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History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
History Of Photography
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History Of Photography

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  • 1. History of Photography Luis Saldivar Period 5 Photography Mrs. Becker
  • 2. The Meaning <ul><li>Comes from 2 ancient Greek words: </li></ul><ul><li>- Photo = Light </li></ul><ul><li>- Graph = Draw or Write </li></ul><ul><li>Photography = Light Writing </li></ul>
  • 3. The Principles <ul><li>Optics </li></ul><ul><li>-Camera obscura = “darkroom” </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>- Silver chloride turns </li></ul><ul><li>dark under exposure. </li></ul>Leonardo da Vinci drawing; 1519
  • 4. Inventors <ul><li>1826: Nicéphore Niépce's produces the first permanent photograph, in France </li></ul><ul><li>- The image exposure required 8 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>1839: Louis Daguerre invents the daguerreotype </li></ul><ul><li>- Image exposed directly on </li></ul><ul><li>a polished silver surface (copper plate) </li></ul><ul><li>with a chemical coating. </li></ul><ul><li>-A “direct positive” process – </li></ul><ul><li>there is no negative from which copies </li></ul><ul><li>can be produced. </li></ul><ul><li>- Use of different chemical </li></ul><ul><li>coatings later resulted in shorter </li></ul><ul><li>exposure times </li></ul>Louis Daguerre, 1837; Still Life
  • 5. Important People <ul><li>Thomas Wedgwood </li></ul><ul><li>-Silhouettes, not permanent/ turned black unless stored in dark room </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Niepce </li></ul><ul><li>-Permanently capture image of camera obscura </li></ul><ul><li>-Summer of 1827; 1 st photograph </li></ul>Earliest surviving photograph, 1826
  • 6. Daguerreotypes <ul><li>Also sometimes called tintypes or Ambrotypes </li></ul><ul><li>All these are photographic images, typically stored in a folding leather case </li></ul><ul><li>All used a process that produced pictures without negatives </li></ul>
  • 7. Daguerreotypes Pt. 2 <ul><li>The daguerreotype, invented first, was also the first commercially successful photographic process </li></ul><ul><li>Brought portraits to the </li></ul><ul><li>masses </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1850’s, a photo </li></ul><ul><li>cost only 50 cents </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait painters went </li></ul><ul><li>out of business </li></ul>
  • 8. Drawbacks <ul><li>The daguerreotype was hard to duplicate </li></ul><ul><li>It was fragile, so had to be kept inside a case or frame </li></ul><ul><li>By 1864, the once popular </li></ul><ul><li>profession of “daguerreotypist” </li></ul><ul><li>had almost disappeared in </li></ul><ul><li>America </li></ul>
  • 9. Calotype <ul><li>William Henry Fox Talbot experimented with photography before Daguerre, but Daguerre showed his early pictures first </li></ul><ul><li>1841: Talbot publicized his new calotype process </li></ul><ul><li>A calotype produced a negative </li></ul><ul><li>You could make numerous positive prints from one negative </li></ul><ul><li>For a while Talbot was charging </li></ul><ul><li>photographers an annual fee to </li></ul><ul><li>use his patented process </li></ul>
  • 10. The Freedom of Photography <ul><li>William Talbot’s lawsuit against another photographer, Martin Laroche, had a mixed result for Talbot: </li></ul><ul><li>- His patent rights were upheld </li></ul><ul><li>- The court ruled Laroche, </li></ul><ul><li>using a similar process was </li></ul><ul><li>not infringing on Talbot’s </li></ul><ul><li>patent </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, Talbot did not renew </li></ul><ul><li>his patent and expired 1855 </li></ul>
  • 11. Glass Plates <ul><li>Both the daguerreotype and the calotype were ultimately made obsolete by collodion </li></ul><ul><li>- A viscious solution that dries to a waterproof surface </li></ul><ul><li>- Applies to glass plates </li></ul><ul><li>- Used in conjuction with a dip of silver nitrate </li></ul><ul><li>A wet plate process that </li></ul><ul><li>required rapid processing in the </li></ul><ul><li>field </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled photography until 1880 </li></ul>
  • 12. Stereoscopic Photography <ul><li>A 3-D image </li></ul><ul><li>Special camera with 2 lenses </li></ul><ul><li>2 simultaneous photographs </li></ul><ul><li>2 different views </li></ul>
  • 13. Early Pioneers <ul><li>Scott Archer: Wet Plate/Collodion Process:1851 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Richard Maddox: Dry Plate:1871 </li></ul><ul><li>George Eastman: Flexible film 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Eadweard Muybridge: Motion Picture </li></ul>
  • 14. THE END

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