Online Safety 3.0 - Presentation for Parents and Teachers


Published on's presentation on "Online Safety 3.0" -- a research-based rationale approach to youth behavior in our online world.

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  • ONLINE SAFETY CAN’T BE ONE-SIZE FITS ALL FOR MANY REASONS.... because the Web is huge and diverse and its use is highly individual, just as people’s lives are.. ...but also because there are many types of safety or well-being online and offline. In fact, online wellbeing, set in the context of what it’s FOR – full, constructive engagement in participatory culture & democracy – is more appropriately considered in terms of rights and freedoms: SO HERE ARE THE FORMS OF SAFETY WE ALL DESERVE:Physical is essential but not the all of it (playground metaphor).Psychological – we want them to have this freedom online just as much as we’ve always sought it for them offline, and their behavior is a factor in their well-being. Reputational and legal – we have a lot of work to do to develop awareness in this area, since users themselves are key to maintaining this freedom for themselves.Identity, property, and community – imposter profiles are a big one; we need to teach youth not only to protect their privacy & property but also their identity (first and foremost by protecting their passwords and not falling prey to manipulation, social engineering - like phishing scams).
  • THERE NEVER HAS BEEN A STUDY ON HOW MUCH CHILDREN ARE SOLICITED BY “PREDATORS.” NOTE THE HEADLINE: “All Children Vulnerable to Online Predators”. IT’S A TRICK QUESTION BECAUSE THE SURVEY WASN’T ABOUT PREDATORS. It was about unwanted sexual solicitations from anybody – flirting is often an unwanted sexual solicitation, as the researchers defined the term. Here’s what the 2000 study this refers to – updated in 2006 with the figure 1 in 7, so the no. of solicitations had gone down – actually said....READ THIS:“Youth identify most sexual solicitors as being other adolescents (48% in 2000; 43% in 2006) or young adults 18-24 (20%; 30%), with few (4%; 9%) coming from older adults, and the remaining being of unknown age.” THE TOTALS: 68% teens & 18-24-year-olds in 2000; 73% in 2006.
  • From 1990 to 2005 – the period of time that the Web was born and grew most rapidly – there was a 51% decline in overall child sexual – the chart’s showing that: out of every 10,000 US minors, 23 were abused, with that no. going down to 11 in 2005.UPDATE: 58% decline thru 2008, latest figure available (reported by CCRC here “Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008” <>)NCANDS = National Data Archives on Child Abuse & Neglect
  • Putting up a fence might keep a kid away from a specific swimming pool but teaching them to swim protects them around all water and helps them enjoy the water as well.
  • ONLY SHOWS HOW FLUID SOCIAL NETWORKING IS....If they aren’t now, very soon, kids will be able to do everything on phones that they do on the Web – plus texting!There are phone-only social-network sites (accessible via the Web but designed for phone screens), and MySpace and Facebook – all the majors – allow users to update their profiles from their phones.
  • THESE ARE ALL IMPORTANT BUT VERY GENERAL – CERTAINLY EACH INCIDENT IS UNIQUE AND NEEDS CARING INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT - a full, nonconfrontational, child-caregiver discussion that looks at the situation’s circumstances. The psychological damage can be considerable – some kids have suicidal thoughts.School counselor I spoke with several years ago would find out all the parties involved, get them in a room, and do bully-victim reverse role-playing (empathy training). In families and schools, some of these incidents can be turned into TEACHABLE MOMENTS (maybe anonymized?) for all parties’ benefit.
  • See “US sex-offender laws, registries not conducive to child safety” <>, “More on sex-offender registry flaws” <>, and more coverage in <>.See also’s “Tips to Prevent Sexting”:
  • THIS WAS A REVELATION TO ME BACK IN 2007, when I first read it in the medical journal, ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE. This is when I realized what a big risk factor young people’s own behavior is – in the contexts of both bullying and predation.HERE’S THE CHART.... [next slide][See also: “Digital risk, digital citizenship” <>.]
  • Online Safety 3.0 - Presentation for Parents and Teachers

    1. 1. Online Safety 3.0<br />Larry Magid, Ed.D<br />Co-director<br /><br />Founder<br /><br />Education Committee Chair:Obama Admin’s Online Safety Technology Working Group<br />
    2. 2. Other Generations <br />Have Worried about Youth<br />
    3. 3. Kids! I don't know what's wrong with these kids today!<br />Kids! Who can understand anything they say?<br />Kids! They a disobedient, disrespectful oafs!Noisy, crazy, dirty, lazy, loafers!<br />While we're on the subject:<br />Kids! You can talk and talk till your face is blue!<br />Kids! But they still just do what they want to do!<br />Why can't they be like we were,Perfect in every way?<br />What's the matter with kids today?<br />Kids from Bye Bye Birdie, 1963. Lyrics by Lee Adams<br />
    4. 4. Evolution of Online Safety<br />Children as victims:<br />1.0 (most of the 90’s) Pornography & predators: Protecting children from bad adults. Children as consumers of information, not as creators and based on assumptions of risk, not actual research<br />2.0(around 2007) Protecting children from peers. Recognizing that kids can create content harm other kids and themselves. Cyberbullying & posting inappropriate or dangerous content <br />
    5. 5. Empowering approach<br />Research-based, not fear-based, so relevant<br />Flexible, layered – not one-size-fits-all<br />Respectful of youth – stakeholders in positive outcomes, not just potential victims<br />Positive: Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for good outcomes<br />Comprehensive = Incorporates safety, security, citizenship, and research/information literacy<br />From Online Safety 3.0 (<br />
    6. 6. 4 Types of Online Safety<br />Physical safety – freedom from physical harm<br />Psychological safety – freedom from cruelty, harassment, and exposure to potentially disturbing material <br />Reputational and legal safety – freedom from unwanted social, academic, professional, and legal consequences that could affect you for a lifetime <br />Identity, property, and community safety – freedom from theft of identity & property<br />Items 1 through 3 are from Anne Collier’s NetFamilyNews<br />
    7. 7. The ‘Net effect’<br />For the most part,the online world is pretty much like the “real world,” but there are a few special things to think about<br />It can be permanent<br />Material can be copied and pasted<br />Lots of people can see it<br />You don’t know for sure who’s seeing it<br />AND<br />Disinhibition: Lack of visual cues reducesempathy<br />Source: adapted from danahboyd: Taken out of Context, 2008<br />
    8. 8. What adults worry about<br /><ul><li>Predation
    9. 9. Viewing inappropriate content
    10. 10. Posting/sending inappropriate content
    11. 11. Cyberbullying & harassment
    12. 12. Privacy and Reputation
    13. 13. Online addiction
    14. 14. Online contributing to destructive, illegal or inappropriate behavior
    15. 15. Device security & social engineering</li></li></ul><li>Predation<br />
    16. 16. Question:What proportion of American teens have been approached online by a predator?<br />1 in 20<br />1 in 10<br />1 in 7<br />1 in 5<br />Almost half<br />
    17. 17. It’s a trick question<br />
    18. 18. You’ve seen the headlines<br />
    19. 19. The rise of the web has not resulted in increased victimization of children<br />51% Decline (during the period of the Web’s existence)<br />Blue line represents 58% decline in child sex abuse from 1992 to 2008<br />Source: Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008: Finkelhor, Jones and Shattuck: Crimes Against Children Research Center<br />
    20. 20. Inappropriate content<br />
    21. 21. Seems Almost Quaint<br />Playboy’s first cover, 1953<br />
    22. 22. Today’s Internet Porn <br /><ul><li>Easy to find
    23. 23. Easy to “hide”
    24. 24. Hard core porn is easier to find than soft-core erotica
    25. 25. Some images and videos depict things that are not appropriate – even for adults
    26. 26. But it’s important to understand the difference between:
    27. 27. Occasional exposure
    28. 28. Frequent exposure
    29. 29. Excessive exposure
    30. 30. Obsessive use </li></li></ul><li>Parental controls like fences around swimming pools….<br />To keep them safe around all water, we teach kids to swim<br />
    31. 31. Ultimately, the best filter runs between the child’s ears, not on a device<br />Protection that lasts a lifetime<br />Training wheels for young kids<br />
    32. 32. Sexting<br />Ill-advised and often illegal<br />
    33. 33. ‘Sexting’<br /><ul><li> Nude or sexually explicit photo-sharing or text messages
    34. 34. Usually via cellphones, but possible via other devices and Web
    35. 35. Illegal when involving minors
    36. 36. A few prosecutors have charged teens with production, possession, distribution of child porn</li></li></ul><li>How Common is Sexting?<br />An early survey found that 20% of teens sent a ‘sext’<br />Which led to stories like this:<br />
    37. 37. But a more recent Pew Study Found<br /><ul><li>4% sent a “sext”
    38. 38. 15% received a “sext”</li></ul>Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project: Dec. 2009<br />
    39. 39. Why do kids send ‘sext’ messages?<br />Teen “romance” – expression of shared intimacy with partner<br />Flirting<br />Showing off (party behavior)<br />Impulsive risk-taking<br />Peer pressure<br />Revenge<br />Bullying or intimidation<br />Blackmail<br />
    40. 40. Non-legal consequences<br />Emotional or reputational damage<br />School discipline<br />Invisible viewership – can be forwarded to anyone<br />Potentially searchable on the Web, possibly forever<br />
    41. 41. Legal consequences in US<br />Potential for child-porn production, distribution, or possession charges<br />Could be required by state law to register as a sex offender<br />
    42. 42. Kids and Media<br />Kids today spend an average of 7 hours and 38 minutes a day consuming “Entertainment media." *<br />If you consider that kids are multi-tasking, it's actually closer to 11 hours*<br />But before you react, consider how the are actually using it<br />*Source: Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010<br />
    43. 43. What’s a Parent to Do <br />Try to be a good role model<br />Have dinner together as a family<br />Encourage a balanced life that includes outdoor activities<br />Recognize the difference between heavy use & excessive/obsessive use<br />Be nearby while they’re doing homework<br />Consider banning tech devices from bedroom after bedtime<br />Recognize that obsessive technology use could be a symptom of other issues<br />Set limits and consider using parental controls built into game consoles and PC operating systems<br />
    44. 44. Cyberbullying<br />
    45. 45. Bullying has been around for a very long time, but cyberbullying…<br /><ul><li>Happens in social networks, chat, e-mail, text messaging and phone calls
    46. 46. Can often be in both “real world” & online
    47. 47. Can follow them home – hard to escape
    48. 48. Can stick around forever
    49. 49. The “Net Effect”</li></ul>Illustration: (Creative Commons License)<br />
    50. 50. Bullying has been around for a very long time, but cyberbullying…<br /><ul><li>Bullies can be invisible: (Victims sometimes do not know who the bully is, or why they are being targeted)
    51. 51. Viral: (Hurtful actions of a cyberbully are viral; that is, a large number of people (at school, in the neighborhood, in the city, in the world!) can be involved in a cyber-attack on a victim, or at least find out about the incident… The perception is that absolutely everyone is in on the joke.
    52. 52. Easy: Often easier to be cruel using technology because cyberbullying can be done from a physically distant location, and the bully doesn’t have to see the immediate response by the target</li></ul>Source: Overview of Cyberbullying (Hinduja and Patchin –<br />
    53. 53. Cyberbullying: Getting Specific<br /><ul><li>Weird or threatening look
    54. 54. Whispering
    55. 55. Excluding
    56. 56. Blackmailing
    57. 57. Spreading rumors
    58. 58. Threatening
    59. 59. Stealing friends
    60. 60. Damaging social relationships
    61. 61. Breaking secrets
    62. 62. Criticizing clothes & personalities </li></ul>Source: Robyn Treyvaud: Cyber Safe Kids<br /><ul><li>Flaming
    63. 63. Harassment
    64. 64. Denigration
    65. 65. Impersonation
    66. 66. Outing
    67. 67. Trickery
    68. 68. Exclusion
    69. 69. Cyberstalking</li></ul>Source: Nancy Willard, Center for Safe & Responsible Use of the Internet<br />
    70. 70. What Kids Should Do<br /><ul><li>Don't respond or retaliate
    71. 71. Talk to trusted adults and peers
    72. 72. Save the evidence
    73. 73. Block the bully
    74. 74. Be civil / don't be a bully
    75. 75. Be a friend, not a bystander </li></li></ul><li>What Should Adults Do?<br /><ul><li>Listen & take child seriously
    76. 76. Make sure child is and feels safe
    77. 77. Don’t overreact
    78. 78. Encourage child not to retaliate
    79. 79. Gather facts & save the evidence
    80. 80. Get the child to help solve the problem
    81. 81. Teach self-esteem & resilience
    82. 82. Bring in school officials if there is a “nexus” with school
    83. 83. Encourage child to reach out to friends
    84. 84. Encourage Courage: “Be a friend, not a bystander”</li></li></ul><li>What Should Schools Do?<br /><ul><li>Respond if there is any “nexus” between off and on campus behavior
    85. 85. Review existing polices to see how they apply to cyberbullying
    86. 86. Work with students to create anti-bullying campaigns and posters
    87. 87. Be cautious about use of law-enforcement Create a positive school climate
    88. 88. Develop anonymous reporting mechanisms
    89. 89. Offering training workshops for staff
    90. 90. Employ peer mentoring
    91. 91. Emphasize that most kids don’t bully</li></ul>Source: Overview of Cyberbullying (Hinduja and Patchin –<br />
    92. 92. It’s in Youth’s Own Interest to Treat others Well<br />“Youth who engage in online aggressive behavior by making rude or nasty comments or frequently embarrassing others are more than twice as likely to report online interpersonal victimization." <br />
    93. 93. Cyberbullying Panic!<br />“85% of 12 and 13 year-olds have had experience with cyberbullying,” according to one claim<br />
    94. 94. Cyberbullying is a serious problem, but …<br />Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey<br />
    95. 95. Social norms approach<br /><ul><li>It’s been shown that people emulate how they think their peers behave
    96. 96. If people think their friends don’t smoke, they’re less likely to smoke.
    97. 97. Same is true with over-eating, excessive alcohol use and other negative behaviors, including bullying*</li></ul>*Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008<br />
    98. 98. Examples of positive norming<br />Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008<br />
    99. 99. Privacy & Reputation Management<br />
    100. 100. It’s About Having a Good Digital Footprint<br />A online reputation is better than none at all<br />One of the best ways to bury embarrassing search results is to create with good ones<br />
    101. 101. What is digital citizenship?<br /> A “citizen” has responsibilities and rights<br />You have the responsibility to:<br />Be civil & respectful<br />You have the right to:<br /> Be treated respectfully by kids & adults<br />Access media and express yourself*<br />*U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Signed by all countries except U.S. & Somalia<br />
    102. 102. Cornerstones of Online Safety 3.0<br /><ul><li>Media literacy / Critical thinking
    103. 103. Digital citizenship</li></li></ul><li>Advice to Youth<br />“With great power comes great responsibility”<br />-Ben Parker, Spiderman<br />
    104. 104. Thank you!<br />Larry Magid<br /><br /><br />
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