Quali lecture 1: Understanding the research process
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    Quali lecture 1: Understanding the research process Quali lecture 1: Understanding the research process Presentation Transcript

    • QUALI Spring  2013   Jari  Laru     ”Qualita7ve  analysts  do  not  believe  that  there   is  a  single  truth”  (Newby,  2012)  Understanding  research  process..    
    • Data  collec7on  and   Three  major  paradigms   Course  context   Quan7ta7ve   research   analysis   Qualita7ve   research   Quan7ta7ve   <   Mixed  methods   Qualita7ve  
    • Schedule  1.  Understanding  research  process  2.  Data  sampling  and  collec7on  3.  Data  analysis  and  triangula7on  4.  Qualita7ve  research  &  Online  environments  5.  Mixed  methods  
    • Lectures  are  based  on  these  books   Lectures  I-­‐III   Lecture  IV   Lecture  V  Newby,  P.  (2010).  Research   Dicks,  B.  (2012).  Digital   Cresswell  &  Plano  Clark  (2011).  Methods  for  Educa7on.       qualita7ve  research  methods   Designing  and  Conduc7ng   Mixed  Methods  Research  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Educa7on  theory   Research   Goals  and   process   Outcomes  Methodology   Methods   Research   Model   ques7on  Research   Research  agenda   problem   Influences  on   Research  Issue   the  research   process.      Adapted  from  Newby  (2012)   Research  methods  for   Research   educa7on   ques7on   Research  process:  Influences  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Research   process   Methodology   Methods   Research   ques7on  PHILOSOPHY  
    • Research  philosophy  (worldview)  1/3  •  Research  as  an  ac7vity  has  developed  schools   of  prac7se,  each  with  its  own  philosophical   standpoint,  that  cross  subject  and  disciplinary   boundaries  which  can  influence:   –  How  research  is  conducted   –  What  is  researched   –  How  evidence  is  interpreted  
    • Research  philosophy  (worldview)  2/3   Basic  set  of  beliefs  or  assump7ons  that   guide  inquiries  (see  Guba  &  Lincoln,  2005)   Postposi9vist   Construc9vist   Par9cipatory   Pragma9c   worldview   worldview   worldview   worldview   Determina7on   Understanding   Poli7cal   Consequences  of   ac7ons   Reduc7onism   Mul7ple   Empowerement   Problem  centered   par7cipant   and  issue  oriented   meanings   Empirical   Social  and   Collabora7ve     Pluralis7c   observa7on  and   historical   measurement   construc7on   Theory  verifica7on   Theory  genera7on   Change  oriented   Real-­‐world  prac7se   oriented  Cresswell  &  Clark  (2011).  Designing  and  conduc7ng  mixed  methods  research  
    • Research  philosophy  3/3  Element   Posi9vism   Construc9vism  Ontology  (what  is  the  nature   Singular  reality  (e.g.   Mul7ple  reali7es  (e.g.  of  reality)   Researchers  reject  or  fail  to   Researchers  provide  quotes  to   reject  hypotheses)   illustrate  different   perspec7ves  Epistemology  (what  is   Distance  and  impar7ality  (e.g.   Closeness  (e.g.  Researcher  rela9onship  between   researcher  objec7vely  collect   visit  par7cipants  at  their  sites  researcher  and  that  being   data  on  instruments)   to  collect  data)  researched)  Axiology  (what  is  the  role  of   Unbiased  (e.g.  Researchers   Biased  (e.g.  Reseachers  values)   use  checks  to  eliminate  bias)   ac7vely  talk  about  their  biases   and  interpreta7ons)  Methodology  (what  is  the   Deduc7ve  (e.g.  Researchers   Induc7ve  (e.g.  Researchers  process  of  research)   test  an  priori  theory)   start  with  par7cipants  views   and  build  ”up”  to  pacerns,   theories,  and  generaliza7ons  Rhetoric  (what  is  the   Formal  style  (e.g.  Researchers   Informal  style  (e.g.,  language  of  research)   use  agreed-­‐on  defini7ons  of   researchers  write  in  literary,   variables   informal  style)  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Research   process   Methodology   Methods   Research   ques7on  PARADIGM  
    • Paradigm:  a  conceptual   Methodology:  a  system   model  underlying  the   of  methods  used  in  a  theories  and  prac7se  of   par7cular  field   a  scien7fic  subject  
    • Data  collec7on  and   Three  major  paradigms   Course  context   Quan7ta7ve   research   analysis   Qualita7ve   research   Quan7ta7ve   <   Mixed  methods   Qualita7ve   Three  major  paradigms  
    • Paradigm  characteris7cs   Quan9ta9ve   Qualita9ve   Mixed  methods  Truth   Single   Mul7ple   Either  single  or   mul7ple  truths  Approach   Deduc7ve   Induc7ve   Either  deduc7ve  or   induc7ve  or  both  Researcher   Neutral   Can  be  commiced   Either  neutral  or   commiced  or  both  Methods   Formal  procedures   Structured   Either  formal  or   procedures  plus   structured  or  both   insight  Data   Number   Any  informa7on   Any  informa7on   Research  methods  for  educaton  kirjasta..  
    • Data  collec7on  and   Quan7ta7ve   research   analysis   Qualita7ve   research   Quan7ta7ve   Mixed  methods   Qualita7ve  THREE  MAJOR  PARADIGMS:  QUANTITATIVE  RESEARCH  
    • QUANTITATIVE  RESEARCH   •  Deal  with  cause  &  effect,    so   are  more  useful  resolving   ques9ons  regarding   outcomes  rather  than   processes   •  Quan7ta7ve  approach  have   strict  procedures     •  Many  of  the  sta7s7cal   techniques  place  great   requirements  on  the  way  in   which  data  is  collected   •  Are  powerful,  rigorous  and   convincing  to  others   Three  major  paradigms  
    • Data  collec7on  and   Quan7ta7ve   research   analysis   Qualita7ve   research   Quan7ta7ve   Mixed  methods   Qualita7ve  THREE  MAJOR  PARADIGMS:  QUALITATIVE  RESEARCH  
    • Characteris7cs  of  qualita7ve  research   A  holis7c   A   and   naturalis7c   integra7ve   form  of   approach   enquiry   Not  one   The  place   reality   of  theory  
    • A.  Holis7c  &  integra7ve  approach    •  To  use  data  of  different  types  and  from   different  sources  and  combine  them  into  an   analysis  and  interpreta7on  of  a  situa7on  
    • B.  Naturalis7c  form  of  enquiry  •  Data  is  obtained  in  as  natural  segng  as  possible.  •  The  principle  is  to  minimise  the  influence  of  an   unrealis7c  research  environment  (=  e.g.   Controlled  lab)  •   It  is  not,  however,  always  possible  to  sustain  a   pure  naturalis7c  approach.  
    • ..Con7nued  (example)  
    • Not  one  reality  Quan7ta7ve  assump7on:  there  is  a  single  truth  to   be  discovered,  either  a   Qualita7ve  assump7on:   factor  has  influence  or   There  is  no  single  ra7onality   not   that  determines  the  way   people  behave  
    • The  place  of  theory:     conven7onal  explana7on   Deduc7on     Induc7on   Theory  tes7ng   Theory  building   Idea  or  theory   Observa7on   Hypothesis   Analysis  and  assesment   Evidence   Conjecture  and  hypothesis   Conclusion   Generalisa7on  or  theory  Quan7ta7ve  (conven7onal  explana7on)   Qualita7ve  (conven7onal  explana7on)  
    • The  place  of  theory:     contemporary  view  •  It  is  possible  for  qualita7ve  research  to   explore  theore7cal  statements  and  even  to   test  hypotheses,  although  procedures  are   different  •  We  need  to  be  prepared  to  challenge   orthodoxy  and  conven9ons  if  research   problem  requires  it!  
    • Contras7ng  hypotheses  Quan9ta9ve   Qualita9ve  The  level  of  mo7va7on  in  Group   The  level  of  mo7va7on  and  A  is  higher  than  in  Group  B   mo7va7onal  drivers  are   different  in  the  two  groups  Which  becomes  in  analysis:  There  is  (no)  significant  difference  in  the  levels  of  mo7va7on  in  the  two  groups  
    • Data  collec7on  and   Quan7ta7ve   research   analysis   Qualita7ve   research   Quan7ta7ve   Mixed  methods   Qualita7ve  THREE  MAJOR  PARADIGMS:  MIXED  METHODS  
    • Mixed  methods   •  Collects  &  analyzes  persuasively  and  rigorously   both  qualita7ve  and  quan7ta7ve  data  (based  on   research  ques7ons)   •  Mixes  (or  integrates  or  links)  the  two  forms  of   data     –  concurrentely  by  combining  them  (or  merging  them)   –  Sequen7ally  by  having  one  build  on  the  other,   –  Embedding  one  within  the  other   •  Gives  priority  to  one  or  both  forms  of  data  (in   terms  what  research  emphasizes)   •  …    Cresswell  &  Piano  Clark  (2010).  Designing  and  conduc7ng  mixed  methods  research  (2nd.  Ed)  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Research   process   Methodology   Methods   Research   ques7on  PRINCIPLES  
    • Principle  1/7:  do  not  cheat  with  your   data   •  ..Our  posi7on  with   respect  to  honesty  in   rela7on  to  the  data  we   collect  and  present  and   the  results  we  present..   •  DO  not  ”construct”  data   •  DO  not  ignore  data   •  BE  transparent  with  your   methods  of  data   collec7on,  analysis  and   interpreta7on   Research  process:  Principles  
    • Principle  2/7:  other  stakeholders  ..How  far  our  responsibility   1.  ..confiden7ality  of  extends  to  others  that  we   people  who  give  us  involve  in  our  research?   sensi7ve  informa7on   2.  ..ability  to  iden7fy   organisa7ons/people   from  data   Research  process:  Principles  
    • Principle  3/7:  sharing  the  results  ..to  share  the   1.  Tell  organiza7on  /   par7cipants  what  you  benefits  of    research   have  found  in  your  with  whom?   research   2.  Who  to  share  possible   bene7ls?     3.  Who  has  rights  to  your   conclusions  &  paper   (supervisor  or  you?)   Research  process:  Principles  
    • Principles  4-­‐5/7  •  Principle  4  (voluntarity):  How  far  should  those   involved  with  in  our  research  to  be  free  to   whitdraw?  Should  they  know  that  they  are   par7cipa7ng?  (if  they  are  kids?  Adults?  •  Principle  5:  (other  experts  [in  special  segngs])   do  you  allow  community  or  other  experts  to   say  what  should  be  researched  and  how   research  should  be  conducted?     Research  process:  Principles  
    • Principle  6/7:  plagiarism   •  Ethics  of  using  someone   else’s  work  without   acribu7on   •  Plagiarism  is  becoming   a  significant  issue  in   research   •  All  candidate  and   master  theses  will  be   screened  automa7cally   in  University  of  Oulu   Research  process:  Principles  
    • Principle  7/7:  Other  (than  ethical)   standards   ..to  consider  what   standards  we  want   to  represent  us..   •  Presenta7on   •  Wri7ng   •  Grammar   •  Referencing   •  …   Research  process:  Principles  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Research   process   Methodology   Methods   Research   ques7on  RESEARCH  PROCESS:  METHODOLOGIES   Research  process:  Methodologies  
    • Ethnography   Case  study   Evalua9on   Ac9on  research  Dis7nc7viness   Researcher  focus   Learn  from  the   Ques7on  focus   Change  focus   par7cular  Purpose   Understand,   Explain,  explore,   Understand,  test   Change,  improve,   explain   describe   complicance,   build,  develop   improve,  inform  Researcher   Hidden  or  visible   External  analyst   Outside  the   Inside  the  status   par7cipant   process  but  may   process  and  the   be  internal  to   project   project  Methods   Observa7on,   Informa7on   Any   Reflec7on   conversa7ons   assembly,   interview  Limita7ons  and   •  Influencing   •  Gegng  at  the   •  Not  detached   •  Lack  of  rigour  issues   behaviour   truth  can  be   •  Limited   •  Not  detached   •  Misinterpreta diffuclt   perspec7ves   •  Group   7on  of   •  Wrong   •  Segng   decisions   evidence   interpreta7on   boundary  to   about  ac7ons   •  Ethical  issues   •  Can  it  be   study   can  be   •  Not  detached   generalised     compromises   •  Lack  of     generalisa7on   Research  process:  Methodologies  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Research   Research   agenda   problem   Research   Research   process   Issue  Methodology   Methods   Research   Research  ques7on   ques7on   RESEARCH  PROCESS:  RESEARCH   QUESTIONS  
    • Ques9on   Research  approach  What  is  happening  here?   Data  analysis.   Ethnographic.   Descrip7ve.  What  did  happen/has  happened  here   Case  study  What  will  happen   Causal  analysis.   Research  synthesis,  systema7c  review.   Descrip7ve  inference.  What  is  ….?   Descrip7ve.  What  shoud  we  do?   Policy  analysis.  What  is  effect  of?   Evalua7on,  experimental  design.   Causal  analysis,  experimental  design.  What  is  the  cause  of?   Causal  analysis,  sta7s7cal  design.  Is  this  result  same  or  different?   Asssocia7on  analysis,  sta7s7cal  design.  Is  this  working?  Can  it  be  becer?   Ac7on  oriented:  ac7on  research,  apprecia7ve   enquiry.     Policy  analysis.  All  ques7ons   Mixed  design.  The  link  between  research  ques7on  and  research  approach.  In  Newby,  Peter  (2012).  Research  methods  for  educa7on  
    • Educa7on  theory   Goals  and   Outcomes   Model  IDEAS  THAT  INFLUENCE  TO  GOALS  AND  OUTCOMES  
    • Educa7on  theory  1/2  •  Educa7on  theory  deals  with   subject  macer  of  educa7on  –   instruc7onal  design,   mo7va7on  etc.    •  Theory  can  be  tested  and  it   aims  to  be  generalisable.  •  It  draws  from  conjecture  about   what  might/should  be  the  case   or  from  evidence  drawn  from   the  real  world  Vital  role:  It  is  a  framework    for  advancing  our  understanding  of  the  subject  
    • Vital  role:  It  is  a  framework    for  advancing  our  understanding  of  the  subject   Educa7on  theory  2/2  A.  Theory  tes9ng  as  a  goal   1.  Norma9ve  theory   –  ..We  can  take  a  theory,   •  how  thing  could  or  should   norma7ve  or  explanatory,  and   be  organized  or  what  goals   see  if  it  works  in  our   environment..  =>  thesis  work   should  be  achieved   –  John  Dewey:  Learning  by  B.  Theory  development  as  an   doing   outcome   –  Maria  montessori..     -  When  knowledge  is   generalisable  to  all  or   2.  Explanatory  theory   par7cular  situa7ons  and   •  Explains  how  things  work   predic7ons  can  be  made   –  SRL,  Distributed  cogni7on,   with  some  of  degree  with   Collabora7ve  learning  etc..   certainty,  it  assumes  the   status  of  theory  =>  Scien7fic   research  
    • Example  A:  my  own  PhD  research   Theory  tes7ng  as  a  goal  
    • Example  B:  Prof.  Järvelä  Theory  development  as  an  outcome   Järvelä,  S.,  &  Hadwin,  A.  F.  (2013).  New  fron7ers:  Regula7ng  learning   in  CSCL.  Educa7onal  Psychologist,  48(1),  25-­‐39.  
    • Models..  A.  Can  be  used  to  organize  our  understanding  of  previous  studies..  Can  be  employed  to  shape  and  represent  your  thoughts  without  reference  to  previous  studies  Can  be  a  tool  to  represent  your  research  findings  
    • Some  models  from  my  master  thesis  
    • Overview  of  my  doctoral  thesis  
    • Model  of  distributed  cogni7ve  system  in  my  doctoral  thesis  
    • Research   Research   agenda   problem   Research  Issue   Research   ques7on  RESEARCH  ISSUE:  INFLUENCES  ON  THE  SELECTION  OF  A  RESEARCH  ISSUE  
    • Learning  from  a  research  agenda   Research   Research   agenda   problem   Helps  to  get  a  sense   Research   of  the  issues  that  are   Issue   important  and  worth   of  researching   Research  ques7on  •  You  don’t  need  to  work  in  one  of  them,  BUT:  •  ..research  agenda  will  give  societal  and  policy   perspec7ve  that  an  academic  perspec7ve  doesn’t   necessarily  provide.    •  Research  agendas  are  closely  linked  with   opportuni9es  to  gain  research  funding  
    • Example  A:  poli7cal  research  agenda  
    • Example  B:  scien7fic  research  agenda  Suthers,  D.  D.  (2006).  Technology  affordances  for  intersubjec7ve  meaning  making:  A  research  agenda  for  CSCL.  Interna7onal  Journal  of  Computer-­‐Supported  Collabora7ve  Learning.  1(3),  315-­‐337.  Doi:  10.1007/s11412-­‐006-­‐9660-­‐y.  
    • Research  issue   •  Research  issue  is  a  theme  from  the  research   agenda.  It  is  a  topic  or  area  where  is  poten7al   for  research   •  Loose  and  wide  spesificia7on  while  compared   to  research  problem   Not  agreeing  with  the  other  researcher   New  area  of  ac7vity    Research   Being  struck  by  the  poten7al  in  another   Research   subject  if  applied  to  educa7on  agenda   problem   Being  concerned  what  it  is  happening  in  the   Research   educa7on  system…   Issue   Not  liking  the  implica7ons  of  the  poli Realising  that  other  academics  have  failed..   Research  ques7on   Consolida7ng  the  results  of  different  research  
    • Example:  issues  in  ”mobile  learning”   A.  Mobility  and  Personal  Digital  Assistants   C.  Mobile  Social  Media   B.  Wireless  Internet  Learning  devices   D.  Ubiquitous  Future   research   Case  study  I   First  genera9on:   PocketPCs   Computer  Supported  Collabora7ve  Learning  (CSCL)   Era  of  Mobile  Learning  (m-­‐learning)   Era  of  Ubiquitous  learning  (u-­‐learning)  Visibility   Wireless  Internet  Learning  Devices  (Wild)   Integrated  learning   Mobile  social  media   Case  study  III   3rd  genera9on:   Out  of  the  box  tools,   social  media   2nd  genera9on:   integra7on   First  steps  (R&D)   Wireless  Internet   Personal  Digital   Case  study  II   Learning  Devices   Assistants   (Smartphones)   Peak  of  inflated   Trough  of   Technology  trigger   Expecta7ons   Disillusionment   Slope  of  Enlightenment   Plateau  of  produc7vity   7me  
    • Research  problem   •  ”As  issue  becomes  more  defined  in  our  mind  it   becomes  research  problem  –  that  is,  it  is  more   7ghly  defined”  (Newby,  2011).     •  The  next  stage  towards  research  ques7on  is  to  is   to  find  what  has  been  published  in  the  rela7on  to   the  topic,  ac7vity  or  issue  =>  to  do  Scoping     Issue:  mobile  learning  Research   Research  agenda   problem   Research   Issue   Problem:  How  to  scaffold  learning  with   ubiquitous  technologies     Research  ques7on  
    • Research  ques7ons   Ques9on   Research  approach   What  is  happening  here?   Data  analysis.   Ethnographic.   Descrip7ve.   What  did  happen/has  happened  here   Case  study   What  will  happen   Causal  analysis.   Research  synthesis,  systema7c  review.   Descrip7ve  inference.   What  is  ….?   Descrip7ve.   What  shoud  we  do?   Policy  analysis.   What  is  effect  of?   Evalua7on,  experimental  design.   Causal  analysis,  experimental  design.   What  is  the  cause  of?   Causal  analysis,  sta7s7cal  design.  Research   Research   Is  this  result  same  or  different?   Asssocia7on  analysis,  sta7s7cal  design.  agenda   problem   Is  this  working?  Can  it  be  becer?   Ac7on  oriented:  ac7on  research,  apprecia7ve  enquiry.     Research   Policy  analysis.   Issue   All  ques7ons   Mixed  design.   The  link  between  research  ques7on  and  research  approach.  In  Newby,  Peter   Research  ques7on   (2012).  Research  methods  for  educa7on  
    • Philosophy   Paradigm   Principles     Educa7on  theory   Research   Goals  and   process   Outcomes  Methodology   Methods   Research   Model   ques7on  Research   Research  agenda   problem   Influences  on   Research  Issue   the  research   process.      Adapted  from  Newby  (2012)   Research  methods  for   Research   educa7on   ques7on   Research  process:  Influences