Lecture 2: Social Web Privacy and User Profiles (2013)


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Lecture 2: Social Web Privacy and User Profiles (2013)

  1. 1. Social Web Lecture 1I What People DO on the Social Web? Lora Aroyo The Network Institute VU University AmsterdamMonday, February 11, 13
  2. 2. Social RelationshipsMonday, February 11, 13
  3. 3. Social in Physical World • People have relationships within and across different social contexts: family, sports, work, friends • In ‘real world’ this is okay, it works the way it does, due to a relatively small set of social contexts and interaction opportunities http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  4. 4. Social in Digital World • Digital social dynamics match those in the physical world: friends are friends in both worlds • However, there are also significant differences: • # of people to interact with not limited by distance or time • a person can ‘block’ or ‘manage’ relationships • personae subject to different social norms • personae can evolve over time • personae are less (not) limited in scopeMonday, February 11, 13
  5. 5. why do we share? friends online vs offline world?Monday, February 11, 13
  6. 6. Why Public Connections ... serve as important identity signals help people navigate the networked social world serve to validate identity information about peopleMonday, February 11, 13
  7. 7. Ludy Rohling what is the driver for sharing? Social NetworksSerendipity vs. PrivacyMonday, February 11, 13
  8. 8. Multiple SN Accounts • Users have many accounts on different social & professional network services, e.g. personae for different situations/contexts • They utilize their different accounts in different ways, depending on the digital context, e.g.: • friendly chat on Facebook • professional discussion on LinkedIn • dating interactions on Hives As a consequence there is a need to separate the systems to manage the users profiles, identities & permissions, as well as their social graph (relationships) & their social mediaMonday, February 11, 13
  9. 9. Problems • Maintaining a multitude of online profiles for different contexts is cumbersome and time consuming - not scalable • It is difficult for new social networks to attract new & maintain active members simply because of the effort involved in creating and maintaining "yet-another-profile" and re-establishing different aspects of your profile under yet another context • A user cannot control how their information is viewed by others in different contexts by different social applicationsMonday, February 11, 13
  10. 10. Architecture Needed for managing multiple Social Web profiles “policy-oriented web” architecture to support trusted services in the longer termMonday, February 11, 13
  11. 11. For example ... • In one system manage your personal information: • home address, telephone number, & best friends • your Friends Profile gets exposed to Hives and Twitter • In another system manage work-related information: • office address, office telephone number, & work colleagues • your Work Profile gets exposed to Plaxo and LinkedIn • Another choice could be to store your entire profile locally with a trusted third party, and then • your Health Profile can be exposed to health care providers • your Citizen Profile can be exposed to government servicesMonday, February 11, 13
  12. 12. Social Web User http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  13. 13. Distributed Profile http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  14. 14. Social Graph https://www.google.com/settings/me http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  15. 15. Social Groups http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  16. 16. Frameworks http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/socialweb/wiki/SocialWebFrameworks2#Social_Graph_Management_TodayMonday, February 11, 13
  17. 17. Personal ProfilesMonday, February 11, 13
  18. 18. Opening the SitesMonday, February 11, 13
  19. 19. Opening the Sites • Demand from application developers to make use of the amounts of Social Web data & make their applications available to the site members • Demand from users to reuse data and connections they have already established on other sites, e.g. Google+ download your data, Diaspora* download xml, download photos • In response: Facebook provided an API & Google OpenSocial APIMonday, February 11, 13
  20. 20. • an open, decentralized standard for authenticating users that can be used for access control, allowing users to log on to different services with the same digital identity where these services trust the authentication body • making sure the users are who they say they are • http://openid.net/ • Initially: 2005, called Yadis (an acronym for "Yet another distributed identity system")Monday, February 11, 13
  21. 21. with OpenID, the process starts with the application asking the user for their identity (typically an openid URI) http://openidexplained.com/Monday, February 11, 13
  22. 22. OAuth • an open protocol to allow secure API authorization in a standard method for web applications; it enables users to grant third-party access to their web resources without sharing their passwords • largely based on: Flickr’s API Auth & Google’s AuthSub • limitations in terms of complexity, user experience, scale • 3 flows merged into one: web-based apps, desktop clients & mobile/limited devices; e.g. when Facebook Connect existed - flows for web apps, mobile devices & game consoles • http://oauth.net/Monday, February 11, 13
  23. 23. OAuth 2.0 • OAuth 2.0 focuses on client developer simplicity - providing specific authorization flows for web & desktop applications, mobile phones & living room devices • not backwards compatible with previous versions • 6 New Flows • http://oauth.net/2/ the application directly requests a limited access OAuth Token (valet key) to access the APIs (enter the house) on users behalf. If the user can grant that access, the application can retrieve the unique identifier for establishing the profile (identity) using the APIs.Monday, February 11, 13
  24. 24. Twitter employing OAuth Figure credits: http://www.phpbuilder.com/columns/sachin_khosla062510.php3Monday, February 11, 13
  25. 25. Facebook Platform • Graph API - core of Facebook Platform, to read and write data to Facebook (simple and consistent view of the social graph) • Open Graph - defining Actions and Objects • Facebook Query Language (FQL) - SQL-style interface to query the data exposed by the Graph API • Authentication (now Facebook Login) - interact with Graph API on behalf of Facebook users (single-sign on mechanism for web, mobile & desktop apps) • Social Plugins, Facebook Payments, Ads API, Chat API (via Jabber/XMPP service), JavaScript SDK • Depreciated: REST API, FBML, and the old Javascript API, Facebook Connect APIsMonday, February 11, 13
  26. 26. • open standards-based (e.g. JavaScript, HTML) component model for cloud based social apps • Google initiative (set of APIs) in 2007: • People & Friends API (people and relationship information) • Activities API (publishing & accessing user activity information) • Persistence API (simple key-value pair data for server-free stateful applications) • with Open Social embedded in a site, a site instantly becomes a social Web site (initially running only at Orkut) • integrated, e.g. OAuth, OAuth 2.0, Activity Streams • http://www.opensocial.org/Monday, February 11, 13
  27. 27. OpenSocial • Half a year after Facebook Platform, Google launched Open Social • Popular containers (initially): MySpace, Hi5, Plaxo, LinkedIn, Orkut, Friendster, Six Apart • http://opensocial.org/category/showcase/ (currently) • Plugged-in applications: iLike, Slide, Flixter, Rock You, etc. • https://github.com/opensocial• Apache Shinding: reference implementation of OpenSocial Specification (Social Network APIs):• Apache Rave: lightweight extendible platform for using, integrating & hosting OpenSocial and W3C Widget services (context-aware personalization, collaboration & content integration capabilities) Monday, February 11, 13
  28. 28. Twitter APIs • The Twitter platform offers access to the data of more than 200 million tweets a day, via different APIs • Each API represents a facet of Twitter • These APIs are constantly evolving, and developers have to be aware of that • http://dev.twitter.comMonday, February 11, 13
  29. 29. REST API • the API for leveraging core Twitter objects • enables developers to access the core primitives of Twitter including timelines, status updates & user information, etc. • RESTful API calls to build a profile of a user: user name, user Twitter handle, user profile avatar & the graph of people that user is following on Twitter • enables developers integration opportunities to interact with Twitter: create & post tweets back to Twitter, reply to tweets, favorite certain tweets, retweet other tweets, etc.Monday, February 11, 13
  30. 30. Streaming API • real-time sample of the Twitter Firehose • for developers with data intensive needs, e.g. to build a data mining product or do analytics research • allows for large quantities of keywords to be specified and tracked, retrieving geo- tagged tweets from a certain region, or have the public statuses of a user set returned • Public streams: public data flowing through Twitter. The primary use case is following specific users or topics, and data mining, e.g. public statuses from all users, filtered in various ways: by userid, keyword, geographic location • User streams: single-user streams (all data for a single users view of Twitter; Requires the users OAuth token); The primary use case is providing updates to a Twitter client • Site streams: multi-user version of user streams (for servers to connect to Twitter on behalf of many users); The primary use case is website and other service integrations • Connecting to the streaming API requires keeping a persistent HTTP connection open (different than the REST API)Monday, February 11, 13
  31. 31. Search API • Dedicated API for running searches against the real-time index of recent Tweets; to allow a user to query for Twitter content: • a set of tweets with specific keywords, • tweets referencing a specific user, • tweets from a particular user • to access to data around Trends • it’s limited, e.g. index of only recent tweets (6-9 days); no authentication: all queries are made anonymously; some tweets & users may be missing from search results (focus on relevance)Monday, February 11, 13
  32. 32. Twitter for Websites • TfW: a set of products that enables websites to easily integrate Twitter basic functions • Tweet button • Follow button • Embedded Tweets https://dev.twitter.com/docs/twitter-for-websitesMonday, February 11, 13
  33. 33. Issues related to User Profiles & NetworksMonday, February 11, 13
  34. 34. Privacy Concerns • Legal still in its infancy, but courts do rule on new behavior • fourth amendment to the U.S. Constitution & legal decisions concerning privacy are not equipped to address social network sites • e.g., do police officers have the right to access content posted to Facebook without a warrant? • Truthfulness of personal profiles has become a subject of debate • Privacy hard to understand (few read Terms) and misinterpret ‘Friends’Monday, February 11, 13
  35. 35. Security • security of people (sex offenders) • security of computers and data • With enormous numbers of users and enormous amounts of data, sites are natural targets of spammers, and phishing and malware attacks (‘new friend malware’, ‘twitter spam’ etc.)Monday, February 11, 13
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  37. 37. Monday, February 11, 13
  38. 38. Monday, February 11, 13
  39. 39. Thijs Kloosterman SNS for improving offline society Reinier Kop government protection vs. learningMonday, February 11, 13
  40. 40. Bill of Rights • Fundamental aspects to consider for users of Social Web: • Ownership of their own personal information, including: • their own profile data • the list of people they are connected to • the activity stream of content they create • Control of whether & how personal information is shared with others • Freedom to grant persistent access to their personal information to trusted external sites http://opensocialweb.org/2007/09/05/bill-of-rights/Monday, February 11, 13
  41. 41. http://www.economist.com/blogs/babbage/2012/01/online-privacy 27-01-2012 “Having figured out how to remember nearly everything, Issues: it is about time people • burden on companies: it is next to relearned how to forget” impossible to rid the web completely of a piece of information: some digital ripples will inevitably remain “Personal data is the new oil • where one man’s data end and another’s begin of the internet and the new currency of the digital • crooks may try to invoke it to have their name struck from unfavorable world.” online coverage Meglena Kuneva, European • it is not always clear what counts as Consumer Commissioner, 2009 reporting on the internetMonday, February 11, 13
  42. 42. current laws not working? media vs. piracy Egemen UzunaliMonday, February 11, 13
  43. 43. Privacy: Awareness not Paranoia "privacy paradox" = lack of awareness of the public nature of Internet flexibility to handle friends with different conceptions of privacy ability to control data flow inside and outside network realize that sensitive information can be reconstructedMonday, February 11, 13
  44. 44. Current Public Initiatives SOPA, PIPA, ACTA • By media industry: • AHRA 1992 - soft • DMCA 1998 - surgical • SOPA/PIPA 2011 - nuclear • By non representatives • ACTA - 39 countriesMonday, February 11, 13
  45. 45. Monday, February 11, 13
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  47. 47. Monday, February 11, 13
  48. 48. Monday, February 11, 13
  49. 49. http://thenextweb.com/twitter/2012/01/27/twitter-isnt-censoring-you-your-government-is/Monday, February 11, 13
  50. 50. are we really producers? Is it really social?Monday, February 11, 13
  51. 51. “Carr argues that the Internet physically "rewires" our brain to where we end up acting like computers — avaricious gobblers of information –- and our grip on what it means to be human slackens.” Richard Foreman, playwright 2008 2010Monday, February 11, 13
  52. 52. Assignment 1 image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/1375254387/Monday, February 11, 13
  53. 53. • Provide analysis of privacy issues on the (Social) Web • three articles <--> three mind maps <--> main Social Web privacy issues • write for people who didn’t attend the course (max 3 pages) • Provide analysis of current privacy-related public initiatives • legal contexts for privacy and ownership • compare the intentions of both initiatives (advantages & disadvantages) • your own vision on how this impacts the future of the social web • your own advise to policy makers with regards to privacy on the web. • links to Net Neutrality • link to Hands-on session: what would change if SOPA/PIPA or ACTA were active – would you still have access to the information you pulled in for the assignments? Illustrate your answer showing what changes could appear in the graph from exercise 4 (Hands-on session 2) and explain why. (max 1 page) • all visuals, e.g. screenshots, diagrams, etc. in appendix and use template  • Deadline: 22 February 23:59Monday, February 11, 13
  54. 54. Hands-on Teaser • Installations • Python 2.6 or 2.7 • Python packages: json, facebook, uurllib2 • JavaScript Info Vis Toolkit (jit.zip) • Facebook Developers app • Experience OAuth • Query the Facebook Open Graph • Visualize your Facebook social network in various ways image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/1375254387/Monday, February 11, 13