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File KindMost students in this class use basic point-and-shoot cameras.These cameras record a digital file with a .jpg extension. Thiskind of file is pronounced jpeg. In order to standardize thisbeginning class, you will shoot in jpeg. This will be the kindof file you create when you push the shutter on your camera.Jpegs are processed or “cooked” in the camera before you evenopen them in Photoshop. Be careful setting the parameters ofthis processing in camera. You may want to slightly increasethe contrast and color vividness as you set the jpeg parametersin your camera.
File SizeMake sure your file size is set to the largest and finest optionavailable! See the Examples.
The ISO ISO is a measurement of the sensitivity tolight that a specific film has, or in the case of adigital camera, it is the measurement of theimaging sensors sensitivity. Films or digitalcameras with high ISO capability are better able totake low-light images and pictures of fast movingobjects. The letters ‘I-S-O’ are merely an acronym forthe “International Standards Organization”
Determining the ISO - Digital High ISO results in digital noise. 100 and lower = Slow, low noise, outdoor usage 200 = Medium, limited noise, indoor-outdoor 400 and higher = Fast, high noise, indoorFor This class use the lowest ISO possible. Since themajority of your shots should be outside, use 100 ISO.
Exposure ModesAutomatic Exposure• Camera has complete control over exposure, point- and-shoot operation, the majority of manual features are disabled, you cant alter exposure compensation, ISO or use RAW mode. You can set flash mode, macro and image size.
Another symbol for auto exposure modeMake sure you do not have your camera on thismode for this class.
Exposure Modes• Program Auto Exposure P Very similar to AUTO exposure but you have access to all the normal manual controls: can set the ISO, exposure compensation, use AE lock, bracketing, etc. For this class you will use this mode for most of your work! You will set your ISO to the lowest number possible and turn off your flash!
Exposure Modes• Shutter Priority Tv In this mode you select the shutter speed and the camera will attempt to select the best aperture for a proper exposure. Shutter speed is displayed on the LCD, press the left / right arrows to select different shutter speeds. A half- press of the shutter release causes the camera’s exposure system to calculate the correct aperture. If the exposure is outside the camera’s exposure range the aperture will appear in RED. You may want to experiment with this mode. Read your manual to learn how to use this mode.
Exposure Modes• Aperture Priority Av In this mode you select the aperture and the camera will attempt to select the best shutter speed for a proper exposure. Aperture is displayed on the LCD, press the left / right arrows to select different apertures. A half-press of the shutter release causes the cameras exposure system to calculate the shutter speed. If the exposure is outside the cameras exposure range the shutter speed will appear in RED. You may want to experiment with this mode. Read your manual to learn how to use this mode.
Exposure Modes• Full Manual Exposure M In this mode you select the aperture and the shutter speed. Left and right arrows select shutter speed, up and down arrows select aperture. When you half-press the shutter release the camera meters the scene and displays a numeric indication of how far over or underexposed the image is (compared to its metering).
Special Exposure modes Wide-focus In this mode the focal length is locked to maximum wide angle (you cannot zoom). No auto focus is performed, instead the focus is locked (much like a fixed focus lens camera) which allows very fast (almost lag free) shots to be taken. Useful for situations when you need a fast reaction.
Special Exposure modes Portrait In this mode apertures are kept as large as possible (small F number) to produce a blurred background which helps define the subject in a portrait shot.
Special Exposure modes Portrait Know this feature!
Special Exposure modes Landscape In this mode the flash is disabled (although you can enable it) and focus is locked at infinity. Apertures are kept as small as possible (large F numbers) to produce the largest possible depth of field. Macro focus is also disabled. Designed to be used for taking landscape shots.
Special Exposure modes Landscape Know this feature!
Special Exposure modes Night Scene Known on some cameras as "Slow Sync Flash". In this mode slow shutter speeds are used to capture a dimly lit background (buildings at night for example) and the flash fires briefly to illuminate a foreground subject.
Special Exposure modes Color Effect This exposure mode allows you to select between four different color settings. Each of these settings has a slightly different effect on color output: • Vivid - colors are enhanced (saturation increased) • Neutral - colors are toned down (saturation decreased) • Sepia - image takes on a slightly brown cast B&W • B&W - image is shot in black and white
Special settingsFlash Mode Toggles through the flash modes: Auto Flash, Redeye reduction Auto, Redeye Reduction Fill-In, Fill-In, Forced Off. Flash mode is displayed on the top and rear LCD’s. Turn off your flash for this class!
Special settingsSpot Metering Enables / Disables spot metering. When spot metering is enabled the camera meters only from a small rectangle in the center of the frame, this is indicated as a set of brackets [ ] within the normal AF rectangle. Spot metering status is displayed on the top and rear LCD’s. If you have this feature, make sure you understand what it does!
Special settingsMacro Focus Switches the camera’s autofocus system between normal focus range and macro focus range. Macro mode is used to take close-up photos of small objects such as flowers, coins and insects. If you move the lens too close to an object without switching to macro mode, images will be out of focus.
Special settings Multifunction Button This button scrolls between four different camera settings: • Exposure compensation: +/-2 stops in 0.3 stop increments • White balance: Auto, Sunny, Cloudy, Incandescent, Fluorescent, Fluorescent High, Flash, Manual Preset • Bracketing: 3 frames: 0/+/- (normal- overexposed-underexposed) • Flash output compensation: +/-2 stops in 0.3 stop incrementsMost of these features are located in separate menuoptions. The ones most important ones for this classis WB, EV, and Bracketing.
White balance Taken in natural light (daylight) with “sunny” White balance selectedTaken in natural light(daylight) with “cloudy”White balance selected
Focusing• Auto Focus• Many cameras allow choices for focusing. Three common options are multi-point auto focus, Center AF, and Face Detection AF. An on-screen focus point crop box, showing a close-up view of the focus point to confirm correct lock, can be switched on in either Center or Face Detection AF.• Locking the camera in Center AF mode may be helpful for the beginner.