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Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
Heat Injuries
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Heat Injuries

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  • 1. Heat Injuries W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 2. Terminal Learning Objective
    • Given a (simulated) casualty with a suspected heat injury in a field environment, Identify the signs, symptoms and provide appropriate treatment for a heat injury casualty. Perform all measures IAW Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) and the tenets of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TC-3).
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 3. Enabling Learning Objectives
    • Given a (simulated) casualty demonstrating the effects of an environmental injury in a field environment, Identify the signs, symptoms and treatment principles of managing a heat injury. IAW Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) and the tenets of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TC-3).
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 4. Enabling Learning Objectives
    • Given soldiers deploying or recently deployed to a hot environment, List the general assessment techniques and prevention principles of managing heat illnesses. IAW Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) and the tenets of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TC-3).
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 5. Environmental Emergency
    • Caused by weather, terrain, atmospheric pressure, or other local factors.
      • Many military campaigns lost due to lack of acclimatization
      • May be life-threatening
      • May aggravate other medical or traumatic conditions
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 6.
      • Environmental Factors:
        • Climate
        • Season
        • Weather
        • Atmospheric pressure
        • Terrain
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 7.
      • Risk Factors:
        • Age: extremes of age are at greater risk
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 8.
      • Risk Factors (cont’d):
        • General health: anyone with serious underlying medical condition is more susceptible; especially malnourished
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 9.
      • Risk Factors (cont’d):
        • Fatigue
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 10.
      • Risk Factors (cont’d):
        • Predisposing medical conditions
          • Dehydration, diabetes, fever, high blood pressure, heart disease, lung problems
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 11.
      • Risk Factors (cont’d):
        • Medications
          • diuretics like caffeine and alcohol cause body to lose water
          • antihistamines decrease sweating
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 12. Temperature Regulation
    • Normal bodily means of heat loss and gain.
      • Radiation
      • Conduction
      • Convection
      • Evaporation
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 13.
      • Types of Environmental Injuries:
        • Cold injury
        • Heat injuries
          • Heat cramps
          • Heat exhaustion
          • Heatstroke
        • Localized injuries
          • Radiation burns, sunburns
          • Insect and spider bites
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 14. Heat Cramps W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 15.
    • Definition:
      • A muscle cramp or spasm of the voluntary muscles of the arm, leg or abdomen - caused by depletion in the body, of water and salt (dehydration)
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Cramps
  • 16.
    • Signs and symptoms:
      • Painful spasms
      • Heavy perspiration and drinking lots of water
      • Skin, moist or dry
      • Core temperature is normal to minimally elevated
      • Heat cramps and heat exhaustion may co-exist
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Cramps
  • 17.
    • Treatment:
      • Move casualty to shade
      • Loosen clothing
      • Gentle stretching of cramped muscles
      • Oral hydration with electrolyte solution
      • If nauseated IV hydration with Ringers Lactate
      • Obtain further medical advise if symptoms continue
      • Document
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Cramps
  • 18. Heat Exhaustion W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 19.
    • Definition:
      • Heat exhaustion: a systemic reaction to prolonged heat exposure and is due to excessive fluid (dehydration) loss and electrolyte (sodium) depletion
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Exhaustion
  • 20.
    • Signs and symptoms:
      • Profuse sweating with pale, moist, cool skin
      • Headache
      • Weakness
      • Dizziness
      • Loss of appetite
      • Nausea (with or without vomiting)
      • Confusion
      • Core temperature may be elevated
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Exhaustion
  • 21.
    • Treatment:
      • Move the casualty to a cool shady area
      • Loosen or remove clothing and boots
      • Provide oral hydration with electrolyte solution, if tolerated
      • Initiate IV hydration with Ringers Lactate
      • Keep casualty supine
      • Monitor and evacuate if situation dictates
      • Document
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Exhaustion
  • 22. Heat Stroke W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 23.
    • Definition:
      • Caused by failure of the temperature regulating system in the brain. Heatstroke usually involves excessive exposure to strenuous physical activity under hot conditions
      • However, elderly or chronically ill patients may develop heatstroke without strenuous physical activity. The hallmark of this condition is altered mental status
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Stroke
  • 24. DANGER
    • HEAT STROKE IS A LIFE-THREATENING EMERGENCY THAT HAS AN 80% FATALITY RATE IF LEFT UNTREATED. YOU MUST ACT WITHOUT DELAY, AS BODY TEMP MAY EXCEED 105 degrees F.
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 25.
    • Signs and symptoms:
      • Sweat may or may not be present
      • Skin is red (flushed), hot
      • Headache
      • Dizziness
      • Nausea
      • Confusion
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Stroke
  • 26.
    • Signs and symptoms (cont’d):
      • Weakness
      • Seizures
      • Coma
      • Respiration and pulse rapid and weak
      • Core temperature above 104 degrees F
      • As a medical emergency, heat stroke will result in death if treatment is delayed
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Stroke
  • 27.
    • Treatment:
      • Act quickly to prevent further injury
      • Remove from environment
      • Active cooling
        • remove clothing
        • misting with water and fanning
        • moist wraps
        • immersion in cool water
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Stroke
  • 28.
    • Treatment (cont’d):
      • Note: Do not lower core temperature below 102 degrees F; temp will continue to drop after removing from water
      • Ice packs
        • groin
        • axilla
      • Fluid therapy
        • IV-Ringers Lactate
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Stroke
  • 29.
    • Treatment (cont’d):
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 30. General Assessment and Prevention of Heat Injury W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 31.
    • Heat injury assessment.
    • General assessment findings:
        • Vital signs reassessed every 10-15 minutes
        • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
        • Skin - moist or dry; cool or hot
        • Mental status assessment
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 32.
      • Predisposing factors:
        • Age
        • General health
        • Medications (inhibiting sweat)
        • Acclimatization
        • Length of exposure
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 33.
      • Predisposing factors (cont’d):
        • Intensity of exposure
        • Environment
        • Alcohol intake within 24 hours
        • Food consumption
        • Fever
        • Clothing, especially CBRN gear
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 34.
      • Predisposing factors (cont’d):
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 35. W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
    • Predisposing factors (cont’d):
    Heat Injury
  • 36.
      • Predisposing Factors (cont’d):
        • Use of MOPP gear increases WBGT by 10 o F
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 37. W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1
  • 38.
    • Water consumption: recommendations:
      • Follow recommendations on the Heat CAT chart
      • “ When” is as important as "how much"
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 39.
    • Heat injury prevention:
      • Recommendations
      • Acclimation
      • Cumulative effect
      • Prevention
      • Salt tablets not used
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 40.
      • Heat injury prevention (cont’d):
    W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1 Heat Injury
  • 41. Questions? W-1/W-2 05 Apr 06 C191W056/1

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