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Scale11x : Virtualization with Xen and XCP
 

Scale11x : Virtualization with Xen and XCP

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The Xen Hypervisor was built for the Cloud from the outset: when Xen was designed, we anticipated a world, which today is known as cloud computing. Today, Xen powers the largest clouds in ...

The Xen Hypervisor was built for the Cloud from the outset: when Xen was designed, we anticipated a world, which today is known as cloud computing. Today, Xen powers the largest clouds in production.

This talk explores success criteria, architecture, trade-offs and challenges for cloudy hypervisors. It is intended for users and developers and starts with a brief introduction to Xen and XCP, their architecture and on common challenges for KVM and Xen.

I will introduce the concept of domain disaggregation as an approach to increase security, robustness and scalability: all important factors for building clouds at scale and show how advanced security features suchas Xen Security Modules and SELinux can help secure your cloud further.

The talk will conclude with exciting developments in the Xen community, such as Xen for ARM servers, a new virtualization mode for Xen, running applications without OS in a Xen guest and point out their implications for building open source clouds.

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    Scale11x : Virtualization with Xen and XCP Scale11x : Virtualization with Xen and XCP Presentation Transcript

    • Virtualization in the Cloud:Featuring Xen and XCP Lars Kurth Xen Community Manager lars.kurth@xen.org FREENODE: lars_kurth @lars_kurth
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90sXenoServerProject
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90s ‘03XenoServerProject Xen 1.0
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90s ‘03 ‘06 ‘08XenoServer Amazon EC2Project and Slicehost launched Xen 1.0 Rackspace Cloud
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90s ‘03 ‘06 ‘08 ‘11 ‘12XenoServer Amazon EC2 XCP 1.xProject and Slicehost Cloud Mgmt launched Xen 1.0 Rackspace Cloud XCP packages in Linux
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90s ‘03 ‘06 ‘08 ‘11 ‘12XenoServer Amazon EC2 XCP 1.xProject and Slicehost Cloud Mgmt launched Xen 1.0 Rackspace Linux 3.0 Cloud XCP packages in Linux
    • A Brief History of Xen in the CloudLate 90s ‘03 ‘06 ‘08 ‘11 ‘12 ‘13XenoServer Amazon EC2 XCP 1.xProject and Slicehost Cloud Mgmt launched Xen 1.0 Rackspace Linux 3.0 Xen for Cloud ARM servers XCP packages in Linux 10th birthday
    • The Xen Hypervisor was designed forthe Cloud straight from the outset!
    • Xen.org• Guardian of Xen Hypervisor and related OSS Projects• Xen Governance similar to Linux Kernel – Plus project lifecycle and Project Management Committee (PMC)• Projects – Xen Hypervisor (led by 5 committers, 2 from Citrix, 1 from Suse, 2 Independent) – Xen Cloud Platform aka XCP (led by Citrix) – Xen ARM : Xen for mobile devices (led by Samsung)
    • Xen contributor community is diversifying100%90% • The number of “significant”80% active vendors is increasing70%60%50% • New feature development driving40%30% new participation20%10% 0% 2010 2011 2012 Citrix UPC SUSE Amazon University AMD GridCentric Individual NSA Intel Fujitsu iWeb Misc Oracle Spectralogic University of British Columbia
    • Xen Overview
    • Hypervisor ArchitecturesType 1: Bare metal HypervisorA pure Hypervisor that runs directly on thehardware and hosts Guest OS’s. VMn VM1 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Scheduler Hypervisor Device Drivers/Models MMU Host HWI/O Memory CPUs Provides partition isolation + reliability, higher security
    • Hypervisor ArchitecturesType 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Type 2: OS ‘Hosted’A pure Hypervisor that runs directly on the A Hypervisor that runs within a Host OS and hostshardware and hosts Guest OS’s. Guest OS’s inside of it, using the host OS services to provide the virtual environment. VMn User-level VMM VMn VM1 User VM1 Apps VM0 Device Models VM0 Guest OS Guest OS and Apps and Apps Host OS Scheduler Hypervisor Ring-0 VM Monitor Device Drivers/Models Device Drivers “Kernel “ MMU Host HW Host HWI/O Memory CPUs I/O Memory CPUs Provides partition isolation + reliability, Low cost, no additional drivers higher security Ease of use & installation
    • Xen: Type 1 with a TwistType 1: Bare metal Hypervisor VMn VM1 VM0 Guest OS and Apps Scheduler Hypervisor Device Drivers/Models MMU Host HWI/O Memory CPUs
    • Xen: Type 1 with a TwistType 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Xen Architecture VMn VM1 VMn VM0 VM1 Guest OS VM0 and Apps Guest OS and Apps Scheduler Hypervisor Device Drivers/Models MMU Scheduler MMU Hypervisor Host HW Host HWI/O Memory CPUs I/O Memory CPUs
    • Xen: Type 1 with a TwistType 1: Bare metal Hypervisor Xen Architecture Control domain (dom0) VMn VM1 Device Models VMn VM0 VM1 Guest OS Drivers VM0 and Apps Guest OS Linux & BSD and Apps Scheduler Hypervisor Device Drivers/Models MMU Scheduler MMU Hypervisor Host HW Host HWI/O Memory CPUs I/O Memory CPUs
    • Xen and Linux• Xen Hypervisor is not in the Linux kernel• BUT: everything Xen and Xen Guests need to run is!• Xen packages are in all Linux distros (except RHEL6) – Install Dom0 Linux distro – Install Xen package(s) or meta package – Reboot – Config stuff: set up disks, peripherals, etc.More info: wiki.xen.org/wiki/Category:Host_Install
    • Basic Xen Concepts Console • Interface to the outside world Control Domain aka Dom0 VMn • Dom0 kernel with driversControl domain VM1(dom0) • Xen Management Toolstack VM0 Guest OS Guest Domains Dom0 Kernel and Apps • Your apps Scheduler MMU XSM Hypervisor Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) • A “driver, device model or control Host HW service in a box”I/O Memory CPUs • De-privileged and isolated • Lifetime: start, stop, killTrusted Computing Base 18
    • Basic Xen Concepts Console Console • Interface to the outside world Control Domain aka Dom0 VMn • Dom0 kernel with driversControl domain VM1(dom0) • Xen Management Toolstack VM0 Toolstack Guest OS Guest Domains Dom0 Kernel and Apps • Your apps Scheduler MMU XSM Hypervisor Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) • A “driver, device model or control Host HW service in a box”I/O Memory CPUs • De-privileged and isolated • Lifetime: start, stop, killTrusted Computing Base 19
    • Basic Xen Concepts Console Console • Interface to the outside world Control Domain aka Dom0 VMn • Dom0 kernel with driversControl domain VM1(dom0) • Xen Management Toolstack One or more VM0 Toolstack driver, stub or service domains Guest OS Guest Domains Dom0 Kernel and Apps • Your apps Scheduler MMU XSM Hypervisor Driver/Stub/Service Domain(s) • A “driver, device model or control Host HW service in a box”I/O Memory CPUs • De-privileged and isolated • Lifetime: start, stop, killTrusted Computing Base 20
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudHypervisor Xen 21
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudHypervisor XenToolstack / Console Default / XL (XM) Libvirt / VIRSH XAPI / XE Increased level of functionality and integration with other components Single Host Single Host Basic Functions Additional Functionality Multiple Hosts Additional Functionality 22
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudHypervisor Xen XCPToolstack / Console Default / XL (XM) Libvirt / VIRSH XAPI / XE Increased level of functionality and integration with other components Single Host Single Host Basic Functions Additional Functionality Multiple Hosts Additional Functionality 23
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudProject Xen XCPToolstack / Console Default / XL (XM) Libvirt / VIRSH XAPI / XE Increased level of functionality and integration with other componentsGet Binaries from … Linux Distros Linux Distros Debian & Ubuntu ISO from Xen.org 24
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudProject Xen Hypervisor XCPToolstack / Console Default / XL (XM) Libvirt / VIRSH XAPI / XE Increased level of functionality and integration with other componentsGet Binaries from … Linux Distros Linux Distros Debian & Ubuntu ISO from Xen.orgProducts Oracle VM Huawei UVP Citrix XenServer 25
    • Xen Variants for Server & CloudProject Xen Hypervisor XCPToolstack / Console Default / XL (XM) Libvirt / VIRSH XAPI / XE Increased level of functionality and integration with other componentsGet Binaries from … Linux Distros Linux Distros Debian & Ubuntu ISO from Xen.orgUsed by … More info: xen.org/community/ecosystem.html xen.org/community/presentations.html 26 xen.org/products/case_studies.html
    • Xen : Types of Virtualization
    • PV Domains Technology:Control domain Guest VMn(dom0) • Paravirtualization Apps Linux PV guests have limitations: • limited set of virtual hardware PV Back Ends PV Front Ends Advantages HW Drivers • Fast Dom0 Kernel Guest OS • Works on any system (even without virt extensions) Xen Hypervisor Host HWI/O Memory CPUs 28
    • PV Domains & Driver Domains Technology:Control domain Guest VMn Driver Domain(dom0) e.g. • Paravirtualization Apps • Disk Linux PV guests have limitations: • Network • limited set of virtual hardware PV Back Ends PV Front Ends PV Back End Advantages HW Drivers HW Driver • Fast Dom0 Kernel Guest OS Dom0 Kernel* • Works on any system (even without virt extensions) Xen Hypervisor Driver Domains • Security Host HW • IsolationI/O Memory CPUs • Reliability and Robustness *) Can be MiniOS 29
    • HVM & Stub Domains Technology:Dom0 Guest VMn • Shows emulation using QEMU/Device Model IO Emulation (SW Virtualization)Device Model • In other situation HW can be used Disadvantages IO Event • Emulation slower than PVDom0 Kernel VMEXIT (mainly I/O devices) Xen Hypervisor Advantages • No kernel support needed Host HWI/O Memory CPUs 30
    • HVM & Stub Domains Technology:Dom0 Guest VMn Stubdomn Guest VMn • Shows emulation using QEMU/Device Model IO Emulation IO Emulation (SW Virtualization)Device Model Device Model • In other situation HW can be used Disadvantages IO Event IO Event • Emulation slower than PVDom0 Kernel VMEXIT Mini OS VMEXIT (mainly I/O devices) Xen Hypervisor Advantages • No kernel support needed Host HW Stub DomainsI/O Memory CPUs • Security • Isolation • Reliability and Robustness 31
    • The Virtualization Spectrum VS Virtualized (SW) VH Virtualized (HW) P ParavirtualizedFully Virtualized (FV) VS VS VS VHFV with PV for disk & network P VS VS VH HVM mode/domainPVHVM P P VS VHPVH Xen 4.3 P P P VH PV mode/domainFully Paravirtualized (PV) P P P P
    • The Virtualization Spectrum Optimal performance Scope for improvement Poor performanceFully Virtualized (FV) VS VS VS VHFV with PV for disk & network P VS VS VH HVM mode/domainPVHVM P P VS VHPVH Xen 4.3 P P P VH PV mode/domainFully Paravirtualized (PV) P P P P
    • The Virtualization Spectrum Important: Xen automatically picks the best option based on HW & OS capabilities and Optimal performance available drivers. As a Xen user I chose a HVM or PV domain. Scope for improvement Poor performanceFully Virtualized (FV) VS VS VS VHFV with PV for disk & network P VS VS VH HVM mode/domainPVHVM P P VS VHPVH Xen 4.3 P P P VH PV mode/domainFully Paravirtualized (PV) P P P P
    • XCP Project
    • XCP – Xen Cloud Platform Complete stack for server virtualization • Extends Xen to cover multiple hosts • Adds further functionality and integrations for cloud, storage and networking to Xen HV • GPLv2 • XenServer is a commercial XCP distro Two Flavours • Appliance (ISO using CentOS Dom0) • Packages in Debian & Ubuntu (more distros to come)
    • Major XCP Features• VM lifecycle: live snapshots, checkpoint, migration• Resource pools: flexible storage and networking• Event tracking: progress, notification• Upgrade and patching capabilities• Real-time performance monitoring and alerting• Built-in support and templates for Windows and Linux guests• Open vSwitch support built-in (default)More info: wiki.xen.org/wiki/XCP_Release_Features
    • XCP 1.6• New format Windows drivers: installable by Windows Update Service• Networking: Better VLAN scalability, LACP bonding, IPv6• Storage XenMotion: – Migrate VMs between hosts or pools without shared storage – Move a VM’s disks between storage repositories while the VM is running• Other: more templates, latest Xen, OVS, etc.More info: xen.org/download/xcp/releasenotes_1.6.0.html &More info: xen.org/download/xcp/index_1.6.0.html
    • XCP and Cloud Orchestration Stacks
    • Challenges for FOSS hypervisors
    • “Security and QoS/Reliability are amongst the top 3 blockers for cloud adoption” www.colt.net/cio-research
    • System characteristics cloud users care about:“Robustness, Performance, Scalability & Security”Results XCP User Survey 2012 – 90% of users quoted these as most important attributes
    • DisaggregationSplit Control Domain into Driver,Stub and Service Domains – See: ”Breaking up is hard to do” @ Xen Papers – See: “Domain 0 Disaggregation for XCP and XenServer”Used today by Qubes OS and Citrix XenClient XTPrototypes for XCP See qubes-os.org Different windows run in different VMs
    • Benefits of DisaggregationMore SecurityIncreased serviceability and flexibilityBetter RobustnessBetter Performance Ability to safely restart parts of the system (e.g. just 275ms outage from failed Ethernet driver)Better Scalability
    • Next: XCP Architecture Diagram Before and After Disaggregation
    • User VM User VM NF BF NF BF NB gntdev NB gntdev gntdevDom0 Network NFS/ Dom0 Qemu xapi Qemu Network NFS/ Local drivers iSCSI drivers iSCSI storageDomainmanager drivers . drivers drivers qemu . qemuhealthd storaged storaged storaged networkd . networkdxenopsd tapdisk syslogd . tapdisk tapdisk libxl vswitch blktap3 vswitch blktap3 blktap3 xapi xapi eth eth Dom0 eth eth scsi Xen Xen CPU CPU NIC NIC RAM RAM NIC NIC (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- RAID IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF)
    • User VM User VM NF BF NF BF NB gntdev NB gntdev gntdevDom0 Network NFS/ Qemu xapi D Logging Network NFS/ Local driver iSCSI domain domain domain driver iSCSI storageDomain omanager domain driver m . domain driver driver domain domain domainhealthd storaged qemu 0 . storaged storaged networkd networkdxenopsd tapdisk . tapdisk tapdisk libxl vswitch blktap3 xapi syslogd vswitch blktap3 blktap3 dbus over v4v dbus over v4v eth eth eth eth scsi Xen Xen CPU CPU NIC NIC RAM RAM NIC NIC (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- RAID IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF)
    • Xen Security Advantages• Even without Advanced Security Features – Well-defined trusted computing base (much smaller than on type-2 HV) – Minimal services in hypervisor layer• Xen Security Modules (or XSM) and FLASK – XSM is Xen equivalent of LSM – FLASK is Xen equivalent of SELinux – Developed, maintained and contributed to Xen by NSA – Compatible with SELinux (tools, architecture) – XSM object classes maps onto Xen featuresMore info: http://www.slideshare.net/xen_com_mgr/ a-brief-tutorial-on-xens-advanced-security-features 50
    • User VM User VM NF BF NF BF NB gntdev NB gntdev gntdevDom0 Network NFS/ Qemu xapi D Logging Network NFS/ Local driver iSCSI domain domain domain driver iSCSI storageDomain omanager domain driver m . domain driver driver domain domain domain healthd storaged qemu 0 . storaged storaged networkd networkdxenopsd tapdisk . tapdisk tapdisk libxl vswitch blktap3 xapi syslogd vswitch blktap3 blktap3 dbus over v4v dbus over v4v eth eth eth eth scsiFLASK policyrestricting access Xen Xen CPU CPU NIC NIC RAM RAM NIC NIC (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- (or SR- RAID IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF) IOV VF)
    • News from the Xen Community
    • Coming in Xen 4.3 (Q2 2013)• PVH virtualization mode• Extend scope of Xen Security Modules• qxl Spice support for 3d acceleration• Updated and improved libvirt drivers for Xen• Lots of other stuff: – scalability, performance, better NUMA support, …More info: blog.xen.org/index.php/2013/02/11/xen-4-3-mid-release-roadmap-update
    • Xen 4.3 for ARM ServersFully functional for ARM v7 & v8ARM v7: Versatile Express, Arndale &Samsung ChromebookARM v8: Fast Model
    • Xen and ARM : a perfect MatchARM SOC ARM Architecture Features for Virtualization User mode : EL0Device Tree describes … Kernel mode : EL1 I/O Hypercall interface :HVC GIC 2 stage GT v2 MMU Hypervisor mode : EL2
    • Xen and ARM : a perfect MatchARM SOC ARM Architecture Features for Virtualization Dom0 Any Xen Guest VM (including Dom0) only EL0Device Tree describes … User Space Kernel EL1 I/O HVC GIC 2 stage GT v2 MMU EL2 Xen Hypervisor
    • One mode to rule them all Optimal performance Scope for improvementx86: PVHVM P P VS VH HVM mode/domainx86: PVH P P P VH PV mode/domainARM v7 & v8 P VH VH VH
    • Xen in CentOS 6.4+Xen is coming back to CentOSIn semi-private betaPlanned release in CentOS 6.4Include XAPI packages – aka XCP in CentOS
    • Xen Library Operating SystemsApplication stacks only running on Xen APIs Control domain Guest VMnWorks on any Xen based cloud or hosting service (dom0) AppsExamples PV Back Ends – ErlangOnXen.org : Erlang Library OS embedded – HalVM : Haskell HW Drivers in Language run-time – OpenMirage : Ocaml Dom0 KernelBenefits: Xen – Small footprint Host HW – Low startup latency – Extremely fast migration of VMs
    • Summary: Why Xen?
    • • Designed for the Cloud : many advantages for cloud use! – Resilience, Robustness & Scalability – Security: Small surface of attack, Isolation & Advanced Security Features• Widely used by Cloud Providers and Vendors• XCP – Ready for use with cloud orchestration stacks• Open Source with a large community and eco-system – Xen is still on top of the game – Exciting new developments and features in the pipeline
    • • IRC: ##xen @ FREENODE • Mailing List: xen-users & xen-api (lists.xen.org) • Wiki: wiki.xen.org • Ecosystem pages: xen.org/community/ecosystem.html • Presentations & Videos: xen.org/community/presentations.htmlThank You! @lars_kurth FREENODE: lars_kurth Slides available under CC-BY-SA 3.0 From www.slideshare.net/xen_com_mgr