ONLINE SAFETY CAN’T BE ONE-SIZE FITS ALL FOR MANY REASONS.... because the Web is huge and diverse and its use is highly individual, just as people’s lives are.. ...but also because there are many types of safety or well-being online and offline. In fact, online wellbeing, set in the context of what it’s FOR – full, constructive engagement in participatory culture & democracy – is more appropriately considered in terms of rights and freedoms: SO HERE ARE THE FORMS OF SAFETY WE ALL DESERVE:Physical is essential but not the all of it (playground metaphor).Psychological – we want them to have this freedom online just as much as we’ve always sought it for them offline, and their behavior is a factor in their well-being. Reputational and legal – we have a lot of work to do to develop awareness in this area, since users themselves are key to maintaining this freedom for themselves.Identity, property, and community – imposter profiles are a big one; we need to teach youth not only to protect their privacy & property but also their identity (first and foremost by protecting their passwords and not falling prey to manipulation, social engineering - like phishing scams).
THERE NEVER HAS BEEN A STUDY ON HOW MUCH CHILDREN ARE SOLICITED BY “PREDATORS.” NOTE THE HEADLINE: “All Children Vulnerable to Online Predators”. IT’S A TRICK QUESTION BECAUSE THE SURVEY WASN’T ABOUT PREDATORS. It was about unwanted sexual solicitations from anybody – flirting is often an unwanted sexual solicitation, as the researchers defined the term. Here’s what the 2000 study this refers to – updated in 2006 with the figure 1 in 7, so the no. of solicitations had gone down – actually said....READ THIS:“Youth identify most sexual solicitors as being other adolescents (48% in 2000; 43% in 2006) or young adults 18-24 (20%; 30%), with few (4%; 9%) coming from older adults, and the remaining being of unknown age.” THE TOTALS: 68% teens & 18-24-year-olds in 2000; 73% in 2006.
From 1990 to 2005 – the period of time that the Web was born and grew most rapidly – there was a 51% decline in overall child sexual – the chart’s showing that: out of every 10,000 US minors, 23 were abused, with that no. going down to 11 in 2005.UPDATE: 58% decline thru 2008, latest figure available (reported by CCRC here “Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008” <http://www.unh.edu/ccrc/pdf/CV203_Updated%20Trends%20in%20Child%20Maltreatment%202008_8-6-10.pdf>)NCANDS = National Data Archives on Child Abuse & Neglect
Putting up a fence might keep a kid away from a specific swimming pool but teaching them to swim protects them around all water and helps them enjoy the water as well.
ONLY SHOWS HOW FLUID SOCIAL NETWORKING IS....If they aren’t now, very soon, kids will be able to do everything on phones that they do on the Web – plus texting!There are phone-only social-network sites (accessible via the Web but designed for phone screens), and MySpace and Facebook – all the majors – allow users to update their profiles from their phones.
THESE ARE ALL IMPORTANT BUT VERY GENERAL – CERTAINLY EACH INCIDENT IS UNIQUE AND NEEDS CARING INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT - a full, nonconfrontational, child-caregiver discussion that looks at the situation’s circumstances. The psychological damage can be considerable – some kids have suicidal thoughts.School counselor I spoke with several years ago would find out all the parties involved, get them in a room, and do bully-victim reverse role-playing (empathy training). In families and schools, some of these incidents can be turned into TEACHABLE MOMENTS (maybe anonymized?) for all parties’ benefit.
See “US sex-offender laws, registries not conducive to child safety” <http://www.netfamilynews.org/2009/08/us-sex-offender-laws-registries-not.html>, “More on sex-offender registry flaws” <http://www.netfamilynews.org/2009/09/more-on-sex-offender-registry-flaws.html>, and more coverage in NetFamilyNews.org <http://www.netfamilynews.org/labels/teen%20sex%20offenders.html>.See also ConnectSafely.org’s “Tips to Prevent Sexting”: http://www.connectsafely.org/Safety-Tips/tips-to-prevent-sexting.html
THIS WAS A REVELATION TO ME BACK IN 2007, when I first read it in the medical journal, ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE. This is when I realized what a big risk factor young people’s own behavior is – in the contexts of both bullying and predation.HERE’S THE CHART.... [next slide]http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/161/2/138[See also: “Digital risk, digital citizenship” <http://www.netfamilynews.org/2009/05/digital-risk-digital-citizenship.html>.]
Online Safety 3.0 - Presentation for Parents and Teachers
Other Generations <br />Have Worried about Youth<br />
Kids! I don't know what's wrong with these kids today!<br />Kids! Who can understand anything they say?<br />Kids! They a disobedient, disrespectful oafs!Noisy, crazy, dirty, lazy, loafers!<br />While we're on the subject:<br />Kids! You can talk and talk till your face is blue!<br />Kids! But they still just do what they want to do!<br />Why can't they be like we were,Perfect in every way?<br />What's the matter with kids today?<br />Kids from Bye Bye Birdie, 1963. Lyrics by Lee Adams<br />
Evolution of Online Safety<br />Children as victims:<br />1.0 (most of the 90’s) Pornography & predators: Protecting children from bad adults. Children as consumers of information, not as creators and based on assumptions of risk, not actual research<br />2.0(around 2007) Protecting children from peers. Recognizing that kids can create content harm other kids and themselves. Cyberbullying & posting inappropriate or dangerous content <br />
Empowering approach<br />Research-based, not fear-based, so relevant<br />Flexible, layered – not one-size-fits-all<br />Respectful of youth – stakeholders in positive outcomes, not just potential victims<br />Positive: Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for good outcomes<br />Comprehensive = Incorporates safety, security, citizenship, and research/information literacy<br />From Online Safety 3.0 (os3.connectsafely.org)<br />
4 Types of Online Safety<br />Physical safety – freedom from physical harm<br />Psychological safety – freedom from cruelty, harassment, and exposure to potentially disturbing material <br />Reputational and legal safety – freedom from unwanted social, academic, professional, and legal consequences that could affect you for a lifetime <br />Identity, property, and community safety – freedom from theft of identity & property<br />Items 1 through 3 are from Anne Collier’s NetFamilyNews<br />
The ‘Net effect’<br />For the most part,the online world is pretty much like the “real world,” but there are a few special things to think about<br />It can be permanent<br />Material can be copied and pasted<br />Lots of people can see it<br />You don’t know for sure who’s seeing it<br />AND<br />Disinhibition: Lack of visual cues reducesempathy<br />Source: adapted from danahboyd: Taken out of Context, 2008<br />
The rise of the web has not resulted in increased victimization of children<br />51% Decline (during the period of the Web’s existence)<br />Blue line represents 58% decline in child sex abuse from 1992 to 2008<br />Source: Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2008: Finkelhor, Jones and Shattuck: Crimes Against Children Research Center<br />
A few prosecutors have charged teens with production, possession, distribution of child porn</li></li></ul><li>How Common is Sexting?<br />An early survey found that 20% of teens sent a ‘sext’<br />Which led to stories like this:<br />
But a more recent Pew Study Found<br /><ul><li>4% sent a “sext”
15% received a “sext”</li></ul>Source: Pew Internet & American Life Project: Dec. 2009<br />
Why do kids send ‘sext’ messages?<br />Teen “romance” – expression of shared intimacy with partner<br />Flirting<br />Showing off (party behavior)<br />Impulsive risk-taking<br />Peer pressure<br />Revenge<br />Bullying or intimidation<br />Blackmail<br />
Non-legal consequences<br />Emotional or reputational damage<br />School discipline<br />Invisible viewership – can be forwarded to anyone<br />Potentially searchable on the Web, possibly forever<br />
Legal consequences in US<br />Potential for child-porn production, distribution, or possession charges<br />Could be required by state law to register as a sex offender<br />
Kids and Media<br />Kids today spend an average of 7 hours and 38 minutes a day consuming “Entertainment media." *<br />If you consider that kids are multi-tasking, it's actually closer to 11 hours*<br />But before you react, consider how the are actually using it<br />*Source: Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2010<br />
What’s a Parent to Do <br />Try to be a good role model<br />Have dinner together as a family<br />Encourage a balanced life that includes outdoor activities<br />Recognize the difference between heavy use & excessive/obsessive use<br />Be nearby while they’re doing homework<br />Consider banning tech devices from bedroom after bedtime<br />Recognize that obsessive technology use could be a symptom of other issues<br />Set limits and consider using parental controls built into game consoles and PC operating systems<br />
The “Net Effect”</li></ul>Illustration: CustumeHum.com (Creative Commons License)<br />
Bullying has been around for a very long time, but cyberbullying…<br /><ul><li>Bullies can be invisible: (Victims sometimes do not know who the bully is, or why they are being targeted)
Viral: (Hurtful actions of a cyberbully are viral; that is, a large number of people (at school, in the neighborhood, in the city, in the world!) can be involved in a cyber-attack on a victim, or at least find out about the incident… The perception is that absolutely everyone is in on the joke.
Easy: Often easier to be cruel using technology because cyberbullying can be done from a physically distant location, and the bully doesn’t have to see the immediate response by the target</li></ul>Source: Overview of Cyberbullying (Hinduja and Patchin – cyberbullying.us<br />
Cyberbullying: Getting Specific<br /><ul><li>Weird or threatening look
Emphasize that most kids don’t bully</li></ul>Source: Overview of Cyberbullying (Hinduja and Patchin – cyberbullying.us<br />
It’s in Youth’s Own Interest to Treat others Well<br />“Youth who engage in online aggressive behavior by making rude or nasty comments or frequently embarrassing others are more than twice as likely to report online interpersonal victimization." <br />
Cyberbullying Panic!<br />“85% of 12 and 13 year-olds have had experience with cyberbullying,” according to one claim<br />
Cyberbullying is a serious problem, but …<br />Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey<br />
Social norms approach<br /><ul><li>It’s been shown that people emulate how they think their peers behave
If people think their friends don’t smoke, they’re less likely to smoke.
Same is true with over-eating, excessive alcohol use and other negative behaviors, including bullying*</li></ul>*Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008<br />
Examples of positive norming<br />Source: Assessing Bullying in New Jersey Secondary Schools: Applying the Social Norms Model to Adolescent Violence: Craig, Perkins 2008<br />
It’s About Having a Good Digital Footprint<br />A online reputation is better than none at all<br />One of the best ways to bury embarrassing search results is to create with good ones<br />
What is digital citizenship?<br /> A “citizen” has responsibilities and rights<br />You have the responsibility to:<br />Be civil & respectful<br />You have the right to:<br /> Be treated respectfully by kids & adults<br />Access media and express yourself*<br />*U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Signed by all countries except U.S. & Somalia<br />