 Bi-weekly 2.4 mio. 3 TV Spielfilm Bi-weekly 2.2 mio. 4 Bild am Sonnatag Weekly 2 mio. 5 TV Digital Bi-weekly 1.9 mio. 6 TV-Movie Bi-weekly 1.8 mio. 7 Hörzu Weekly 1.6 mio. 8 Auf einem Blick Weekly 1.5 mio. 9 Bild der Frau Weekly 1.1 mio. 10 Der Spiegel Weekly 1.1 mio. Nr Title Visits 1 T-Online 246 mio. 2 MSN 192 mio. 3 yahoo 134 mio. 4 ProSieben Online 123 mio. 5 AOL 101 mio. 6 SPIEGEL ONLINE 63 mio. 7 Bild.de 38 mio. 8 Knuddels.de (chat) 32 mio. 9 mobile.de (car classified) 29 mio. 10 My Video 26 mio.
Contrary to Germany, English publishers (emphasised with orange) could defend their position as leaders of the online communication market. But strong brands like Yahoo! or Google (as well as BBC) are competitors to publishers because they provide news and content. The English c ommunication m arket Online Print (newspapers) Excluded are association’s or specialized distributions.. Period: 3Q 2006 Google and Yahoo are not showing any visitors figures but according to the page impressions figures they are supposed to be the very top of the list. Period: from Mar 2005 to Nov 2006 Source: www.abce.org.uk * Excluded are association’s or specialized distributions. ** Google and Yahoo are not showing any visitors figures but according to the page impressions figures they are supposed to be the very top of the list. *** BBC is a state owned and subsidized company Nr Title Periodicity Sold copies 1 News of the world Weekly 3.4 mio. 2 The Sun Daily 3 mio. 3 The Mail on Sunday Weekly 2.3 mio 4 The Daily Mail Daily 2.3 mio. 5 The Daily Mirror Daily 1.9 mio. Nr Title Unique visitors 1 BBC Online 82.3 mio. 2 Sky 13.9 mio. 3 Guardian unlimited 12.7 mio. 4 Times Online 9 mio. 5 The Sun Online 7.5 mio.
On the online communication market, Swiss publishers have to fight against outsiders to defend their leaders position. Other companies not audited as Google or Yahoo! are providing news and acting as competitors for publishers. The Swiss c ommunication m arket Online Print Excluded are association’s or specialized distributions. Period: 3Q 2006 Google and Yahoo are not audited but are supposed to be the very top of the list. Period: Nov 2006 Source: www.wemf.ch * Excluded are association’s or specialized distributions. ** Free distribution *** Google and Yahoo are not audited but are supposed to be the very top of the list. Nr Title Periodicity Sold copies 1 20 Minuten (free) Daily 419‘684 2 Beobachter Weekly 315’081 3 Sonntagsblick Weekly 272’425 4 Blick Daily 254’657 5 Schweizer Illustrierte Weekly 232’519 Nr Title Unique visitors 1 Bluewin 4 mio. 2 Search.ch 2.3 mio. 3 Blick Online 1 mio. 4 NZZ Online 973‘000 5 20 Minuten 956‘000
While the print market is in continuous decline, the internet penetration as observed a fantastic success. Ad revenues are rising in an impressive way and now represent 3.5 % of the total ad revenues. This quote already passed above 10% on the US market. The money put on online advertising is not new money in ad investment. (Rupert Murdoch) Example - I n Germany print declines while online rises + 20% + 16% + 4% + 35% + 42% Online ad Print market Sold circulation (in mio. copies) In mio. EUR * Jan to Nov 2006 - 5% - 18% Source: www.ivw.de http://www.studie-deutschland-online.de/index.html
Thank you for participating in this course. Please, evaluate your progess by completing in the below test.
For trainers Before starting your training you might want to get an overview on participants’ general attitude to new media. Ask them to fill in this test. I have never met this term D Sending image with mobile phone C Text display on new radios B News, information A What is "RSS" about? 8 I do not know, I am not involved in this D Among top 3 C Among top 10 B Among top 50 A What is the position of your company on the local internet market? 7 I do not have any digital camera. D I take digital photos with my mobile and keep them there. C My child/husband does it or I take the camera to a service shop. B I archive them to PC and print them at home. A How do you process your personal digital photos? 6 I did not try it, I do not need it D I tried already C Sometimes, not regularly B Min. 3 times a week A How often do you use WAP? 5 I do not need it. D Sometimes 1 or 2 C Maximum 5 B 5 or more A How many SMS do you send in a day? 4 No, I do not need that. D No, my family has a common mail account. C Yes, but I use it very rarely. B Yes, for private issues I always use that. A Do you have private e-mail address? 3 Not yet. D I tried, without success, print ads are still better. C No, I have not bought anything, but found useful advertisement (eg. second-hand car) B Yes, I did. A Have you ever bought anything on web or with the help of web? 2 No, this is not needed for my work D Yes, but very rarely C Yes, but only if the topic requires B Yes, regularly, every day A Do you use web in your work for finding background info? 1 Options Question