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Lecture 2: Interactions, Frameworks, Privacy & Security on the Social Web (2014)

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This is the second lecture in the Social Web course (2014) at the VU University Amsterdam. Visit the website for more information: http://thesocialweb2014.wordpress.com/

This is the second lecture in the Social Web course (2014) at the VU University Amsterdam. Visit the website for more information: http://thesocialweb2014.wordpress.com/

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  • 1. Social Web 2014 Lecture II: What People DO on the Social Web? Lora Aroyo The Network Institute VU University Amsterdam Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 2. Social Relationships Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 3. Social in Physical World People have relationships within & across different contexts: family, sports, work, friends In ‘real world’ it works due to a relatively small set of social contexts & interaction opportunities http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 4. Social in Digital World Digital social dynamics match physical world: friends are friends in both worlds There are also significant differences: • # people to interact with, not limited by distance/time • a person can ‘block’ or ‘manage’ relationships • multiple systems - multiple accounts, i.e. multi-ple digital representation (personae, personal profiles) of a user • personae are subject to different social norms • personae can evolve over time • personae are less (not) limited in scope Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 5. Monday, February 17, 14
  • 6. Multiple SN Accounts • Accounts on different social & professional networks, utilised in different ways, depending on the digital context, e.g.: • friendly chat on Facebook • professional discussion on LinkedIn • dating on Hives As a consequence there is a need to manage the user profiles, identities & permissions, and their social graph (relationships) & their social media Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 7. Problems Maintaining a multitude of online profiles for different contexts is cumbersome and time consuming —> not scalable Difficult for new social networks to attract new & maintain active members simply because of the effort involved in creating & maintaining “yet-another-profile”, e.g. re-establishing different aspects of your profile under yet another context Users cannot control how their information is viewed by others in different contexts by different social applications Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 8. Architecture Needed for managing multiple Social Web profiles “policy-oriented web” architecture to support trusted services in the longer term Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 9. For example … In one system manage your personal information: • home address, telephone number, & best friends • your Friends Profile gets exposed to Hives and Twitter In another system manage work-related information: • office address, office telephone number, & work colleagues • your Work Profile gets exposed to Plaxo and LinkedIn Another choice could be to store your entire profile locally with a trusted third party, and then • your Health Profile can be exposed to health care providers • your Citizen Profile can be exposed to government services Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 10. Social Web User http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 11. Distributed Profile http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 12. Social Graph http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 13. Social Groups http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 14. Frameworks http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_Today Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 15. Personal Profiles Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 16. Opening the Sites Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 17. Opening the Sites • Demand from application developers to make use of the amounts of Social Web data & make their applications available to the site members • Demand from users to reuse data and connections they have already established on other sites, e.g. Google+ download your data, Diaspora* download xml, download photos • In response: Facebook provided an API & Google OpenSocial API Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 18. • open, decentralized standard for authenticating users that can be used for access control, allowing users to log on to different services with the same digital identity where these services trust the authentication body • making sure the users are who they say they are • http://openid.net/ • Started in 2005 as Yadis (Yet another distributed identity system) Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 19. with OpenID, the process starts with the application asking the user for their identity (typically an openid URI) http://openidexplained.com/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 20. who’s right? privacy vs. security? can we trust what people provide to SNSs? Monday, February 17, 14
  • 21. what’s next big thing in SNS? why do people make their social life explicit? earning money vs. protecting users Monday, February 17, 14
  • 22. OAuth • an open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a standard method for web applications; it enables users to grant third-party access to their web resources without sharing their passwords • largely based on: Flickr’s API Auth & Google’s AuthSub • limitations in terms of complexity, user experience, scale • 3 flows merged into one: web-based apps, desktop clients & mobile/limited devices; e.g. when Facebook Connect existed - flows for web apps, mobile devices & game consoles • http://oauth.net/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 23. OAuth 2.0 • OAuth 2.0 focuses on client developer simplicity - providing specific authorization flows for web & desktop applications, mobile phones & living room devices • not backwards compatible with previous versions • 6 New Flows • http://oauth.net/2/ the application directly requests a limited access OAuth Token (valet key) to access the APIs (enter the house) on user's behalf. If the user can grant that access, the application can retrieve the unique identifier for establishing the profile (identity) using the APIs. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 24. Twitter Employing Figure credits: http://www.phpbuilder.com/columns/sachin_khosla062510.php3 Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 25. Facebook Platform • • • • • • Graph API - core of Facebook Platform, to read and write data to Facebook (simple and consistent view of the social graph) Open Graph - defining Actions and Objects Facebook Query Language (FQL) - SQL-style interface to query the data exposed by the Graph API Authentication (Facebook Login) - interact with Graph API on behalf of Facebook users (single-sign on mechanism for web, mobile & desktop apps) Social Plugins, Facebook Payments, Ads API, Chat API (via Jabber/XMPP service), JavaScript SDK Depreciated: REST API, FBML, and the old Javascript API, Facebook Connect APIs Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 26. • open standards-based (e.g. JavaScript, HTML) component model for cloud-based social apps • Google initiative (set of APIs) in 2007: • People & Friends API (people and relationship information) • Activities API (publishing & accessing user activity information) • Persistence API (simple key-value pair data for server-free stateful applications) • with Open Social embedded in a site, a site instantly becomes a social Web site (initially running only at Orkut) • integrated, e.g. OAuth, OAuth 2.0, Activity Streams • http://www.opensocial.org/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 27. OpenSocial • • • • • Half a year after Facebook Platform, Google launched Open Social Popular containers (initially): MySpace, Hi5, Plaxo, LinkedIn, Orkut, Friendster, Six Apart http://opensocial.org/category/showcase/ (currently) Plugged-in applications: iLike, Slide, Flixter, Rock You, etc. https://github.com/opensocial • Apache Shinding: reference implementation of OpenSocial Specification (Social Network APIs): • Apache Rave: lightweight extendible platform for using, integrating & hosting OpenSocial and W3C Widget services (context-aware personalization, collaboration & content integration capabilities) Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 28. Twitter APIs • The Twitter platform offers access to the data of more than 200 million tweets a day, via different APIs • Each API represents a facet of Twitter • These APIs are constantly evolving, and developers have to be aware of that • http://dev.twitter.com Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 29. REST API • • • • the API for leveraging core Twitter objects enables access to core Twitter primitives including timelines, status updates & user information, etc. RESTful API calls to build a profile of a user: user name, user Twitter handle, user profile avatar & the graph of people that user is following on Twitter enables interaction with Twitter: create & post tweets back to Twitter, reply to tweets, favorite certain tweets, retweet other tweets, etc. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 30. Search API • • • Dedicated API for running searches against the realtime index of recent Tweets; query for Twitter content: • a set of tweets with specific keywords, • tweets referencing a specific user, • tweets from a particular user to access to data around Trends it’s limited, e.g. index of only recent tweets (6-9 days); no authentication: all queries are made anonymously; some tweets & users may be missing from search results (focus on relevance) Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 31. Streaming API • • • • • • • real-time sample of the Twitter Firehose for data intensive needs, e.g. data mining, analytics research allows for large quantities of keywords to be specified and tracked, retrieving geo-tagged tweets from a certain region, or have the public statuses of a user set returned Public streams: public data flowing through Twitter. The primary use case is following specific users or topics, and data mining, e.g. public statuses from all users, filtered in various ways: by userid, keyword, geographic location User streams: single-user streams (all data for a single user's view of Twitter; Requires the user's OAuth token); The primary use case is providing updates to a Twitter client Site streams: multi-user version of user streams (for servers to connect to Twitter on behalf of many users); The primary use case is website and other service integrations Connecting to the streaming API requires keeping a persistent HTTP connection open (different than the REST API) Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 32. REST vs. Streaming Monday, February 17, 14
  • 33. Twitter for Websites TfW: a set of products that enables websites to easily integrate Twitter basic functions • • • • Tweet button Follow button Embedded Tweets Embedding Timelines Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 34. Twitter Cards Summary Photo Monday, February 17, 14 App Gallery
  • 35. Twitter Cards App Installs & Deep Linking Monday, February 17, 14
  • 36. Issues related to User Profiles & Networks Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 37. Privacy Concerns • Legal still in its infancy, but courts do rule on new behavior • 4th amendt. to U.S. Constitution - not equipped to address SNS • e.g., is content on Facebook accessible without a warrant? • Truthfulness of personal profiles - subject of debate • Privacy hard to understand (few read Terms) & misinterpret ‘Friends’ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 38. Security • • security of people (sex offenders) security of computers & data • with enormous numbers of users & enormous amounts of data, sites are natural targets of spammers, phishing, malware attacks (‘new friend malware’, ‘twitter spam’ etc.) Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 39. Privacy Settings Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 40. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 41. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 42. Bill of Rights Fundamental aspects to consider for users of Social Web: • Ownership of their own personal information, including: • their own profile data • the list of people they are connected to • the activity stream of content they create • Control of whether & how personal information is shared with others • Freedom to grant persistent access to their personal information to trusted external sites http://opensocialweb.org/2007/09/05/bill-of-rights/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 43. http://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2012/01/online-privacy 27-01-2012 “Having figured out how to remember nearly everything, it is about time people relearned how to forget” “Personal data is the new oil of the internet and the new currency of the digital world.” Meglena Kuneva, European Consumer Commissioner, 2009 Issues: • burden on companies: it is next to impossible to rid the web completely of a piece of information: some digital ripples will inevitably remain • where one man’s data end and another’s begin • crooks may try to invoke it to have their name struck from unfavorable online coverage • it is not always clear what counts as reporting on the internet Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 44. Privacy: Awareness not Paranoia • • • • "privacy paradox" = lack of awareness of the public nature of Internet flexibility to handle friends with different conceptions of privacy ability to control data flow inside and outside network realize that sensitive information can be reconstructed Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 45. Initiatives SOPA, PIPA, ACTA • By media industry: • AHRA 1992 - soft • DMCA 1998 - surgical • SOPA/PIPA 2011 - nuclear • By non representatives • ACTA - 39 countries Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 46. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 47. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 48. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 49. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 50. http://thenextweb.com/twitter/2012/01/27/twitter-isnt-censoring-you-your-government-is/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 51. http://thenextweb.com/twitter/2012/01/27/twitter-isnt-censoring-you-your-government-is/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 52. Follow-up: CISPA Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 53. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 54. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 55. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 56. Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 57. Net Neutrality http://edition.cnn.com/2014/01/15/tech/web/net-neutrality-explained/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 58. Net Neutrality http://edition.cnn.com/2014/01/15/tech/web/net-neutrality-explained/ http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/21659-democrats-introduce-bill-to-restore-fccs-netSocial Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 59. http://tacma.net/ Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 60. how do you think we should keep people ‘awake’? what about the involvement of big companies and their desire to find out more about our network, behavior and interests? Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 61. the real piracy solution may be to offer highquality, easily available and relatively cheap content to the users Why wouldn’t governments just stimulate the industries to innovate? piracy as stimulus for innovation? Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 62. Richard Foreman, playwright “Carr argues that the Internet physically "rewires" our brain to where we end up acting like computers — avaricious gobblers of information –- and our grip on what it means to be human slackens.” 2008 2010 Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 63. Assignment 1 Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/1375254387/ image Monday, February 17, 14
  • 64. Provide analysis of privacy issues on the (Social) Web • three articles <--> three mind maps <--> main Social Web privacy issues • write for people who didn’t attend the course (max 3 pages) Provide analysis of current privacy-related public initiatives • • • • • legal contexts for privacy and ownership compare the intentions of both initiatives (advantages & disadvantages) your own vision on how this impacts the future of the social web your own advise to policy makers with regards to privacy on the web. links to Net Neutrality Link to Hands-on session: • what would change if SOPA/PIPA, ACTA, CISPA were active – would you still have access to the information you pulled in for the assignments • illustrate your answer showing what changes could appear in the graph from exercise 4 (Hands-on session 2), explain why. (max 1 page) • all visuals, e.g. screenshots, diagrams, in appendix, use template Deadline: 21 February 23:59 Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! Monday, February 17, 14
  • 65. Hands-on Teaser Installations • Python 2.6 or 2.7 • Python packages: json, facebook, uurllib2 • JavaScript Info Vis Toolkit (jit.zip) • Facebook Developers app Experience OAuth Query the Facebook Open Graph Visualize your FB social network in various ways Social Web 2014, Lora Aroyo! source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/1375254387/ image Monday, February 17, 14

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