The International Olympic Committee (ICO) is an international corporation basedin Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president. Today its membership consists ofthe 205 National Olympic Committees (though Kuwait is suspended since 2010).The IOC organizes the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, heldin Summer and Winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics organizedby the International Olympic Committee were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896;the first Winter Olympics were in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Until 1992, bothSummer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year,however, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the even years betweenSummer Games, to help space the planning of the two events two years apartfrom one another, and improve the financial balance of the IOC, that gets biggerincome on Olympic years. The first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singaporein 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics are due to be held in Innsbruck in2012.
On 23 June 1894, the Olympic games were re-created as aninternational tournament by Pierre de Coubertin. The baron hoped tofoster international communication and peace through the OlympicGames. The IOC is a parent organization intended to localizeadministration and authority for the Games, as well as to provide asingle legal entity which owns copyrights, trademarks, and otherintangible properties associated with the Olympic games. For example,the Olympic logos, the design of the Olympic flag, the motto, creed, andanthem are all owned and administered by the IOC. Data, as in therecording, broadcasting, reproduction, exploitation and anythingrelating to the organization is also the property of the IOC. There areother organizations which the IOC coordinates as well, which arecollectively called the Olympic Movement. The IOC President isresponsible for representing the IOC as a whole, and there aremembers of the IOC which represent the IOC in their respectivecountries.
MEMBERS COUNT FRO RY M UNTILMario Lucchesi- ITALY 1984 1984PalliDemetrios Vikelas 1894 1897 GREEC EArthur Russell G.B. 1894 1898Alexei de Butowski RUSSIA 1894 1900 NLeonard A. Cuff NEW 1894 1905 ZELAN DCharles Herbert G.B 1894 1906José Benjamín ARGEN 1894 1907Zubiaur TINAFerenc Kemény HUNGA 1894 1907 RYErnest Callot 1894 1913 FRANC
The mission of IOC is promote Olympism throughout the world and to lead theOlympic Movement.The IOCs role is to:1. Encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education ofyouth through sport and to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spiritof fair play prevails and violence is banned.2. Encourage and support the organization, development and coordination ofsport and sports competitions.3. Ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games.4. Cooperate with the competent public or private organizations and authorities inthe endeavor to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promotepeace.5. Take action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the independence ofthe Olympic Movement6. Act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement.7. Encourage and support the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in allstructures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men andwomen.8. Lead the fight against doping in sporting.
10. Oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes.11. Encourage and support the efforts of sports organizations and publicauthorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes.12. Encourage and support the development of sport for all.13. Encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues,to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the OlympicGames are held accordingly.14. Promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities andhost countries.15. Encourage and support initiatives blending sport with culture andeducation.16. Encourage and support the activities of the International OlympicAcademy (IOA) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympiceducation.
The IOC Session is the general meeting of the members of the IOC, heldonce a year in which each member has one vote. It is the IOC’s supremeorgan and its decisions are final.Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon thewritten request of at least one third of the members.Among others, the powers of the Session are:* To adopt or amend the Olympic Charter.* To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and thehonorary members.* To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of theIOC Executive Board.* To elect the host city of the Olympic Games.
The IOC Executive Board consists of the President, four Vice-Presidentsand ten other members. All members of the IOC Executive Board areelected by the Session, in a secret ballot, by a majority of the votes cast.The IOC Executive Board assumes the general overall responsibility forthe administration of the IOC and the management of its affairs.The IOC Session elects, by secret ballot, the IOC President from amongits members for a term of eight years renewable once for a term of fouryears. The current IOC President, Jacques Rogge, was re-elected for asecond term that consists of four years on 9 October 2009. FormerPresident Juan Antonio Samaranch has been elected Honorary PresidentFor Life.
In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number ofother honours:* The IOC Presidents Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes whohave excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created alasting impact on their sport.* The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate aspecial spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events* The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record ofmerit and integrity in actively developing the Olympic Movement* The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for particularly distinguishedcontributions to the Olympic Movement, and superseded the Olympic Certificate.
The total number of IOC members may not exceed 115. Each member of the IOC iselected for a term of eight years and may be re-elected for one or several furtherterms.1. A majority of members whose memberships are not linked to any specific functionor office; their total number may not exceed 70; there may be no more than one suchmember national of any given country.2. Active athletes, the total number of whom may not exceed 15, elected for eightyears by their peers during the Olympic Games.3. Presidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within IFs,associations of IFs or other organizations recognized by the IOC, the total number ofwhom may not exceed 15.4. Presidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position withinNOCs, or world or continental associations of NOCs, the total number of whom maynot exceed 15; there may be no more than one such member national of any givencountry within the IOC. THE FIRST IOC
In the early 1980s, the Olympics were on the verge of bankruptcy when the IOCdrafted a team to help market the event and the organization. In 1998, one of themembers of that team, Michael Payne, became the first marketing director of theIOC. During his 20 years with the IOC, Payne created a multi-billion dollarmarketing program for the organization which turned the Games aroundfinancially.RevenueThe Olympic Movement generates revenue through five major programs. TheOlympic Movement generated a total of more than US$4 billion, €2.5 billion inrevenue during the most recent Olympic quadrennial (2001–2004).Revenue distributionThe IOC distributes some of Olympic marketing revenue to organizationsthroughout the Olympic Movement to support the staging of the Olympic Gamesand to promote the worldwide development of sport. The IOC retainsapproximately 8% of Olympic marketing revenue for the operational andadministrative costs of governing the Olympic Movement.
The NOCs receive financial support for the training and development of Olympicteams, Olympic athletes and Olympic hopefuls. The IOC distributes TOP programrevenue to each of the NOCs throughout the world. The IOC also contributesOlympic broadcast revenue to Olympic Solidarity, an IOC organization thatprovides financial support to NOCs with the greatest need.The continued success of the TOP program and Olympic broadcast agreementshas enabled the IOC to provide increased support for the NOCs with each Olympicquadrennial. The IOC provided approximately US$318.5 million to NOCs for the2001–2004 quadrennial.
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