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Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
Learning from US research on assessment and feedback
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Learning from US research on assessment and feedback

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Learning from US research on assessment and feedback

Learning from US research on assessment and feedback

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  • 1. Learning from US Research on Assessment and Feedback John Kleeman, Questionmark CETIS Assessment and Feedback : Feb 2nd 2011Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 2. Introduction  John Kleeman  Founder and Chairman of Questionmark  www.questionmark.com  blog.questionmark.com  Twitter: @johnkleeman  Experienced e-assessment practitioner  Not an academic nor a psychologist Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 2 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 3. Which learning method will retain information best a week later? A. Study a subject, no test B. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, no feedback C. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, feedback after each question D. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, feedback at the end of the test Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 3 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 4. Graph from Roediger & Butler : The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2010. Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 4 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 5. Which learning method will retain information best a week later? A. Study a subject, no test B. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, no feedback C. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, feedback after each question D. Study a subject, take a multiple choice test, feedback at the end of the quiz Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 5 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 6. Retrieval helps you learn  Francis Bacon, 1620  If you read anything over twenty times, you will not learn it by heart so easily as if you were to read it only ten, trying to repeat it between whiles, and when memory failed, looking at the book. Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 6 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 7. Learning  Learning is only useful if you can use or retrieve the learning Receive Working Long term information memory memory Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 7 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 8. Retrieval • Question  Research evidence Cue • Other stimulus shows that retrieval practice helps future retrieval • Retrieve from long term memory Search • Act or respond Act Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 8 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 9. Two randomly selected groups study a reading passage. Group 1 studies it for 14 minutes. Group 2 studies it for 7 minutes and takes a quiz/test  Who learns most? A. Group 1 B. Group 2 C. Group 1 learn more immediately but retain less after a week D. Group 2 learn more immediately but retain less after a week Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 9 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 10. Graph from Test-Enhanced Learning : Roediger and Karpicke 2006. Psychological Science. Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 10 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 11. Two randomly selected groups study a reading passage. Group 1 studies it for 14 minutes. Group 2 studies it for 7 minutes and takes a quiz/test  Who learns most? A. Group 1 B. Group 2 C. Group 1 learn more immediately but retain less after a week D. Group 2 learn more immediately but retain less after a week Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 11 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 12. Retrieval practice key findings  Retrieval practice helps retention of learning  Questions/quizzes are a good way of giving retrieval practice, other routes also possible  Unprompted questions (e.g. short answer) best  Multiple choice questions still useful Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 12 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 13. Learning in a Perfect World (a stylized view) Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 13 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 14. Learning in the Actual World They don’t get it All! Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 14 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 15. Learning Curve Purpose: • Content repetition • Memory retrieval practice • Strengthens memory recall Ouch! The Forgetting Curve Knowledge/Skills Experience Experience Experience Questions Questions Learning Learning Time Learning Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 15 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 16. In the Actual World They Forget It! Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 16 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 17. Slow the Forgetting Curve Purpose: • Memory retrieval practice • Strengthens memory recall • Reduce Forgetting Curve Knowledge/Skills Experience Experience Experience Questions Questions Questions Questions Learning Learning Time Learning Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 17 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 18. Where does feedback fit in? • Question  Feedback most useful • Other stimulus Cue on incorrect answers • Retrieve from long  Some value on Search term memory correct answers • Act or respond Act • Correct misconceptions Feedback • Re-encode Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 18 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 19. Feedback tip #1 – give feedback  Students only know they are wrong if you tell them  Short answer questions give retrieval practice without feedback, help learning more with feedback  Multiple choice questions can be dangerous for learning without feedback  Do include the correct answer, in most contexts, just telling people they are wrong doesn’t help learning  Applies also in summative exams Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 19 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 20. Feedback tip #2 – do retrieval first  Usually force people do the retrieval before you give them feedback  For instance, don’t allow them to peek ahead to see the right answer  Otherwise you are depriving them of the retrieval practice  Exception when building understanding Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 20 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 21. Feedback tip #3 – give retrieval practice later  If someone gets a question wrong, they are deprived the positive learning effects of retrieval  So if you can, after giving feedback, give another opportunity for retrieval practice (e.g. retake questions on the topic) Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 21 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 22. Feedback tip #4 – get people to pay attention  Feedback is only useful if learners pay attention  Give feedback in a way that people will attend  Consider attention span  Vary feedback methods  Review whether to give feedback on correct answers  Monitor effect of feedback Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 22 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 23. Feedback tip #5 – delay feedback if you can  A slight delay on feedback is usually better than immediate feedback  Probably due to the spacing effect in learning  Research not fully conclusive Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 23 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 24. A reminder of the impact of retrieval and feedback Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 24 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 25. Some questions for you  Do people retain more by studying or by studying and answering questions?  Is feedback more important for short answer questions or multiple choice questions?  Should you allow people to peek ahead at feedback before answering a question? Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 25 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 26. Where to learn more  Three prominent researchers in the field  Professor Henry Roediger  University of Washington in St. Louis, Memory Lab  http://psych.wustl.edu/memory/publications/  Assistant Professor Jeffrey Karpicke  Purdue University, Indiana  http://memory.psych.purdue.edu/publications/  Assistant Professor Elizabeth Marsh  Duke University, North Carolina  http://pn.aas.duke.edu/sites/marsh/publications.html Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 26 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 27. Dr Will Thalheimer  Expert at translating research into practice  Two free white papers on Questionmark website http://www.questionmark.com/whitepapers  The Learning Benefit of Questions  Providing Feedback to Learners Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 27 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 28. Learn more from me  Follow my learning in this area  http://blog.questionmark.com  Twitter : @johnkleeman  Any questions or comments or suggestions feel free to email me at john@questionmark.com Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 28 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.
  • 29. Can you give some feedback to me? Copyright © 1995-2011 Questionmark Corporation and/or Questionmark Computing Limited, known collectively as Questionmark. All rights reserved.Slide 29 Questionmark is a registered trademark of Questionmark Computing Limited. All other trademarks are acknowledged.

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