2 1st Century Journalis m A Practical Guide International edition Belgrade - Bratislava - Budapest – Bucharest – Prague – Zürich *** work-in-progress version of 2nd English edition *** Last modified: 10 May, 2007 Edited by László Turi, 2007
What will you learn? <ul><li>Get prepared for the challenges of newspaper industry Digital revolution keeps changing newspaper layout, style, topics and business model. Your grandfather, your father and you in your childhood could see similar product which was called „newspaper”. This traditional concept has been challenged by digital media in the past decade. With this course you will get a systematized overview of trends in newspaper industry, exercises will help you to get a personal experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Demistify the internet So-called internet gurus tend to glorify their importance by techno bla-bla. Behind those few buzzwords that have meaning at all, you will find the golden rules of the traditional media re-mastered to the digital age. With the exercises you will gain self-confidence to raise the right questions and understand what is behind the hype. </li></ul><ul><li>Use your competences in new media You as a print journalist have plenty of experience, you know everything about journalism. You may want to try out yourself on the web. The exercises will help you to start your own blog or publish in the online version of your newspaper. You will get hints, ideas and best practices concerning your local market. </li></ul>
Preface „ 21st Century Journalism” was preceeded by a general study of the Eastern European online market, where we analysed the threats and opportunities in our industry. Based on this study, we invested an additional 3-month team work involving a group of online experts to summarize trends and best practices. Online journalism is a moving target, therefore the booklet will be updated according to the needs. This is not a bible, just a starting point to provide tailor-made education for editorial boards. The internet is a global phenomenon, but usage patterns are changing from culture to culture, so we emphasize country particularities in this material. „ 21st Century Journalism” training is targeted to journalists open to meet the challenges of online world and devote time to in-work training. The first courses have already been successfully completed in Romania and Hungary, others are being planned. In addition to train on-job journalists, the material has also been presented to students of Budapest University of Economics and Nepszabadsag-Ringier School of Journalism. During the trainings it turned out that students require written and illustrated material for further thinking. This booklet fulfills this need, but it is not intended for self-study. Training online journalism is a mutual learning between students and teacher. Therefore this a living material building on feedbacks and interactions of the training sessions. In addition we received a lot of inspiration from consultants and experts. The authors appreciate all comments and cooperation initiatives. Budapest, 2007. Laszlo Turi & Andras Nyiro [email_address] & andras.nyiro@ 21stCenturyJournalism.com
Credits Author and editor : Laszlo TURI, New Media Research & Development, Ringier AG . - Graduated in humanities, with 12 years of experience in multimedia development. Among other positions in new media, he worked in the mobile content development team of T-Mobile Hungary. Concept : Andras NYIRO, Director of New Media Research & Development, Ringier AG . - Known as one of the most influential characters in the development of Hungarian new media culture. Founder of seminal multimedia and internet magazines, former director of mobile content services at T-Mobile Hungary. Newspaper trends : Patrick BERTSCHY, Ringier AG . - Graduated in law, with journalist experience at German and French speaking Swiss newspapers and magazines. He also hold other positions in Swiss publishing industry. Special thanks Petr BEDNAR, Online Director, Ringier Czech Republic and Slovakia Stephane CARPENTIER, Art Director, Ringier AG Laurentiu CIORNEI , Content manager of www.evz.ro Gábor FLÓRIÁN, layout György JUHÁSZ, Director of Online Department at Ringier Hungary. Zoltán KAPRINAY, Regional Content Manager, Ringier e-media Pál LÉDERER, Director of Online Department at Népszabadság. Dezső ORBÁN, Senior developer of Ringier e-media services. Béla PAPP, Managing Director of Ringier Hungary. Ferenc PÉCSI, dotkommentar.hu Claudiu SERBAN, publisher, Ringier Romania
Contents <ul><ul><li>I. Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N ewspaper trends </li></ul><ul><li>Y our newspaper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>II. Genres and channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genres of journalism </li></ul><ul><li>N ews writing </li></ul><ul><li>R eporting, story journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>C ommentary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>III. Use your competences in new media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>N ews on the internet: hints and tricks </li></ul><ul><li>Story management </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix </li></ul>
What will you learn in this chapter? <ul><li>First you will get a short overview about the milestones of newspaper history from the early days of industry to today , with special emphasis on the influence of technology to media developments. </li></ul><ul><li>You will analyse three trends of newspaper industry in detail: changes of newspaper format, content and business model. You will understand why present day newspaper are so different from what our parents’ daily readings. </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn about numbers: how to measure success? What are the key performance indicators in print, online and mobile? </li></ul><ul><li>Who reads your newspaper? You will learn more about readers’ segmentation, about their expectations and about their special needs and habits. </li></ul>
<H3>How did technology influence media? Milestones relevant for Western Europe, especially UK. Based on Raymond Williams: Communications, London 1966 Daily Mirror’s record: 7million copies. (Queen Elizabeth’s coronation) 1953 2006 1985 1955 1937 1930 1900 1880 1866 1700 1556 Freesheet. Metro is the largest newspaper. Integrated newsrooms. More online visitors than daily print copies. Layoffs due to electronic printing. 1/3 of adults read newspapers. Desktop publishing, web 1985 ITV (Independent TV, UK) launch, end of BBC’s broadcast monopoly, ad-revenue based. Print sales starts dropping TV – regular BBC broadcast 1936 50% of adults read dailies. 50% revenue on advertising. Formulatin of publishing empires. BBC (1927) Radio – regular broadcast 1922 1/5 of adults read daily papers, 1/3 read Sunday papers. Daily Mirror - the 1st tabloid Display advertising, reduction of price/copy, growth of sale „ Reuters”. Sunday papers with popular content („tabloid style”) Transatlantic telegraph news 1866 Instead of hand printing, steam powered printing. Railway distribution. 1814 Local news appears. Earlier just European news. Content controlled via censorship, instead of publishing licences. „ Notizie scritte” - a regular, paid government publication in Venetia Gutenberg 1447 Media development Technology
Print media faces challenges Symptoms of decline Newsstands - In France there were 33,540 newsstands in 1995. Today, only 28,275. If this trend continues, newsstands will disappear by 2035. Revenues - In the UK revenue of i nternet advertising surpassed that of the press in 2006. Survival on the Internet - The print publication of InfoWorld, the iconic IT weekly magazine, has been stopped.The brand name survives on the Internet. Jaipur, North India, 2007 : In the past few years Kathir made a modest business by reselling to tourists those newspapers that air travellers left on plane. But he has just started searching for a new business, because tourists read the new on the Internet and mobile. Sources: Innovations in Newspapers, March-April 2007, http://www.innovationsinnewspapers.com/ , Reuters, 26 March, 2007, http://www.reuters.com/ , Photo: Zsolt Veszelovszki.
<H3>Print media as a changing physical object If you ask your designer to define a newspaper, than she will talk about a 3-dimensional object. This object has length, width, thickness. It is coloured or black-and-white and its paper has a given quality and color. If the newspaper wants to be different from other products, than the designer has to change some of these parameters time to time. In recent years we have seen that newspapers were shrinking and became more colourful. But the most successful products are breaking sometimes these trends. Design is the art of exceptions. When she works with these parameters of the object, she modifies the opportunities of the editor. You will have less or more space for text and images, you will have to use different type of emphasis and references. Source: Gerald Grow, „Magazine Covers and Cover Lines” in Journal of Magazine and New Media Research , 2002 http:// www.bsu.edu/web/aejmcmagazine/Testfolder/ , Coury Turcyzn „The Decline of Western Magazine Culture” in PopCult ( http://popcultmag.com )
Size and style Attracting younger readers is the main reason for the Guardian’s change to a „Berliner” format, with colour throughout. Young and especially female readers are put off by the unwieldiness of broadsheets, and both the Times and the Independent have seen a bounce in circulation since turning tabloid. Going all the way however, says Carolyn McCall, chief executive of Guardian Newspapers, would have meant dumbing down the front page by including fewer headlines. From: The Economist, September 10, 2005. Tabloid: 380x300 mm (halfsize of broadsheet) Broadsheet: 600x380mm Berliner or midi: 470x315 mm
Case study: change of format 2004 It was redesigned to Berliner-format The Guardian used to be a broadsheet 2005 This was a response to the moves by The Times and The Independent to start publishing in tabloid (or compact) format. The advantage that The Guardian saw in the Berliner format was that though it is only a little wider than a tabloid, and is thus equally easy to read on public transport, its greater height gives more flexibility in page design. The new presses mean that printing can go right across the 'gutter', the strip down the middle of the centre page, allowing the paper to print striking double page pictures. The switch cost £80 million and involved setting up new printing presses. … The investment was rewarded with a circulation rise. In December 2005, the average daily sale stood at 380,693, nearly 6% higher than the figure for December 2004. Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Guardian)
Case study: radical change of format and style <ul><li>Design and look: </li></ul><ul><li>Lot of text </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of big coloured picture </li></ul><ul><li>Look strict and ponderous </li></ul><ul><li>Context : </li></ul><ul><li>C ontinuously declining circulation : 19.3% between 2000 and 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>It was decided to reduce size but to keep exactly the same stories than the broadsheet version. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual production for 8 months </li></ul>The problem: unsuccessful broadsheet format (2003)
<ul><li>More: </li></ul><ul><li>Colour and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly and surprising </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Magazin like </li></ul><ul><li>Sales increase even after the end of dual production. </li></ul><ul><li>Less: </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Text and stories </li></ul><ul><li>Strict </li></ul>Question: Has internet influenced those changes? 2006: Tabloid Source: The Format Change Phenomenon (WAN Strategy report vol. 4., 5 June 2005.) and http://www.newsdesigner.com/archives/002647.php
Color printing is big step towards emotional journalism
Outstanding page layout <ul><li>We live in the age of high-quality visual entertainment: HDTV, web, Pixar-movies, consol games, shopping catalogues, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines working on an extremely competing market environment are fighting to define their role. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to developments in printing, typography and photography, the range of visual possibilities multiplied. </li></ul><ul><li>Features of outstanding design: </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionary use of photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Assymetrical layout of pages </li></ul><ul><li>3D effects </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking the framework of the grid </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of text and image </li></ul><ul><li>Design of the unprinted area </li></ul><ul><li>Rythmic repetition of pictures </li></ul><ul><li>B/W mixed with color images </li></ul>Source: „Surprise me”, Horst Moser (Mark Batty, 2003) IM (Hungary), 2006
<H3>Blurring boundaries <ul><li>In the digital world text, image and sound are described by 0 and 1. All this content is produced by computers, everything can be easily mixed. The traditional boundaries of genres and media types are blurring or disappearing. </li></ul>000011001001111111
Tabloid or reference daily? <ul><li>Bigger pictures (or different sizes) makes the article more lively . </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter texts work more accessible and less time-consuming . </li></ul><ul><li>Words like “ catch ”, “ chilling ” or “ brazen” are very strong and emotional </li></ul>Source: Helen Gambles, U. Wales http ://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Students/hlg9501.html <ul><li>Tabloid style and idea: </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriptions are limited, title page must sell the product </li></ul><ul><li>Simply and sensationally written </li></ul><ul><li>Give more prominence to celebrities, sports, crime stories and even to hoaxes than reference papers. </li></ul><ul><li>They also more readily take a political position (either left- or right-wing) on news stories, ridiculing politicians, demanding resignations and predicting election results. </li></ul><ul><li>The style and idea of popular tabloid press grew out from Sunday papers. </li></ul>Both titlepages were published on 13 Dec, 2006 They tend to borrow style and layout temporarily from each other to surprise readers and attract their attention.
Daily paper or weekly magazine? The April 9, 2007 issue of Osterreich. The daily paper includes 3 glossy inserts edited in magazine style. A new Austrian daily blurs the lines between newspapers and magazines, and some say this is the future for newspapers in general. The compact, full-colour Osterreich, launched in September 2006 mixes magazine and newspaper styles in one package, with several sections printed on glossy paper and stapled on the spine. These are not typical magazine inserts: they are daily sections, with daily deadlines that are paginated and printed along with the other daily sections. To use both newspaper and magazine quality paper in the same publication, Osterreich and its printing partners had to develop an innovative printing and workflow system that allows for both cold and heat set processes during the same printing run. The high-quality paper allows the newspaper to attract a new brand of luxury goods and other advertisers who insist on magazine quality for their ads. Source: WAN Newsletter, April 25, 2007.
Newspaper or magazine? <ul><li>Internet </li></ul>Source: NewsDesigner.com http ://www.newsdesigner.com/archives/002520.php <ul><li>De Morgen, a Belgian broadsheet redesigned and switched to berliner format in April, 2006. The most important new design elements: </li></ul><ul><li>This new lay-out consists of 5 columns per page, instead of 7, with quite a lot of whitespace. </li></ul><ul><li>Some photographs or illustrations span multiple columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors are largely used. But never work agitated. </li></ul>Pages: De Morgen, 2006 April
Magazine or product catalogue? Advertising influences magazines Madison Magazin, March 2006, p. 192 Ikea Catalogue, 2007, p. 334 Blurred borderline between commercial product placement and newspaper content. Product marketing behaves as media. Looks like… a product catalogue a magazin page
<H3>New business models: freesheet, internet <ul><li>Free, the new trend: </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost flights </li></ul><ul><li>White-label products </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco, Wal-Mart, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Buyer communities </li></ul>In newspaper business model there are three main revenue streams: subscription, sold copies and advertising. During the last century the emphasis shifted from subscription towards sold copies and nowadays towards advertisement. Today’s freesheets and internet publications are free for the readers and are purely financed by advertisements. <ul><li>Subscription </li></ul><ul><li>Sold copies </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisement </li></ul>
Freesheet <ul><li>The free daily newspaper distributed through public transport was introduced in 1995 in Sweden. There are now free newspapers in 49 countries: 40 million copies are read by at least 60 million people daily. Their readership is much younger than that of the traditional newspaper. Most free newspapers are published as tabloids. </li></ul>Source: World Association of Newspapers http:// www.wan-press.org , „Newspaper Innovation” blog, http://www.newspaperinnovation.com/ Source: FDN Newsletter, April 2007 Weakness Strengths <ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Losing young readers </li></ul><ul><li>Loyal readership </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and comments </li></ul>Paid daily <ul><li>Lower quality due to lack of lack of original content? </li></ul><ul><li>Easy acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Quick readability </li></ul><ul><li>Low editorial costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reach new readers </li></ul><ul><li>Response to digital media </li></ul>Free daily
Diversification of the free newspaper concept Freesheet war in the UK market „ Newspaper moguls Rupert Murdoch and Lord Rothermere are going head to head in a free newspaper fight, which media analysts believe could fatally damage the paid-for Evening Standard. […] Those who have seen a dummy of thelondonpaper have described it as colourful and more like a magazine than a newspaper, with a youthful approach.„ Source: Online Press Gazette, 17 Aug, 2006, http://www.pressgazette.co.uk/article/170806/murdoch_rothermere_london_free_newspaper_war El Crack 10 in Spain 2003 CASH daily in Switzerland 2006 thelondonpaper in London 2006 finance sport afternoon „ Print your own free up-to-date pdf!” - G24, Guardian’s continuosly updated free pdf edition is a reaction to freesheets from a paid daily. The A/4 layout includes ads targeted to internet users. http://www.guardian.co.uk/g24
Key elements of Internet strategies Strategies are usually mixed, clear cases are rare. Le Monde B2C revenue – bundled with subscription Popular strategy in the late ’90s, but today this is rare, eg. Magyar Narancs in Hungary (mancs.hu) promotion Limited online edition – Online is just a selected part of the print newspaper. Example Business model Content Brand enforcement and ad revenue – increase freesheet viewership B2C revenue promotional and ad-revenue ad-revenue Metro New York Times (Times Select) Bild, Sun Guardian, LA Times, E-paper – Facsimile electronic edition of the print newspaper. Premium content – Some parts of the online content is paid-only. Eg. archive or exclusive content. Christmas ornament - No overall strategy for internet and print. Internet is a possibility for extra services that are hanging on the core print content as Christmas ornaments. Web first - Publishes stories first to the web, ending the primacy of the printed newspaper.
Case study: two different approaches http://metro.hu Full-featured newsportal: continuous news update, classified and banner ads. Internet is considered an independent revenue channel. http://citiyam.com Limited online edition: the website is considered a promotional portal only, without content. The only genuine content is a regular afternoon podcast branded as City P.M. Internet is not considered a separate revenue channel. Free newspapers’ attitude towards the primarily free medium of internet is ambigous, they are trying to find their role on the internet.
Internet: an opportunity to publishers Example of the German market In print: two losers Stern and Der Spiegel are two weekl y magazines competing since more than 50 years to dominate the market of news magazines. Even if Der Spiegel was able to beat Stern for the last five years, there is no clear leader on the print market. Source: German Audit Institute http:// www.ivw.de On internet: strategy makes a difference After undecided battle in the starting years, SPIEGEL ONLINE can now be define as the clear winner of the internet market. Print circulation M onthly visits
<H3>Role of the editor Current trend: e ditors don’t set the agenda <ul><li>Aggregation and personalization techniques: </li></ul><ul><li>Reader-driven web services: top-lists, most e-mailed, most popular, most voted, most referred </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-edited content: Google News, music radio/TV channels – Pre-defined logic is used to generate pages or programme by topic or genre. The website of this book is also an example of news aggregation. See: http://www.21stCenturyJournalism.com </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization: RSS, customization, desktop alerts. - Details will be discussed in various chaptes, later. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic personalization: amazon.com recommendations, intelligent WAP-portals (O2, Vodafone) – Driven by user’s former clicks. </li></ul>Until the mid-’90-ies traditional media allowed a clear control over appearance of news, stories and other content. With the dawn of internet content aggregators and personalization technologies gave more free hand to the readers. Your article may appear on the internet near to your competitors’ articles (like in Google News) or in surprising context, eg. in the form of a desktop alert or as a link on a homepage. Do not be aftraid to show your readers’ choice. (http://www.msnbc.com/)
Example: Readers creating their own tabloid site Air force demotes Playboy poser The information world is led by tabloid topics. Even on the notorious ly serious BBC, the most popular pages are talking rather about emotion and popular stories than seriousness and politics. BBC: editor's version Actor denies child sex offences Viewers complain over Brits jokes BBC: reader's version 1 2 3 Most popular stories, 15th February 2007 Readers have full control over the selection of content.
Example: Internet as a barometer of public opinion Sources: USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2004-12-01-chile-news_x.htm, Ringier Hungary Research Deptartment Las Ultimas Noticias (LUN, Chile) In 2001 LUN installed a system whereby all clicks onto its website ( www.lun.com) were recorded for all in the newsroom to see. Those clicks drive the entire print content of next day LUN. If a certain story gets a lot of clicks, for example, that is a signal to the editors that the story should be followed up, and similar ones should be sought for the next day. The system offers a direct barometer of public opinion, much like the TV rating system. <ul><li>Results : </li></ul><ul><li>56% increase of circulation </li></ul><ul><li>New groups of readers </li></ul><ul><li>Jumped to top of market from 4th position </li></ul><ul><li>Increased profit margin </li></ul>LUN became market leader in 3 years (Average circulation, in thousands) Web barometer installed
Opportunity to approach young readers with your media mix Japan: Asahi Shimbun’s channels Source: Asahi Shimbun’s media kit http://asahi.com/english Radio, TV and internet users, Czech Republic Source: World Association of Newspapers http://www.wan-press.org/article568.html The above demographic data is not available for Nemzeti Sport . Media consumption (minutes per day) Age groups … when online readers are considered, the story of newspaper readership for many papers transforms from one of slow and steady decline to one of vibrancy and growth. […] The audiences for newspaper websites tend to be younger than those for the printed newspaper, dispelling the common misperception that young people are not engaged by newspaper content. Source: Press release of Scarborough Research Apr 3, 2006, http://www.scarborough.com 142 40 35 30 Internet 193 194 208 205 203 Television 174 178 200 210 202 Radio 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997
Key statistics indicators * Overlapping is limited by the fact that switching between media is often inconvenient for customers. For example print readers often have no chance to browse the internet just when they meet the display ad of a website. And the difference of target group demographics is also an obstacle: for example young mobile users rarely buy „old-fashioned” print edition just to find more details. Ad revenue Revenue share from operators Ad revenue Ad revenue, sold copies Revenues Audience poll Reach surveys research Registrations, WAP unique phone numbers Unique visitors Sold copies + subscriptions actual Number of readers TV Mobile Internet Print Sold copies x reader/copy subscriptions unique visitors unique phone numbers Total reach* US media audit is already based on a combined indicator of print and online reach. Source: Newspapers by the Numbers, 2006, by Newspaper Association of America
<ul><li>Research questions : </li></ul><ul><li>What is the ranking of your site in your local internet market? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the correlation or difference of daily peaks in your site and that of average internet usage? </li></ul><ul><li>In average how many articles were read by a single reader yesterday? </li></ul>Visit: one user can come back many times UV, unique visitor: the number of PCs from where the users are browsing the given page. In the print world this is „reach”. PI, page impression: number of pages downloaded. This number is interesting for advertisers. Other webmarket audits: Austria: http://www.oewa.at/ France: http:/ www.ojd.com/engine / Germany: http://ww.ivw.de/ UK: http://www.abce.org.uk USA, international: http://www.nielsen-netratings.com Online view statistics in Ringier countries: Czech Republic: http://online.netmonitor.cz/ola2.php Hungary: http://webaudit.hu/index.php?content=12 Romania: http://www.traffic.ro/login/ Slovakia: http://www.iaudit.info/sk/?country=SK Serbia: no audit Switzerland: netreport.wemf.ch/suche_alpha.html Distribution of traffic during the day. Daily statistics of webaudit.hu, the Hungarian Internet audit. Each line is a separate site. !
Collect information about your product and audience Number of video downloads:…. Number of users:… Number of downloads:… Unique visitors: …. Visits:…. Sold copies:… Subscribers:… Readers per copy…. Usage ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Demographics Give a short description about the audience of each channel 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Market position Mark the position of your publication or enter the correct number Online TV Mobile Internet Print
From monologue to dialogue Source: Oliver Reichenstein, The Future of News. Manuscript, 2007. http://www.informationarchitects.jp/
You will improve the journalism. Support the work you do as a journalist by revealing what really matters to people. You will serve your community better. Your work will be relevant to your audience. You can build a relationship with your community. Being an involved institution in your community, should strengthen your ties with the community. You can build consumer engagement. Well delivered stories based on a solid understanding of your target audience should result in a more engaged audience. And that's something every advertiser covets. Traditional media is based on one-way communication. New media is a multi-directional communication. If you want to be successful in such a communication, you will learn more about your audience. What will you gain by this kind of learning?
What will you learn? <ul><li>You know very well how to write news, stories, interview and commentaries. Building on this knowledge we explain you how these genres change when you publish on web or on the small screen of the mobile phone. </li></ul><ul><li>News: the classic rules of news are the same in print, internet and mobile. You will learn the differences: how to change the structure of news in an environment where there are no deadlines. </li></ul><ul><li>Story telling: you will get an overview on what kind of interactive and multimedia possibilities are offered by the internet. Learn more about experienced multimedia story tellers. </li></ul><ul><li>Interview: you will learn the 9 points of a successful online interview. </li></ul><ul><li>Commentary: everybody is talking about blogs. You will understand what is a blog and how to use it in your own work. </li></ul>
Genres and the journalist’s role Translation of basic terms Russian Chinese Spanish Commentaire , note Interview Récit Reportage Actualité French Kommentar Interview Story Bericht, Reportage Nachrichten, Aktualität German Comentariu, editorial Interviu P oveste Reportaj Stiri Romanian Komentář, poznámka Rozhovor Reportáž or Příběh Report, Krátká zpravodajská reportáž Zprávy, Hlavní zprávy Czech Glossza, jegyzet Interjú Riport Tudósítás Hír, cikk Hungarian Glosa, poznámka Rozhovor, interview Reportáž Riport (krátka spravodajská reportáž) Správa Slovak Reporting Commentary, note Interview Story News, news feature English journalist has a personal experience personal approach is allowed for the journalist journalist must be objective newsroom work only commentary, note, columns, opinion news, news feature story reporting interview
Genres and channels „ A 30-minutes TV news programme does not contain more text than an average newpaper page. The length of an average TV news story is not more than 30-40 seconds, that is 4-6 printed line.” (J. Horvath: Basics of TV journalism, 2002) <ul><li>Opinion survey via SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Questions via SMS </li></ul><ul><li>Readers’ MMS content </li></ul><ul><li>Facts in 160 characters </li></ul><ul><li>On-event SMS-push, in daytime </li></ul>Mobile <ul><li>Talkshows </li></ul><ul><li>deep interview or </li></ul><ul><li>soundbites </li></ul><ul><li>Specific story ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Visuals tell the story </li></ul><ul><li>No deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Simple, short text </li></ul>TV Internet Print daily <ul><li>Editorial blog </li></ul><ul><li>Personality driven </li></ul><ul><li>Original approach </li></ul>Commentary <ul><li>Realtime </li></ul><ul><li>Moderated </li></ul><ul><li>Person of interest </li></ul><ul><li>Documenting words </li></ul><ul><li>Quotes vs. discussion </li></ul>Interview <ul><li>Multimedia storytelling </li></ul><ul><li>Readers and bloggers as sources </li></ul><ul><li>Personal experience </li></ul><ul><li>Objective or personal </li></ul>Reporting, story <ul><li>Facts with updates, no deadline </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking news </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and analysis based on the information available at the time of printing. </li></ul>News, news feature
Channels and challenges Daily challenges of electronic channels are similar. Be faster than your competitors Write your story for next morning Update Keep your news always up-to-date Channel surfing aggregators, news stolen Content services of mobile operators Maintain readers’ loyalty Competition The next issue must also be sold schedule Bandwith, resolution scrolling Page size, layout Scrolling Space Text and visuals must fit the page 6 sec/shot, 30 sec / news Inconvenient: estimated 3 min per session 1-2 hours/day 15 min / newspaper Time Mind the deadline to deliver the daily by breakfast reading TV Mobile Internet Print daily
Exercise: What info is worth a news story? List, explain the key features that make news valuable in mass media. Give examples. Source: BBC Sport http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport , Times Online http://www.timesonline.co.uk/ !
Channel-independent news values <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>who-what-where-when-how </li></ul>Proximity 1 dead Briton is worth 5 dead Frenchmen, 20 dead Egyptians, 500 dead Indians and 1000 dead Chinese. (Mc Lurg’s law) Threshold A big story is one that has an extreme effect on a large number of people . Where the immediate effect of an event is more subtle, the threshold may be determined by the amount of money involved. Negativity Bad news is more exciting than good news. Bad news receives more attention because it shocks us and creates discussion. For instance, "what should be done about crime”? Unexpectedness If a dog bites a man, that's not news. But if a man bites a dog, that's news Elite nations, persons Stories concerned with global powers rich, powerful, famous and infamous persons receive more attention. Continuity A story that is already in the news gathers a kind of inertia. This is partly because the media organizations are already in place to report the story, and partly because previous reportage may have made the story more accessible to the public (making it less ambiguous) Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/News_values !
5 methods for selecting sussessful topics <ul><li>Exclusive story : this is what your newspaper know s or publish es only. Anything can be a good story, if you are able to find the point that is relevant to your readers and you are able to make it emotional and add good photos. </li></ul><ul><li>Find what is r elevan t : any hot issue of a small community or a small issue of a large community can be relevant to your readers. These issues can be used as sources for exclusive stories: take a definite position that provokes feedback from your readers. </li></ul><ul><li>Stories from other media : feel free to pick up stories from other media and add your own additional infomation and illustration. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up : go back to your stories that received significant public attention in the past and check what happened since th e n. </li></ul><ul><li>Translations : search foreign news sites for stories that can be connected to something local. The more local connection you can find, the more emphasis can be give n to the story. Add your own information and feel free to completely rearrange the original article. </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for working with sources </li></ul><ul><li>The opponent party must also be interviewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid pure reporting of events. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not let people use you as their spokesman or send a targeted message via your article. </li></ul><ul><li>Before participating on press events, do a desktop research, be prepared and raise your questions. Think of your point of the story even before the event. </li></ul>Source: Editorial guidelines of Blikk, Hungary, manuscript document.
Influences to news style and structure Think of examples! Make the story visual and entertaining. Provide immediate information in concise format. Update the story as it develops with facts, references and multimedia. Summarize and evaluate all the available information. Object No way to re-read, unless recorded. Inconvenient, small interface. No word-by-word reading, just scrolling Readers find images first. Usability Shots must be short. Expect channel surfing. Text must be simple. Must be very fast. Bandwith, display limits visual content. No way to influence context (eg. RSS). Complete by deadline and fit page size. Challenges Print daily Internet Mobile TV ?
News style and channels <ul><li>Simple, easy-to-listen style. </li></ul><ul><li>Short sentences, without facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Shocking start, to call attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Still images are used as slides. </li></ul><ul><li>Quotations are not used in text. </li></ul><ul><li>Text should not repeat the visuals. </li></ul><ul><li>SMS news alerts: </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the traditional „lead” format: short declarative sentences, facts only </li></ul><ul><li>No „reporting” style and news back reference </li></ul><ul><li>SMS-like abbreviations are allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Title: clear, short - no metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Lead: date, actual summary, not just to call for attention </li></ul><ul><li>Body text - for scanning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short paragraphs, clear subheadings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one paragraph = one idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>page length max. 1.5 screensize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>max. 1000 chars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link: limited number of good links, with meaningful text </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph style news is replaced by feature: facts and analysis in short paragraphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Title, lead and story length must fit layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference papers allow metaphoric titles. </li></ul>TV Mobile Internet Print daily
News structure on internet and mobile Title – It must be understandable without sub headings and images, because on the internet popular automatic news collecting services are copying only titles. Lead – Basic facts: who-what-when-where-why . Sometimes used as title page teaser. Max. one paragraph, used to sell the story. Development – Lead information should be resumed and detailed here. Short sentences, one paragraph contains only one idea. Sub headings must also be informative. Context – help s the reader to better understand the meaning of the provided information . Links – Must be inherent part of the article. The text of the links must be meaningful. SMS From: CNN ------------------------------------------------- A LERT Hijackers seize passenger jet in Mauritania and land on Spain's Canary Islands, police and meda say according to wire reports. //CNN Max. 1500-2000 chars Internet, WAP Inverted pyramid The SMS starts with topic category ID. The body text contains only facts. A single complex sentence of 2-3 clauses. Ends with brand promotion. Lead Development Context
Tips on working with style <ul><li>How to make a story scannable? Nielsen’s general recommendations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highlighted keywords (hypertext links serve as one form of highlighting; typeface variations and color are others) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful sub-headings (not "clever" ones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bulleted lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one idea per paragraph (users will skip over any additional ideas if they are not caught by the first few words in the paragraph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the inverted pyramid style, starting with the conclusion (see later) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>half the word count (or less) than conventional writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further possibilities to make a story visual: tables, boxes, graphics, infographics. </li></ul>Source: Jakob Nielsen, How users read on the web http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html Eyetracking heatmap of a webpage. People rarely read web pages word by word; instead, they scan the page, picking out individual words and sentences. News story at cnn.com: main points are highlighted with bullets in a frame. For a developing story, new information is indicated.
Tips on working with images Excerpts from editorial guidelines of Blikk, Hungarian print tabloid. Most of the points are valid for both print and online media, even if images work differently online: web pages offer unlimited image space, but layout is usually limited by story templates. Blikk story about a Hungarian celebrity receiving a very expensive wrist watch. The layout is a good example of handling images visual tools in print: enlargement, framed text, text overlay, supplementary information is text box. (Blikk, 18. Apr, 2007, page 9.) <ul><li>Photo and the story </li></ul><ul><li>Do your best to present the story also in photo, eg. in case of mass events the photos should show many people. </li></ul><ul><li>Photos should suit to the general approach of the story. Eg. victims, murders, etc. should not smile on the photo. </li></ul><ul><li>Journalist should closely cooperate with the photographer so that the photos can really support the text and add supplementary info. </li></ul><ul><li>The title character of the story should appear on the main photo. </li></ul><ul><li>The leading photo must be closely related to the event or location mentioned in the title. </li></ul><ul><li>Photo on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Each page must contain at least one i m age. If more than one photo is used on a page, their tone and content must be different: e.g. photo of men should be accompanied with that of women, portrait should go with full-size image, sad image with a happy one, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Caption should be closely related to the story, but still it must provide new and important details. If possible, the caption must include the name of persons represented, but a simple list of names is not enough. </li></ul>
Tips…. (cont.) <ul><li>Visual supplements of the story </li></ul><ul><li>Make the story visual: besides photos try to include framed boxes, facsimiles, charts, logos and similar visual elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind the focus of your story. Do not burden it with irrelevant additions. If you insist on publishing some additional info, put them into a framed box. </li></ul><ul><li>Framed text is a good way to reinforce the story by listing further facts and data or comparing them. This helps the reader and makes the story more concrete. Also a useful tool to break the monotony of longer text-only pages. </li></ul>A major crime story on msnbc.com. Although the page displays only one large photo, within a single click reader finds dozens of additional images. Image galleries are represented by thumbnails only. Source: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18169776/ Large image with caption. List of videos. The most recent one is highlighted with a lead and thumbnail. Photos and audio are promoted together. Clickable interactive map contains plenty of additional information. This is a developing story. The updates are highlighted.
Crisis of news confidence A 2005 poll by the Pew Research Center reported that the percentage of Americans saying they can believe most of what they read in their daily newspaper dropped from 84 percent in 1985 to 54 percent in 2004. For televised news, whether broadcast or cable, the results are unfortunately similar. What is the cause of this apparent skepticism? Why has our trust in the news eroded while our cynicism about it seems to grow? One answer I’d suggest is that the explosion of information itself has overwhelmed us. […] …news, information comes to us from a staggering multiplicity of sources. Today, in the United States, there are about 1,700 daily and 6,800 weekly newspapers; more than 1,600 broadcast television stations; and nearly 8,500 cable systems. There are also some 13,000 radio stations, along with the newest development in radio technology, satellite radio services. Most of these media outlets, in some way or another, provide news as part of their daily fare; some of them are based on a 24-hour-a-day news model, often with other programming (often entertainment oriented) bracketing the newscasts. And that doesn’t even begin to count the web-based versions of all these media, along with the independent Internet … Source: Journalism’s crisis of confidence, A Report of Carnegie Corporation of New York, http://www.carnegie.org/pdf/journalism_crisis/journ_crisis_full.pdf . Hawking's small step toward space BBC News, UK - 27 minutes ago Famed astrophysicist flies weightless Canada.com, Canada - 41 minutes ago Stephen Hawking Takes a Buoyant Ride on a Zero-Gravity Flight Washington Post, DC - 1 hour ago Hawking takes off for zero gravity Melbourne Herald Sun, Australia - 2 hours ago Space, here I come - Hawking ic SouthLondon.co.uk, UK - 2 hours ago Hawking enjoys weightlessness on jet flight Ireland Online, Ireland - 3 hours ago Vomit Comet flight is his first step towards space Guardian Unlimited, UK - 3 hours ago Hawking researches free-floating joy Boston Globe, MA - 4 hours ago Hawking floats, flips sans gravity Kansas City Star, MO - 4 hours ago Hawking gets taste of zero-gravity Reuters.uk, UK - 5 hours ago Physicist Hawking gets taste of zero-gravity Reuters - 5 hours ago Stephen Hawking floats in a zero-gravity jet. The Age, Australia - 7 hours ago Stephen Hawking to fly weightless Hindu, India - 7 hours ago Hawking takes zero-gravity flight BBC News, UK - 9 hours ago Stephen Hawking Flies Weightless Guardian Unlimited, UK - 9 hours ago Hawking Flies Weightless Aboard Jet Discovery Channel - 10 hours ago Hawking Flies Weightless Aboard Jet San Francisco Chronicle, CA - 12 hours ago http:// news.google.com
„… credibility is important for Web users, since it is unclear who is behind information on the Web and whether a page can be trusted. Credibility can be increased by high-quality graphics, good writing, and use of outbound hypertext links. Links to other sites show that the authors have done their homework and are not afraid to let readers visit other sites. „ - Jakob Nielsen Source: How users read on the web http://www.useit.com/alertbox/9710a.html Readers do not trust a single source, therefore expect links to related stories and other background information. The possibility of comparing mainstream sources reinforces the credibility of news on the web. Newsreaders on the internet welcome mainstream journalism and expert openion, but same time wish to express their own view of the story
Exercise: sourcing and writing news <ul><li>Below we describe a simple role play that can be used in teaching news sourcing and news writing for online and mobile services. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer or experienced journalist makes up a story about a breaking news event, eg. a major accident in the city. He acts as a spokesperson for various news sources: eg. police, ambulance, public transportation company, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Students act as news editors of some radio on news site and their task is to call the spokesperson and get information. They have to tell what kind of spokesperson they wish to speak to, introduce themselves and raise one question per call. This is an example: „I am calling city ambulance station. My name is Bill of the local radio. Please, give me information on the victims of the accident.” </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer should simulate the respective spokesperson’s approach: „Our car has just arrived to the locality. Please, call five minutes later.” Even a local eyewitness can be simulated by the trainer. If students run out of ideas trainer should drop some information that provokes further questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer is recommended to indicate the number of questions on the blackboard in order to show the progress of the exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Trainer should define timing: eg. due to the programme schedule of the radio, sourcing must be completed in 20 minutes. After that students have 15 minutes to write the news story in maximum 6 to 8 sentences with a title of maximum 4 words. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the exercise students read out their news story and the trainer evaluates them and gives further tips and advices. Advices should include guidelines for style, structure, phraseology. </li></ul>Police: I I I I Ambulance: II Fire patrol: II City transport: III Taxi company: I Blackboard is used to show the progress of the role play.
Exercise: create news story in 3 versions <ul><li>Write a news article in 3 versions: internet, WAP, SMS. (The story might be based on a citizen video of a public riot or other event of interest.) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a standard procedure? Follow this: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rank the available items of information by importance, not by chronological order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the text concise, omit info without importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add background info, if space-time allows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a short, clear title </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post each version on the weblog of the course. </li></ul>Source: YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAZAMKAnBaE Your own story
Exercise: Create news story in 3 versions In 1972 the Watergate story was published in the print daily Washington Post. The story was written on typewriter and published only in print. Use the original article and create versions for web, WAP and SMS. Consider changing the structure, length, adding links, etc. GOP Security Aide Among 5 Arrested in Bugging Affair By Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein Washington Post Staff Writers June 19, 1972 One of the five men arrested early Saturday in the attempt to bug the Democratic National Committee headquarters is the salaried security coordinator for President Nixon’s reelection committee. The suspect, former CIA employee James W. McCord Jr., 53, also holds a separate contract to provide security services to the Republican National Committee, GOP national chairman Bob Dole said yesterday… Read the original article here: Washintgon Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/tours/scandal/watergat.htm. Source: University of Texas, http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/online/woodstein / Famous print article from the past
vázlat <ul><li>Mi a multimédia story telling: screenshoton mutogatni az elemeket (Being Black és a cigány site: bbc.co.uk/kent/romany_roots/ </li></ul><ul><li>Mi kell hozzá: tools -> a legegyszerűbb eszközök, a minimál program, mert minnél egyszerűbb az eszköz, annál önállóbb vagy. Az anyaggyűjtéshez elég a jó mobiltelefon. Mi a minimum: 2Mpix kamera, hangrögzítés, tárhely,.. Stb. Jó oktató site: http://makeinternettv.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>A nagy projektek nem élnek meg, home-video a target, ha nagyobb beruházással indulsz, a belépési küszöböt nem tudod meglépni. Kevin Sites és Being Black anyagok a legegyszerűbb videóval elkészíthetők, ingyenes a video vágó, stb. </li></ul>
Reporting and story - refresh your knowledge <ul><li>A mixed genre, in between the factual and opinion journalism : </li></ul><ul><li>Usually about news </li></ul><ul><li>Reports about events, their reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes interview with eyewitnesses, participants. </li></ul><ul><li>May include journalist’s opinion about the events in a personal way. </li></ul><ul><li>Literary style. </li></ul><ul><li>Types : </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation, based on some news </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation, analysis of social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Event reporting, longer news story </li></ul><ul><li>Historical, based on historical documents </li></ul>Source: Stark – Daniss, „Genres of Journalism”, manuscript, Népszabadság-Ringier Training Studio, 2006
Story journalism in various channels <ul><li>Online video: </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot tight </li></ul><ul><li>Cut short and fast </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce camera moves </li></ul><ul><li>Further tips: Online Journalism Review http://www.ojr.org/ojr/wiki/video/ </li></ul><ul><li>All internet reporting formats are available on mobile, but with limited quality. </li></ul><ul><li>MMS: involve your reader in finding sources, ask them to send their photos, videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. in Blikk (HU), Compact (RO), Blesk (CZ) </li></ul>„ Sites such as CNN, the Washington Post and MSNBC.com are multimedia sites. They have text. They have video clips… But the main stories on these sites are often linear and produced in either text or video or audio to stand alone. … Rarely are video, text, still photos, audio and graphics integrated into the same story. ” Source: Knight New Media Center http://journalism.berkeley.edu/multimedia/course/choose/ <ul><li>With or without personal experience, factual or personal view included . </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting with interpretation: news analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Reporter vs. correspondent: factual vs. added opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative reporting: deep insight. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport rep . is focused on scores. </li></ul>TV Mobile Internet Print
Multimedia storytelling <ul><li>Magazine sites, microsites </li></ul><ul><li>Based on desktop research and storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>„ Back-pack” journalism, reporter driven </li></ul><ul><li>Short text, mostly photo and video only. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by a single style </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. Kevin Sites’s war reports (see later) or Picture-Projects ( http://www.picture-projects.com/ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper websites </li></ul><ul><li>Often based on a news feature story. </li></ul><ul><li>Editor driven, multiple sources </li></ul><ul><li>Links to external content </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for reader interaction and content </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Washington Post multimedia series (see later) </li></ul>level of multimedia integration Source: Multimedia Reporting and Convergence by Jane Stevens http://journalism.berkeley.edu/multimedia/course/choose/ <ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Video camera, PC-based video editor </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recorder, sound editor </li></ul><ul><li>Digital still camera, image editor </li></ul><ul><li>Web editor tool </li></ul>Multimedia story-telling is not an omnipotent tool: fits best for process descriptons and for presenting new conceptual information . More: http://www.poynterextra.org/eyetrack2004/main.htm Más példákat ide
Investing in multimedia <ul><li>Before undertaking any large story project be sure to ask: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the target audience for this story? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we hope to accomplish in telling this story to them? </li></ul><ul><li>Then use this decision-tool to see which approach to storytelling is best supported by the research in these studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Does the story concern elaborate or unfamiliar processes / procedures? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes – 1 point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is the level of interest in the topic high enough that people would be willing to figure out story navigation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the story have value beyond the first few weeks? Is it likely to be a topic in the news again? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is entertaining the audience more important than simply informing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is it important that the audience be able to recall specific facts from the story? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the story is told in separate components, it is essential that all the components be viewed by the audience? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do you hope the audience recalls where they saw the information? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – 1 point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – no points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you get five or more points, then you should strongly consider an interactive story approach. </li></ul>Source: Online Journalism Review, http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/070210ruel/
Multimedia report of a newspaper site <ul><li>Several journalists </li></ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul><ul><li>Image gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Soundbites </li></ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of new and archive </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates with readers </li></ul><ul><li>Dossie-like updates </li></ul>Traditional and multimedia journalism edited together: Washington Post: Being a Black Man http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/metro/interactives/blackmen/blackmen.html
Independent multimedia reports Kevin Sites’s war reports http://hotzone.yahoo.com/ <ul><li>Single author: single style </li></ul><ul><li>Video and photo dominates </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Story-board </li></ul>„ Backpack” journalist: <ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><li>Video camera, PC-based video editor </li></ul><ul><li>Voice recorder, sound editor </li></ul><ul><li>Digital still camera, image editor </li></ul><ul><li>Web editor tool </li></ul>
Exercise: Create a multimedia story <ul><li>A téma </li></ul>
Exercise: questions to a video journalist Travis Fox is an Emmy-nominated video journalist of washingtonpost.com <ul><li>Watch some of Trevis Fox’s best videos, then guess his replies to the below questions. The videos are available on washingtonpost.com (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/photo/bestofthepost/foxtravis/index.html) </li></ul><ul><li>D o you frame shots differently for the Web and for TV, or do you work with the same material for both? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you cut it differently for TV than you do for the Web? </li></ul><ul><li>What new ways of conveying a news story have you tried ? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the role of video journalist within the paper and Website? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there compelling pieces like that that you decide not to cover? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact do you expect from technical changes? </li></ul>Trevis answered the above questions in an interview. Check your guesses on the following pages. ?
Source: Online Journalism Review http://www.ojr.org/ojr/stories/600916Junnarkar <ul><li>D o you frame shots differently for the Web and for TV, or do you work with the same material for both? T he video screen is smaller on the computer monitor, therefore we should shoot tighter . But shooting tight is a good technique, whether you are shooting for television or for film. People typically sit closer to their computer screens than to their televisions, so proportionally the Web video looks bigger. I don't think it makes any difference… . you should have everything on a tripod to be stable because any sort of camera shake would cause the pixels to be refreshed, which would slow down your processor, </li></ul><ul><li>Do you cut it differently for TV than you do for the Web? On television you want it to be fast moving because you don't want anyone to click on their remote control and go to the next channel, right? You want to keep their attention all the time. Whereas on the web you don't want someone to go to a different Website. Obviously you want it to be tight and you want it to be fast moving. </li></ul><ul><li>What new ways of conveying a news story have you tried ? T ook the various media and combined them in a way that was logical , using a blog for user feedback and conversation; using the panoramas to give you a sense of place; and using videos to give you a sense of people, the character, the location, and then combing the two to give you a full picture of the story… .. a good model--not covering news on a day in and day out basis but the kind of stories that have legs and can go on for several weeks , several months, several years even . </li></ul>
<ul><li>What about the role of video journalist within the paper and Website? We don't want them to turn into television reporters, obviously. … we want to give them the time that they need to do newspaper reporting. But we want to be able to leverage their expertise into the video. </li></ul><ul><li>Are there compelling pieces that you decide not to cover? Certain stories are better in video but not so good in still pictures. And some stories are tough to do in either medium… . A story about the new budget on Capital Hill would probably be tough to do in either stills or a video. That would be more of a print story or a Flash graphics story. </li></ul><ul><li>What impact do you expect from technical changes? What's really going to be exciting is the Internet as a delivery means not as an end media. For us to really compete with television, we have to get our videos to your living room television screen. Because no matter how good it is on the computer it's never going to be as good as when it's on your TV or when it's on your high-definition plasma screen, right? </li></ul>Illustration only. (From the demonstration of Microsoft WindowsXP Media Center Edition)
Refresh your knowledge <ul><li>What is an interview? </li></ul><ul><li>An interview is a conversation between two people who often have different aims. </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewer is looking for something that will interest his audience. </li></ul><ul><li>The interviewee may be trying to make a particular point. </li></ul><ul><li>The best interviews elicit the sort of answers that satisfy both these aims. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic types of interview </li></ul><ul><li>The news interview - this is where the reporter just wants the facts. Perhaps you've just witnessed a car accident or an armed robbery. The questions you will be asked are factual ones: Who, Where, When and What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>The information interview - this is an amalgam of facts and opinions. Perhaps you have been invited to give your views on a social or ethical issue. More time is spent on answering questions such as: How and Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The in-depth interview - this is usually done completely on the interviewee's wavelength. These interviews deal with very personal matters, for instance, celebrity interviews or people with a story to tell. </li></ul>Recommendations: - questions should not be too general; - several questions should not be put at the same time; - should not be too long; - should not trigger "yes" or "no" answers; - should not suggest the answer; - should not be hypothetical or rhetoric. Questions such as: "What do you think about...?", "What do you have to say about...?", "What is new in...?", "What do you have to add?" are considered inappropriate. Source: Diocese of Ely http://www.ely.anglican.org/news_events/radio_tv_interview.html
Online interview? educationtalk.guardian.co.uk washingtonpost.com <ul><li>Journalist acts as moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Readers’ voice is anonymous and direct </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewee and interviewer are overdominated by readers </li></ul><ul><li>Users’ questions received in advance and realtime </li></ul>
<ul><li>Choose a hot topic of your forums. All communities have their own heated debates. This can either be politics, lifestye, ethics or any kind of every-day issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Invite a person who is famous and has got a definite view in this debate, but open to alternative views. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare your guest to very straight questions and recommend him or her to give at least a short reply to as many questions as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Announce the interview in advance, you may even use a teaser campaign for this within the forum and ask the members to collect and post their questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the arrangements in a way that your guest arrives at least an hour before the announced time of the online interview. Use this time to show the guest the preliminary questions arranged by the main topics. Use a web camera and ensure a typist whose only task is to type the guest’s answer. </li></ul><ul><li>During the interview when you post a question, mention all the members who posted questions in this topic. Do not forget that you are only a moderator, the interview is actually run by the members of the forum. </li></ul><ul><li>Filter only the most extreme and intolerable notes which are against the constitution. Posts that are aggressive but not against law, should not be filtered out, but ignored in the interview. </li></ul><ul><li>After the interview immediately start to work on an edited version of the text. Reverse the order of comments to serve those who did not have a chance to follow the interview live. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your guest to follow up the forum for a while and add comments if needed. </li></ul>9 points of a successful online interview :
Blog : a website created in less than 5 minutes <ul><li>What is a blog? </li></ul><ul><li>A blog is a free easy-to-use web site, where everybody can quickly post thoughts, comments and interact with people . </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike some years ago, today’s technology enables everybody to install its own site very easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Users or journalists are free to develop, improve and animate their personal blog. </li></ul>Blogging has become a new media and communication tool. A blog i s a personal diary. A daily pulpit. A collaborative space. A political soapbox. A breaking-news outlet. A collection of links. Your own private thoughts. Memos to the world . http://www.blogger.com
Journalist blog – the example of Compact (RO) Name and picture of the blogger, Horia, editor in chief of Compact, RO. Editors of Compact, with their own blogs. Short, personal commentary pointing out to a debated issue. Display the blog in a good position in your menu. Readers can comment the article of Horia. You can read the full debate about the topic. If Horia feels it necessary, he answers readers’ comments. http://compact.info.ro
What is a blog? <ul><li>Blogs are not newspapers Many bloggers differentiate themselves from the mainstream media, while others are members of that media working through a different channel. Some institutions see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" and pushing messages directly to the public. Some critics worry that bloggers respect neither copyright nor the role of the mass media in presenting society with credible news. </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs are not only diaries Blogs often provide commentary or news and information on a particular subject, such as food, politics, or local news; some function as more personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs may help journalists Bloggers' credibility problem, however, can be an advantage for the bloggers and for the mainstream journalists who take an interest in them. News organizations are sometimes reluctant to tell stories that will upset important people. But when bloggers or activists make sensational claims, then they become stories themselves, and journalists can use them as cover for reporting the underlying scandals. </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs should be part of newspaper sites Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs -- well over 300, according to CyberJournalist.net's J-blog list. Requires regular activity. </li></ul>Source: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog http://www.nolblog.hu/
Blog content vs. newspaper content Newspaper sites Blog sites „ 66% of people maintaining blogs don't label their acts as journalism. The other 34% considered their blogging as journalism because they engage in journalistic functions like fact-checking and linking to sources…” Source: Pew Internet Project http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/186/report_display.asp ) News, factual report Commentary, diary report Newspaper sites are dominated by news and factual reports, even though they include some commentary as well. Whereas blogs are mostly used for personal self-expression, even if not exclusively.
Participation inequality <ul><li>In most online communities, 90% of users are lurkers who never contribute, 9% of users contribute a little, and 1% of users account for almost all the action. </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 1.1 billion Internet users, yet only 55 million users (5%) have weblogs according to Technorati. Worse, there are only 1.6 million postings per day; because some people post multiple times per day, only 0.1% of users post daily . </li></ul><ul><li>Although participation will always be somewhat unequal, there are ways to better equalize it, including: </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easier to contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Make participation a side effect, eg. in Amazon: „people who bought this book, bought these other books as well” </li></ul><ul><li>Reward – but do not over-reward participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote quality contributors. </li></ul>Source: Nielsen, Participation Inequality http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html
Long tail: even the smallest counts O ur culture and economy is shifting away from a focus on a relatively small number of "hits" (mainstream products and markets) at the head of the demand curve and toward a huge number of niches in the tail. As the costs of production and distribution fall, especially online, there is now less need to lump products and consumers into one-size-fits-all containers. Source: Chris Anderson http:// www.thelongtail.com <ul><li>Long Tail </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of niche markets is growing in the new economy. We have to be present with products on both side of the curve. Big hits provide high visibility, on the long tail side the newspaper will generate loyalty. </li></ul><ul><li>User generated content, citizen journalism, blogs are on the long tail. None of these services will generate big hits, but will tie readers to our brands. In the head of this diagram we have to see the articles written by journalists. </li></ul>
Blog style tips <ul><li>When you are posting an entry in the blog of your newspaper, you are in fact talking to two groups of audiences: on the one hand you are talking to the loyal readers of your newspaper brand, on the other hand you should expect readers who find your entry via search engines. The below tips work for both groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your pages short . Because blogs tend to feature short bursts of content, with each entry on its own page, by nature they are optimized for easy finding via web search engines like Google. Therefore one of the most important optimization principles is to keep your pages short and highly topical. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your pages on-topic . It is important to stay on-topic with each entry. People don’t have a lot of time, and they like to land on Web pages that are clearly about one thing. That goes for blog entry pages as much as for any other type of page. </li></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of keywords . Search engines match Web pages to keywords people search for. If you want better visibility in search engines, use the keywords you think your readers would be searching with. Don’t use them arbitrarily or indiscriminately: write your entries to the point, so that they are clearly topical to your readers and to the search engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Make your entry titles count . Blogs are famously informal and personal, but you miss an important chance to optimize your entry pages by not putting key topical words in your titles. And your readers might thank you for being clearer in your headings, too. </li></ul>Source: Blogging for Dummies, by Brad Hill. Wiley, 2006.
What will you learn in this chapter? <ul><li>First you will go through on the tips&tricks of news editing on the internet. You will learn how to use efficiently international and local news sources and you will also read about citizen reporting which is a new source for journalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Story management: all what you learnt so far about news and channels will be put together. You will understand how online and mobile can reinforce the success of print. Best practice examples are showing the advantages of the integrated multimedia journalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Readers' community: the journalist's role is changing. To be successful on the internet you will learn how to behave as a moderator on your local market. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile: Read a short outlook about news on the small screen of the mobile phones. </li></ul><ul><li>Usability background: your webpage is in strong competition with the others for the eyeballs. You have less then 2 minutes to convince readers that your page is worth coming back and visiting regularly. Overview of usability studies. </li></ul>
Personalized news agency http://www.netvibes.com News channels can be organized into tabs. Registration allows you to use the same settings both on your office and home computer. To add a new feed or function just drag its name to the rigth side of the window. News channels. You may select feeds from Netvibes directory or add your favourite. <ul><li>Key terminology: </li></ul><ul><li>News channel </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Subscribing </li></ul><ul><li>Feed reader </li></ul><ul><li>OPML </li></ul>Personalized startpages with multilingual menu: http://www.netvibes.com (Netvibes) http://www.live.com (Microsoft Live) http://www.google.com/ig (Google homepage) In addition to news channels Netvibes allows you to add and customize plenty of further functions: check you e-mail, search, to-do list, etc.
News aggregators They give an overview of the current news market and same time generates traffic to your site. Google News: Relies on the collective judgment of online news organizations to determine which stories are most deserving of inclusion and prominence on the News homepage. Personalized alert: e-mail, RSS http://hirlista.hu http://news.google.com Hungarian examples: www.hirlista.hu, www.hirkereso.hu, www.hirstart.hu
Citizen reporting How does a Blog differ from mainstream news? Blogs are not held to the same standards as traditional news outlets. Blogs are typically referred to as “grassroots”, or “citizen journalism”, but should be taken with a grain of salt. You have to consider the source, so don’t believe everything you read. That being said, blogs can often do a better job at reporting what’s happening than traditional sources. A good example of that was Interdictor’s Live Journal blog ( http://mgno.com/) . There was more accurate coverage during hurricane Katrina ( http://interdictor.livejournal.com/98501.html) than on any of the major three news networks. So for every example of someone complaining about the lack of quality found in weblogs, there are plenty of examples of people doing really good work as well. If you’re looking for “hard news”, then you’ll want to search CNN over Google. Source: Simply Digital http://www.simplydigital.info/episode-5-weblogs/ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/5181396.stm Best practice: A journalist generating a blog as a desktop research: the „School Security” story http://www.buzzmachine.com/index.php/2006/10/03/school-security-networked-reporting/
Mind your sources! The case of incorrectly identified Virginia Tech killer Read more on running your blog as a journalist in the chapter „Commentary” In April 16, 2007 one student of Virginia Polytechnic Institute killed 32 fellow-students. The tragedy happenned in a large, technology oriented community of young people, who were left for some hours without mainstream official information about hyperlocal events. In the absence of any official information from police on the identity of the killer, internet detectives claiming to be in-the-know have been calling attention -- on message boards and online aggregators like Digg -- to the LiveJournal blog of a particular 23-year-old gun maniac in Virginia. Even Fox News started writing about the blogger. It's easy to see why this rumor would get traction. The man's blog features photos of him holding firearms, as well as dark hints of obsessive love, and confirmation that he attends Virginia Tech. Within a few hours over 150 people have entered angry comments on the blog. The story was revealed by Wired magazine. They intentionally did not name or link to the blogger, to maintain the credit of their media. Instead the journalist searched for the blogger’s phone number and called it. Few hours later the blogger posted a message, and explained why he let the rumor live for so long : „ My original intention was to wait until I got AdSense on my site and donating all the proceeds to Charity. However, this situation has now spiraled out of control. I am now confirming that I am not the shooter.” Source: Wired News, http://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/2007/04/internet_names_.html On Digg.com users share intersting blog posts and other content by submitting links to the site, but they rarely check the truth value of the promoted content.
Measuring news update With RSS newsfeeds not only sources, but competitors and your own channels should also be followed. Each major sports newssource has a news feed. You can find it usually under the name „RSS”. Feedreader is one of the several freely downloadable software, that can be used to aggregate news from different sources. 2. 4 hours later the first Hungarian source, Index.hu displayed this story. 3. In this case Nemzeti Sport published the story with more than 6 hours delay. This can be either a result of unawareness or conscious editorial policy, determining other focuses. 1. Original news appears on autosport.com Download Feedreader here: http://www.feedreader.com/download
Google for journalists http://video.google.com/ http://translate.google.com „ And now, for just a moment, I would like you to imagine what today’s life would be without all that. What life would be without Google... and how much more time we’d be spending on solving our problems.” Source: Philipp Lensen, 55 Ways to Have Fun With Google http://www.55fun.com/book.pdf . http ://video.google.com/ - search by keywords Video search http://www.google.com/language_tools - language specific search Language http://images.google.com/ - search by keywords Image search http://blogsearch.google.com Blog search How? Function
http://maps.google.com http://www.google.com/ link: yoursite.com - A list of sites that link to your site. If they are credible, the site may also be credible - although that is hardly a guarantee Web reference define: word - Gives dictionary defintions for (English) words. Definition teaspoons in 1 litre - Eg. 202 teaspoons in a litre. This works even with very old, obscure or scientific units. Unit exchange 10 USD in HUF Currency exchange How? Function
More about Google 30 additional Google search tricks More Google services What are they working on actually at Google?
The story management concept <ul><li>The purpose of story management: </li></ul><ul><li>Generate more reading-sessions during the day, attract readers to return </li></ul><ul><li>Provide content for all the channels of your brand </li></ul><ul><li>Win the news competition, publish information first and get back references from competitors </li></ul>News Cycle: Amount of information Time Event Entry All available information about the event is reported. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Development The event is explained, first backgrounds and relations with other topics researched and presented sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Follow-up Follow-up news about the event is generated, other relations to other topics presented, open question answered. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd Conclusion Review of the event, the consequences and the entire report published. sms | web | teletext | print | book | cd-rom | dvd
Newsdesk and story management <ul><li>What is a NewsDesk? </li></ul><ul><li>A NewsDesk is an interdisciplinary team that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>leads all editorial processes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decides on content (topic, quantity, quality, point in time), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is responsible for the graphic presentation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses cross-media synergies and potentials in an optimised way. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a NewsDesk team, all relevant sub-processes for the crossmedia publication process are integrated. </li></ul>Source: Ifra Newsplex, Dr. Dietmar Schantin
CNN: case study of story building <ul><li>CNN newsroom is publishing on a lot of channels. </li></ul><ul><li>A detailed study reveals that the use of these channels is governed by a well-designed priority that ensures CNN’s lead in the news media. </li></ul><ul><li>SMS breaking news alert is used to distribute the very first wire version of the story, basic facts only. By the time alerts are distributed, the wire (Reuters) version is published on web and WAP. </li></ul><ul><li>On WAP version bulleted highlight and detailed source references are ignored and sometimes even the text of the story is slightly modified. Front page headline text is used also for RSS and desktop alert. </li></ul><ul><li>As soon as CNN is ready with its own version of the story, the web and WAP versions are replaced with a new text referring to own sources. Follow-up can also be based on local news agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>CNN channels </li></ul><ul><li>TV broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>Internet services </li></ul><ul><li>Web (cnn.com) </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop alert, ticker </li></ul><ul><li>Pipeline (premium video on demand) </li></ul><ul><li>CNN video (free streaming video) </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Podcast audio and video </li></ul><ul><li>Transcripts </li></ul><ul><li>Offline versions (on DVD, VHS, fax, e-mail) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile services </li></ul><ul><li>CNN Mobile TV </li></ul><ul><li>SMS breaking news alerts </li></ul><ul><li>CNN mobile news (WAP) </li></ul><ul><li>PDA (AvantGo) </li></ul><ul><li>CNNtoGO (for US mobile customers) </li></ul>
A sample news story The event: passenger plane hijacked from Mauritania - Febr 15, 2007 21:03 Reuters published breaking news, only two sentences (reuters.com) 21:20 Breaking news on cnnmobile.com WAP site. Source: Reuters 21:40 Breaking news published on cnn.com, still based on Reuters. 21:48 SMS alert is sent to subscribers. RSS and desktop alerts based on the headline text. 1:51 (next morning) CNN’s own story published in „international news” section 16:22 All details of the hijacking, based on AP An Air Mauritania flight landed in the Canary Islands after it was hijacked Thursday by a man who was subdued by passengers.
21:03 – Reuters wire story Air Mauritania hijack ends, suspect arrested - radio LAS PALMAS, Spain (Reuters) - The hijacking of an Air Mauritania plane ended in the Spanish Canary Islands on Thursday, a Spanish government official told RNE national radio. A single suspect was arrested, Spanish media said. Emergency services earlier said several people had been wounded by gunfire. No further details were immediately available. "Fortunately the hijacking incident has ended favourably," Jose Segura, a government representative in the Canary Islands, told RNE. He added that 71 passengers and 8 crew were on the plane.
21:20 – CNN breaking news on wap Hijacked jet lands on Spain islands An Air Mauritania Boing 737 passanger plane hijacked on an internal flight has flown to the Spanish Canary Islands after stopping for fuel in the Western Sahara, Mauritanian official said. "It has gone to the Canaries," a source closed to the presidency told Reuters. The head of the Mauritanian state news agency said the plane had already touched down. Earlier, a police officer at Nouakchott airport told Reuters the plane had been hijacked on a flight to the northern port town of Nouadhibou and had flown instead to Dakhla in Western Sahara to take on fuel. "There was at least one armed person on board. We don't know his identity," the state news agency chief, Moussa Hamed, said."
21:40 – CNN top story on web Hijacking ends on Spanish island Story highlights * Passenger plane hijacked from Mauritania in WestAfrica * Plane lands at airport in Canary Islands, territory of Spain * One person arrested, government reports * Earlier reports say gunfire occurs LAS PALMAS, Spain (Reuters) -- The hijacking of an Air Mauritania plane Thursday ended in the Canary Islands, a Spanish government official told RNE national radio. An Air Mauritania Boeing 737 passenger plane with 71 passengers and eight crew members aboard was hijacked after take off from the airport in Nouakchott, Mauritania’s capital, Mauritanian officials said. A single suspect was arrested, Spanish media said. Emergency services earlier said several people had been wounded by gunfire. No further details were immediately available. "Fortunately the hijacking incident has ended favorably," Jose Segura, a government representative in the Canary Islands, told RNE. Earlier, a police officer at Nouakchott airport said the plane had been hijacked on a flight to the northern Mauritania port town of Nouadhibou and had flown instead to Dakhla in Western Sahara to take on fuel. The Canary Islands, off the northwest coast of Africa, are a territory of Spain.
21:48 – SMS breaking news alert Find the the teaser page of mobile services on cnn.com. A lot of newspaper site offer similar SMS alert services. CNN asks for your personal and payment details. Credit card payment is done via secure connection. Select channels. You will be charged with a monthly flat fee per each alert channel that you subscribe to. 8 minutes later CNN alerts journalists via SMS service. Learn how to use such a service. CNN’s SMS alerts are strongly recommended for journalists covering international news. Be careful: too many SMS alerts may disturb your work. 21:48 - From: CNN CNN Alert Hijackers seize passenger jet in Mauritania and land on Spain's Canary Islands, police and meda say according to wire reports. The service is indepent of your mobile operator, you pay directly to the content provider and your operator does not charge you. After subscribing you receive the first SMS when the next breaking news event happens.
1:51 (next morning) – CNN’s story Passengers subdue armed hijacker Story highlights • NEW: Air Mauritania flight landed safely in Canary Islands • Canaries official: Plane had 71 passengers and 8 crew • Hijacker arrested; his identity not yet released LAS PALMAS, Spain (CNN) -- A man armed with two pistols hijacked an Air Mauritania flight Thursday but was subdued by two passengers, a Spanish official said. The plane landed safely in the Canary Islands and no one was hurt, the official said. The senior Spanish government source said a man had been trying to commandeer the Boeing 737 to Paris. He was arrested by the civil guard after the jet landed at Gando Airport, the source told CNN. Jose Segura, the central government's chief representative in the Canaries, told Ser, a Spanish radio station, that the plane was carrying 71 passengers and eight crew members. Reports differed on the hijacker's nationality, with one senior Spanish government source saying he is Moroccan and Segura describing him as Mauritanian. Abass Bass, a representative of the Mauritanian Embassy in Washington, described the incident as a "tentative hijacking." "The information we had from Mauritania is that the passengers fought back and they took the hijacker and now everything is OK," Bass told CNN. Bass said the flight had been scheduled to be an interior one, from the capital city of Nouakchott to Nouadhibou, in northern Mauritania, near Morocco.
16:22 – Detailed story on CNN, using AP’s report Fast-thinking pilot foiled hijack Story Highlights • NEW: Air Mauritania flight landed safely in Canary Islands • Canaries official: Plane had 71 passengers and 8 crew • Hijacker arrested; his identity not yet released TENERIFE, Spain (AP) -- A fast-thinking pilot, with the help of passengers, fooled a gunman who had hijacked a jetliner flying from Africa to the Canary Islands, braking hard upon landing then quickly accelerating to knock the man down so travelers could pounce on him, Spanish officials said Friday. A lone gunman brandishing two pistols hijacked the Air Mauritania Boeing 737, carrying 71 passengers and a crew of eight, Thursday evening shortly after it took off from the Mauritanian capital of Nouakchott for Gran Canaria, one of Spain's Canary Islands, with a planned stopover in Nouadhibou in northern Mauritania. He wanted to divert the plane to France so he could request political asylum, said Mohamed Ould Mohamed Cheikh, Mauritania's top police official. The hijacker has been identified as Mohamed Abderraman, a 32-year-old Mauritanian, said an official with the Spanish Interior Ministry office on Tenerife, another of the islands in the Atlantic archipelago. He spoke under rules barring publication of his name. Mauritania has said the hijacker was a Moroccan from the Western Sahara. The hijacker ordered the pilot to fly to France, but the crew told him there was not enough fuel. Morocco denied a request for the plane to land in the city of Djala in the Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara, so the pilot headed for Las Palmas in Gran Canaria, the original destination. Speaking to the gunman during the hijacking, the pilot realized the man did not speak French. So he used the plane's public address system to warn the passengers in French of the ploy he was going to try: brake hard upon landing, then speed up abruptly. The idea was to catch the hijacker off balance, and have crew members and men sitting in the front rows of the plane jump on him, the Spanish official said. The pilot also warned women and children to move to the back of the plane in preparation for the subterfuge, the official said. It worked. The man was standing in the middle aisle when the pilot carried out his maneuver, and he fell to the floor, dropping one of his two 7mm pistols. Flight attendants then threw boiling water from a coffee machine in his face and at his chest, and some 10 people jumped on the man and beat him, the Spanish official said. Around 20 people were slightly injured when the plane braked suddenly, the official said. Spanish officials -- and some passengers -- had initially been concerned that the hijacking was terrorism-related; it came on the day a trial began of 29 people accused of the 2004 Madrid train bombings. "We were afraid. We thought it was people from al-Qaida or the Algerian GSPC who were going to cut our throats," said Aicha Mint Sidi, a 45-year-old woman who was on the plane. The GSPC is a Muslim extremist group. "I trembled during and after the hijacking. I thought the plane was going to blow up any minute, either in mid-air or on landing," said another passenger, Dahi Ould Ali, 52. Both spoke after returning to Nouakchott. The hijacker was arrested by Spanish police who boarded the plane after it landed at Gando airport, outside Las Palmas. Air Mauritania identified the heroic pilot as Ahmedou Mohamed Lemine, a 20-year-veteran of the company.
New media requires new style of project management <ul><li>Conventional project management </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplish a plan </li></ul><ul><li>Use the plan to reach the result </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-define the processes of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Corrections must consider the base plan </li></ul><ul><li>Just one attempt is allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Target. Target. Shoot. </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfill a desired goal </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the desired goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the preliminary results in the procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Correct anything that is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Several attempts, finally success </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot. Target. Shoot. </li></ul>“ An extreme project is a complex, high speed, self-correcting venture in search of a desirable result under conditions of high uncertainty, high change and high stress.” Doug De Carlo
Example: launch in 6 weeks The site of this book, www.21stCenturyJournalism.com was launched by a team of four persons within 6 weeks. The project followed the methodolgy of Extreme Project Management. All tasks of the site launch were carried out by the project team. The total outsource cost is USD 100. <ul><li>Resources: </li></ul><ul><li>Manager and owner of the concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Content editor </li></ul><ul><li>Designer </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer </li></ul>Static content Book for sale at amazon.com Logo Selection of dynamic content: Best 50 RSS feeds Videoblog on YouTube Automatic tagging via Yahoo’s free Term Extraction service Domain registration, hosting ( siteground.com ) Project tasks: Creation of the site concept Freeware content management system ( Joomla ) Design and its deployment
Risk management programmer designer content editor Why didn’t tell me that the design will include Flash? My PHP code can not embed Flash. The layout cannot tolerate long texts. Either you edit the text content or I have to create a new design. Until the content management system contains so many bugs, I can update the blog once a week only. manager Guys, our project is delayed. What is your problem? Question: How would you prepare for and manage all these risks?
Project plan for launching a site Weekly breakdown of all the major tasks to launch a site like www.21stCenturyJournalism.com . In reality the tasks consisted of 1-2 days periods followed by tests, discussions and these often resulted minor changes in all details.
Diffusion of innovations Source: Brad Griffin, Why Don’t Good Ideas Fly?, http://www.cyfm.net/article.php?article=Dont_Good_Ideas_Fly.html , Roger Clarke, A Primer in Diffusion of Innovations Theory, http ://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke/SOS/InnDiff.html <ul><li>Some inventions 'take the world by storm' (archetype: the Sony Walkman). </li></ul><ul><li>Others seem to fail, lie dormant for decades, but when 'their time has come', their use grows quickly, even explosively (archetype: the fax machine). </li></ul><ul><li>Most achieve slow penetration at first, then their adoption grows more quickly, but later slows down again. </li></ul>Who are the early adopters? Earlier adopting individuals tend not to be different in age, but to have more years of education, higher social status and upward social mobility, be in larger organisations, have greater empathy, less dogmatism, a greater ability to deal with abstractions, greater rationality, greater intelligence, a greater ability to cope with uncertainty and risk, higher aspirations, more contact with other people, greater exposure to both mass media and interpersonal communications channels and engage in more active information seeking. Extensive marketing - Required to reach early adopters: on the Internet viral marketing is the most effective. Intensive marketing – Use it when adoption rate slows down: find inner reserves of growth.
Examples of viral marketing The Blair Witch Project is a low-budget American horror film released in 1999. The narrative is presented as a documentary pieced together from amateur footage. The advertisements for the film were designed to reinforce the 'documentary' concept. This was done so extensively that the three main actors were listed for a time as "missing, presumed dead" on IMDb movie catalogue . Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blair_Witch_Project Movie marketing Free e-mail services Users of Yahoo mail participate in marketing the service. When Gmail was first announced, access to the service was limited to those who have an invitation from an existing account holder, from Blogger, or through their mobile phone. Google stated that the invitation system intended to initially reduce the amount of abuse.
Example…. (cont.) Hi turilaszlo As I've seen, you are uploading videos on Youtube and sharing them for the public. Very nice! Well... I want you to invite, sharing your clips also on http://www.clipser.com. We went just live a few weeks ago and are now looking for lots and lots of people, uploading their videos on our site to get bigger and make and share our profits with all the people that participate. Are you becoming curious? :) The thing is as easy as watching clips. You will get for every upload, every invite and every watch of your video a few Clipser Dollars which will be transformed in procentual relation of all Clipser Dollars into real currency, once we've built up our audience and have a mentionable cashflow. Check it out now! You'll get all the information about us, about the Clipser Dollars and the reward program on our homepage. regards, FP PS: Feel free to ask and suggest things if you're still curious or you have great ideas! And feel free to tell your friends about us! ;) Viral marketing mail of a startup video sharing company. The e-mail was sent to YouTube users’ inbox. YouTube sent e-mail notification. In fact they promoted their future competitor. Video sharing service
Let readers distribute your content On Digg, users share intersting online content by submitting links to the site. Digg audience can promote content by voting. del.icio.us allows users to save their bookmarks online. It also gives users the ability to "tag" their bookmarks and see how many other people have bookmarked the same pages, Reddit allows users to submit news articles. Users may vote on the articles and Reddit uses those votes to find articles to recommend to you. Users of Google's personalized homepage can save bookmarks and label them with keywords. The service is available in many languages. In MyYahoo you can save bookmarks to your personal page, tag and share. Facebook is made up of many networks - individual schools, companies or regions. Users of Facebook can "share" news stories on their profile page. E-mail this The most common form of viral marketing for content. Since it does not require third-party service, there are no language issues. Make your content freely available on the web to attract users to your site. The popular viral marketing services and tools help you to share your content, thus they do the lion’s share of the work instead of you. Source: WashingtonPost.com, MarketingTerms.com RSS – consider it a marketing tool. (See more about RSS feeds earlier.)
Extensive: SEO, banner csere, RSS, widget <ul><li>http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117788946503386423.html - newspaper sites buying search keywords for major stories </li></ul><ul><li>Make your content freely available to drag readers to your site </li></ul>
Intensive: Hidden reserves of newspaper websites Even if editors invest a lot of effort to update news, readers consider most daily paper site as a static one. You should make your continous updates visible to get your readers visit you both in the morning and evenging as well. A reggel 8-as csúcsot kell kihasználni arra, hogy akkor vmi olyasmit mondani, ami miatt később visszajön. És ez egy egyszerű üzenet legyen: gyere vissza délután ezért v. azért – tiszta szituáció legyen: du. interjú lesz. A newspaper website A web-only magazine . Make your site more intesively used Source: Webaudit.hu. The charts show two Hungarian websites . Segment your readers by providing personalized, local information. Pl. Google analytics alapján nézd meg, honnan jönnek a userek: ott hirdess, ahonnan jönnek. Ahol lefele me
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