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Common Foot Problems


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Common Foot Problems.. Symptoms,Signs,Complications, Treatments..etc

Common Foot Problems.. Symptoms,Signs,Complications, Treatments..etc

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  • 1. Common Foot Problems A Project by
  • 2. Your Foot • The feet are flexible structures of bones, joints, muscles, and soft tissues that let us stand upright and perform activities like walking, running, and jumping.  The foot contains  26 bones  33 joints  19 muscles  107 ligaments.
  • 3. • The feet are divided into three sections 1. Forefoot 2. Midfoot 3. Hindfoot
  • 4.  Forefoot  Contains the five toes (phalanges) and the five longer bones (metatarsals).  Midfoot  Pyramid-like collection of bones that form the arches of the feet.  Include the three cuneiform bones, the cuboid bone, and the navicular bone.  Hindfoot  Forms the heel and ankle.  The talus bone supports the leg bones (tibia and fibula), forming the ankle.  The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest bone in the foot.
  • 5. Foot arches  Foot has three distinct arches.  Two "longitudinal" arches (one on each side) run from front to back  One "transverse arch" runs across the midfoot from inside to outside.
  • 6. Foot arches
  • 7. Functions of foot arches  The structure of an arch is the spread the load out so it can be supported with the least amount of effort and material.  Some shock absorbency,  Prevents blood vessels and nerves from being crushed.
  • 8. Functions of the foot  Proper functioning of the foot is required for normal gait
  • 9.  Weight Distribution Weight of the body is supported by the foot, and is transmitted and distributed over 6 areas Functions of the foot
  • 10. Common foot complaints  Hammertoes  Heel pain  Bunions  Athlete’s foot  Warts  Ingrowing nails
  • 11. Bunions • Common bunion is a localized area of enlargement of the inner portion of the joint at the base of the big toe.(abnormal bony bump) • Big toe pushes up against other toes, forcing big toe joint in the opposite direction • Causes the big toe to move outward ( hallux valgus deformity)
  • 12. • Most commonly affect women. • Bunions may or may not cause symptoms. • A less common bunion is located at the joint at the base of the smallest (fifth) toe. Bunions
  • 13. Bunions
  • 14. Bunions
  • 15. Bunions
  • 16. Bunions
  • 17. Bunions… Symptoms and Signs • Foot pain in the involved area when walking or wearing shoes. That is relieved by resting. • Bulging bump on the outside of the base of big toe • Swelling, redness or soreness around big toe joint • Thickening of the skin at the base of big toe • Restricted movement of big toe • Positioning of the big toe toward the smaller toes.
  • 18. Bunions… Causes • High-heeled or ill-fitting shoes • Inherited foot type • Foot injuries • Deformities present at birth (congenital) • May be associated with various forms of arthritis and an activities that puts extra stress on the feet (eg. Bunions are common in ballet dancers.)
  • 19. Bunions….Complications • Bunions are permanent unless surgically corrected, they are a structural deformity. • If the cushioning sac of fluid (bursa) over the affected joint becomes inflamed (bursitis), a bunion can be very painful and interfere with the normal activities. • May get larger and more painful, making nonsurgical treatment less effective.
  • 20. Bunions…Treatments Conservative treatment Nonsurgical treatments that may relieve the pain and pressure of a bunion include: • Changing shoes. Wear roomy, comfortable shoes that provide plenty of space for toes. • Padding and taping. tape and pad your foot in a normal position to reduce stress on the bunion and alleviate the pain. • Medications. Anti-inflammation medications/ local injection of steroids to ease inflammation as well as pain
  • 21. Bunions… Conservative treatment
  • 22. Bunions… Conservative treatment
  • 23. • Orthotic Inserts Goal of orthotics:  To reestablish the weight bearing parabola across all the metatarsals  Orthotics re-align the foot with the leg for more efficient function. In essence, the foot does not have to work as hard to accomplish the same movements.  For mild to moderate bunions that do not hurt on a daily basis, orthotic therapy can be very effective. • Others….  Simply resting the foot by avoiding excessive walking  Stretching exercises to reduce tension on the inner part of the joint Bunions…Treatments
  • 24. Severe Cases with persisting pain a surgical operation is considered for removal of the bunion. Bunions…Treatments
  • 25.  Bunion surgery is the ultimate correction of the structural deformity. (That does not necessarily mean that it is the best solution for every bunion)  Surgical operation to remove a bunion is referred to as a “Bunionectomy”.  Surgery involves breaking the metatarsal bone and moving it towards the second toe while relocating the big toe straight on the bone.  Some form of fixation is used to hold the metatarsal in place (pin, screw, etc) Bunions…Treatments
  • 26. Bunions… Surgical treatment
  • 27. Shoes Wearing comfortable shoes that fit well can prevent many foot problems.
  • 28. What qualities make up a well-constructed shoe? • Lightweight walking shoe • With breathable upper materials, such as leather or nylon mesh. • Very firm heel counter, the heel should have reduced cushioning to position the heel closer to the ground for walking stability. • The front or forefoot area of the shoe should have adequate support and flexibility.
  • 29. Shoes…. Tips for choosing right shoes for you • The size of your feet changes as you grow older so always have your feet measured before buying shoes. • Most of us have one foot that is larger than the other, so fit your shoe to your larger foot. • Don't select shoes by the size marked inside the shoe but by how the shoe fits your foot. • Select a shoe that is shaped like your foot.
  • 30. • Make sure there is enough space (3/8" to 1/2") for your longest toe at the end of each shoe when you are standing up. • Make sure the ball of your foot fits comfortably into the widest part of the shoe. • Don't buy shoes that feel too tight and expect them to stretch to fit. • Your heel should fit comfortably in the shoe with a minimum amount of slipping • Walk in the shoes to make sure they fit and feel right. Shoes…. Tips for choosing right shoes
  • 31. Hammertoes  A hammer toe or contracted toe is a deformity of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, or fourth toe causing it to be permanently bent, resembling a hammer.
  • 32. Hammertoes.... Causes  Wearing poorly fitting shoes that can force the toe into a bent position (eg. High heels)  Muscle, nerve, or joint damage resulting from conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke or diabetes  Often found in conjunction with bunions or other foot problems
  • 33. Hammertoes
  • 34. Hammertoes
  • 35. Hammertoes....Symptomes/Signs  Pain with walking  Difficulty moving the toe  Corns and calluses resulting from the toe rubbing against the inside of footwear
  • 36. Hammertoes....Treatment  Conservative treatment  Physical therapy  New shoes with soft, spacious toe box  Wear shoe inserts (orthotics) or pads to reposition the toe and relieve pressure and pain.  Surgical treatment If the toe has become tight and inflexible
  • 37. Hammertoes… Conservative Treatment
  • 38. Hammertoes… Surgical Treatment
  • 39. Heel pain “pain usually occurs underneath your heel (plantar fasciitis) or just behind it”
  • 40. Heel pain….Causes  Achilles tendinitis  Achilles tendon rupture  Bone bruise  Bone cyst  Bone spurs  Bursitis  Fracture  Gout  Heel pad wear and tear  Neuroma • Osteomyelitis • Peripheral neuropathy • Pinched nerve • Plantar fasciitis • Problems with your gait • Rheumatoid arthritis • Stress fractures • Tarsal tunnel syndrome • Tendinitis
  • 41. Heel pain... Treatment  Treatment of heel pain depends entirely on the cause of the problem.  Therefore, it is of utmost importance that you understand the cause of your symptoms before embarking on a treatment program.  Some general measures  Rest  Apply Ice Packs  Exercises and Stretches  Anti-Inflammatory Medications  Shoe Inserts-Orthotics
  • 42. Heel pain... Treatment Orthotic Inserts
  • 43. Neuroma “Neuroma is a growth or tumour of nerve tissue”.
  • 44. Morton's Neuroma • Morton's neuroma is a painful condition that affects the ball of your foot, most commonly the area between your third and fourth toes. • Involves a thickening of the tissue around one of the nerves leading to your toes. • May occur in response to irritation, injury or pressure.
  • 45. • A feeling as if you're standing on a pebble in your shoe • A burning pain in the ball of your foot that may radiate into your toes • Tingling or numbness in your toes Morton's Neuroma…. Symptoms
  • 46. • Non Surgical Treatment  Arch supports and foot pads fit inside your shoe and help reduce pressure on the nerve  An “Arch Cookie” pad can help to spread the metatarsals and give the nerve more space  Injection of steroids into the painful area  Injections of medications to desensitize the nerve Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  • 47. • Surgical Treatment  Cryogenic neuroablation • This minimally invasive procedure • Exposes the nerve to very cold temperatures • It interferes the transmission of pain signals • Results are not permanent.  Decompression surgery. • In some cases, surgeons can relieve the pressure on the nerve by cutting nearby structures Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  • 48.  Removal of the nerve • Surgical removal of the growth may be necessary if other treatments fail to provide pain relief. • As a last resort, because the procedure removes both the neuroma and the nerve, which can leave permanent numbness in the affected toes. Morton's Neuroma…. Treatments
  • 49. Athlete’s foot • Very common skin condition that affects the sole of the foot and the skin between the toes. • Usually a scaly, red, itchy eruption( occasionally may be weepy and oozing.) • Athlete's foot, also called tinea pedis, is the most common type of fungal infection.
  • 50. Athlete’s foot  Athlete's foot is contagious and can be spread by contact with an infected person or with contact with contaminated surfaces, such as towels, floors and shoes.
  • 51. Athlete’s foot
  • 52. Athlete’s foot
  • 53. Athlete’s foot
  • 54. • a man ? • Frequently wear damp socks or tight fitting shoes • Share mats, rugs, bed linens, clothes or shoes with someone who has a fungal infection • Walk barefoot in public areas where the infection can spread, such as locker rooms, saunas, swimming pools, communal baths and showers • Have a weakened immune system Athlete’s foot... Risk factors
  • 55. Athlete’s foot.... Causes  Caused by a fungus (group of mold-like fungi called dermatophytes ).  Can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, nail salons, airport security lines, and from contaminated socks and clothing  Athlete's foot is closely related to other fungal infections, including ringworm and jock itch- change the towel when drying off!
  • 56. Athlete’s foot... Symptoms  Itching, stinging and burning  Cracked and peeling skin between your toes on the soles of the feet  Excessive dryness of the skin on the bottoms or sides of the feet  Toenails that are thick, crumbly, ragged, discolored or pulling away from the nail bed
  • 57. Athlete’s foot… Treatment • Make the infected area less suitable for the athlete's foot fungus to grow  Keeping the area clean and dry.  Absorbent socks like cotton that wick water away • Antifungal creams and washes  Tea tree oil  Lamisil cream  Ertazco
  • 58. Plantar Warts • Warts are local growths in the skin that are caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection • Plantar warts are noncancerous skin growths on the soles of your feet • Virus enters the body through tiny cuts or breaks
  • 59. Plantar Warts
  • 60. • Often develop beneath pressure points in the feet, such as the heels or balls of the feet • Pressure also may cause a plantar wart to grow inward beneath a hard, thick layer of skin (callus). Plantar Warts
  • 61. Callus
  • 62. Callus
  • 63. Plantar Warts…..Signs & Symptoms • Small, fleshy, grainy lesions, or growths on feet • Hard, thickened skin (callus) where a wart has grown inwards • Black pinpoints- "wart seeds" ( actually small, clotted blood vessels) • Lesions that interrupt the normal lines and ridges in the skin of your feet • Pain or tenderness when walking or standing
  • 64. Plantar Warts…..
  • 65. Plantar Warts….. Complications • Plantar warts cause pain • May alter your normal posture or gait — perhaps without realizing the change • Contagious
  • 66. Plantar Warts…..Treatments • Plantar warts may resolve on their own without treatment within a couple of years. • If they are causing pain or spreading, they should be treated.  Freezing (cryotherapy)  Cantharidin.  Minor surgery  Laser treatment- can leave scarring
  • 67. Plantar Warts…..Treatments
  • 68. In Growing Toenails (Onychocryptosis) • Common condition in which the corner or side of one of your toenails grows into the soft flesh of that toe. • Usually affects your big toe. • Result is pain, redness, swelling and, sometimes, an infection.
  • 69. • Wearing shoes that crowd your toenails • Cutting your toenails too short or not straight across • Injury to your toenail • Unusually curved toenails In Growing Toenails…Causes
  • 70. • Pain and tenderness in your toe along one or both sides of the nail • Redness around your toenail • Swelling of your toe around the nail • Infection of the tissue around your toenail In Growing Toenails… Symptomes /Signs
  • 71. • Bacteria and fungi can easily infect the skin of the feet and nails. (Staphylococcus,Pseudomonas, Candida and Trichophyton) • May cause deeper bacterial tissue infection (Cellulitis), localized infection of the nail fold (Paronychia), and scarringg of the nail fold and skin. In Growing Toenails… Complications
  • 72. Often mild cases be treated through lifestyle  Applying an antibiotic cream  Soaking the foot regularly in Epson Salt warm water Medical interventions  Lifting the nail  Partially removing the nail/Removing nail and tissue In Growing Toenails… Treatment
  • 73. • Wear shoes that fit properly.  Shoes that you wear every day should have plenty of room around your toes.  But not be too loose. • When trimming your toenails:  Considering briefly soaking your foot in warm water to soften the nail  Use a clean, sharp nail trimmer In Growing Toenails… Prevention
  • 74. • When trimming your toenails:  Trim toenails straight across the top. Do not taper or round the corners or trim too short  Do not pick or tear at the nails  Keep the feet clean and dry In growing Toenails… Prevention
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