Lecture 1: Human-Computer Interaction Introduction (2014)

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This is the first lecture of the HCI bachelor course at the VU University Amsterdam

This is the first lecture of the HCI bachelor course at the VU University Amsterdam

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  • 1. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo Web & Media Group
  • 2. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 2 Lectures Basic design & usability concepts Examples of good & bad designs Get insights of social dynamics, privacy, accessibility Lab sessions Exercise in practice how to gather information about users’ needs & how to design and test it Assignments Apply your knowledge in a concrete use case Challenge your creativity Course Elements
  • 3. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Which means … To be able to DESIGN: How the user interaction and experience should work and look? To be able to SELECT: What user interaction design is best for a given purpose in a context? To be able to EVALUATE: How good a specific user interaction is? Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 3
  • 4. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 HOW PEOPLE INTERACT WITH COMPUTERS?
  • 5. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Dashboards Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 5
  • 6. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 7
  • 7. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Wearables Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 8
  • 8. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Sensing Affect Blood Volume Pressure (BVP) earring Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) rings and bracelet Interactive Pillow as a TV remote control Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 9
  • 9. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Speech, Mobile & Augmented Interaction Lora Aroyo, Web & Media GroupLora Aroyo, Web & Media Group “Minority Report” (2002) “Avengers” (2012) “Star Trek: In to the Darkness” (2013) “Star Trek: TOS” (1967) “Her” (2014)
  • 10. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Virtual Reality Reality Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 11
  • 11. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Interactive Workspaces Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 12 Stanford Interactive Workspaces Project BendDesk Mimio
  • 12. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 WHY HCI?
  • 13. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Typical Frustrations Can’t figure out how to do simple things Many not frequent use functions Many hidden functions Operations outcome not visible Can’t remember combinations of digits * # how do we know whether it worked how can we remember that this option is ON Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 14 http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=5184957822303751144 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=keMmM3P4BRM
  • 14. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 …elections The sample ballot looked different Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 15 Human-Computer Interaction Course 2013: Lecture 1
  • 15. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 … Additional Context Limitations • People vote infrequently • Rushed, uncomfortable circumstances • Elderly Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 16
  • 16. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Good UI Design is Important • Examples of bad UI are easy – Try to find examples of good UI • Good UI (very subjective): – Easy, natural & engaging interaction – Users can carry out their required tasks – Accounts for human limitations • Usefulness is often context-dependent! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 17
  • 17. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 FEATURES OF MODERN HCI CHAPTER 1
  • 18. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 UCD Principles & Activities • User involvement in development stages • Design iteration • Multi-disciplinary design teams – psychology, ergonomics, engineering & graphic design • Understand & specify context of use • Specify user & organization requirements • Produce prototypes: design solutions • Evaluate designs with users against requirements Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 19
  • 19. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Link to Software Engineering • Separate but related concerns: systems vs. user • Some overlap in techniques – Use cases – Iterative file cycle • Multi-disciplinary nature of HCI Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 20
  • 20. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Traditional Life Cycle Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 21
  • 21. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Evaluation-Centered Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 22 Equally supportive of – top-down & bottom-up – inside-out & outside-in development
  • 22. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Simplified Iterative Model Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 23
  • 23. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 GATHERING INTERACTION REQUIREMENTS CHAPTER 2
  • 24. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Data Gathering Guidelines • Set clear goals for the data collection – Identify stakeholders’ needs • Evaluate cost/benefit for your effort – understand the tradeoffs – use a combination of techniques – balance specific goals and openness • Run a pilot trial • Record well – you won’t remember it well Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 25
  • 25. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Interviews & Focus groups • Question-based surveys • Contextual analysis Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 26 Data Gathering Methods Complementary combination to balance strengths & weaknesses of each method
  • 26. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Interviews • Degrees of structuring for different purposes – structured - like a guided questionnaire – semi-structured - basic script guides the conversation – open-ended - still has a goal and focus; good in the initial stages • Phone/skype, face-to-face – one individual at a time – avoids biases from other people • Develop trust – explain your goals to the interviewee – feedback and results to the interviewee • Focus groups – group of users to discuss a preliminary given issue – facilitated – interviews with 2 or more Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 27
  • 27. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Both are: – appropriate at almost any stage of the design – conducting them earlier – better impact – conducting them later – gather specific reactions to actual design – optimal timing – early with mock-ups – collect subjective data – help understand the work practices – finding out users’ tasks, roles, problems • Focus groups are: – difficult for geographically isolated – difficult when target population is small – alternative – online/phone interviews Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 28 Focus Groups & Interviews
  • 28. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 1-Jun-14 + Ideas of one can trigger ideas in others + Time and cost efficient + Incorrect facts can be corrected + Non-controversial issues – quickly resolved + Controversial issues quickly identified + Reach a not foreseen level of detail – Watch out for ‘groupthink’ and ‘sidetrack’ – Ensure balance between talkers and shy users – Sometimes difficult to coordinate Pros & Cons of Focus Groups
  • 29. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 1-Jun-14 • 6 to 12 participants - typically around 10 • Breaks with questionnaire or individual activities • 3 to 5 groups • Heterogeneous groups – good mix of people – each group – representative sample of target audience – watch out for too heterogeneous groups – people who do not have much in common • Homogeneous groups – each group is different demographics Select and Organize Groups
  • 30. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 1-Jun-14 • One external, professional facilitator – Encourage discussion – Getting everyone to participate (no viewpoint lost) – Get people respond on one another’s input – Foster arguments (reveal controversial issues) – Prevent arguments getting out of hand • Observation room • 2 to 3 observers mixed in the group Group Facilitation
  • 31. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Avoid suggestive questions • Clarify reason of question • Phrase questions in terms of probes – e.g, “why …” • Pay attention to non-verbal aspects • Be aware of personal biases • Give summaries in your own words at intermediate points Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 32 During a Focus Group Session
  • 32. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Good for: – demographics – evaluation of specific features or properties • Questionnaires and surveys – unambiguous questions – gathering more precise information – on-line questionnaires • Question types (closed & open questions) • Scales (for precision & effort needed to decide on a response) • Qualitative vs. quantitative data Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 33 Question-based Surveys
  • 33. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Closed questions: – select an answer from a set of alternative replies – may require just “yes” or “no” – some form of a rating scale associated • Open questions: – typically start with phrases such as: • “What do you . . . ,” • “How do you . . . ,” • “What ways . . . .” – provide richer data than closed questions – more time consuming to analyze • decide on some grouping and classifying Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 34 Questions
  • 34. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Simple rating scale, e.g. checklists - easy to analyze (count the number of responses in each category) Complex rating scales - a multipoint rating scale semantic differential (users select a point along a scale) Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 35 Question Scales (1/2)
  • 35. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Semantic differentials – with seven points, five-point or three-point scales – best results if the two end points are very opposed • Likert scale (attitudinal scale) – a set statements with semantic differential – measure user’s attitude, preferences, and subjective reactions – measure the strength of users opinion - by counting the number of responses at each point in the scale – typically 5-point scale: strongly disagree  strongly agree – calculating a numeric value (adding ‘+’ and ‘-’ scores divided by the number of users) - can be misleading Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 36 Question Scales (2/2)
  • 36. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 How easy was the system to use? Easy Difficult 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The system was easy to use Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly Disagree Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 37 Semantic Differential & Likert scale
  • 37. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Avoid complicated questions • Clear and unambiguous questions • Avoid negative questions • Alternate open and closed questions • As few questions as possible (~ 2 A4) • Additional info, e.g. “any other comments” option • Pilot the questionnaire before giving it to users – test whether the questions gather the need info – decide on statistics to apply before finalizing the questionnaire – balanced mix of closed and open questions – balance positive and negative questions Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 38 Questionnaire Tips
  • 38. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Examples of Questions Do you think this is a good interface? fair, good, valuable, useful Do you use mouse or keyboard more? 1 2 3 4 5 Yes No When you used the second interface was it responding good to you? Which of the following is not a problem in using the system? Which of the following you are least likely to consider a favorite: drop-down menus, adaptive menus, scrolling? How many times a week do you use Internet? How often do you use internet? Do you use internet? If yes, how often? Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 39
  • 39. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 IN SUMMARY
  • 40. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Message 1: Many of the human error and machine misuse are design errors Designers help things work with good conceptual model Designers decide on a range of users as the design audience Design is difficult! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 41
  • 41. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Because users usually • have lousy memory • don’t always see everything • get confused of too many things • get tired and bored • don’t pay attention always • get easily distracted Designers need to take all this into account Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 42
  • 42. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 … and machines always offer more new form factor larger memories / faster systems miniaturization ↓ power requirements deeply connected new display & input technologies embedding of computation into appliances pervasive specialize computer hardware  new functions ↑ networked + distribute computing broadened user base ↑ adopting of computers & access by those currently denied Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 43
  • 43. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Message 2: You are NOT the USER if you are DESIGNER and you always need different glasses Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 44
  • 44. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 • Design model – conceptual model on which the design of the system is based • User’s model – model that the user develops on the basis of experience with the system • System image – all aspects of the system that the user experiences Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 45 Message 3:
  • 45. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 COURSE ORGANIZATION
  • 46. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Rules of the game Electronic communication Discussion Board: questions & discussions on course content hci-org@few.vu.nl: admin Before sending email check rules on BB Work in groups of three Attend Lab sessions: rules on BB Submit Assignments: see schedule Submit Lab exercises: end of day Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 47
  • 47. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Book (required) User Interface Design & Evaluation Debbie Stone, Caroline Jarrett, Mark Woodroffe, Shailey Minocha Morgan Kaufmann, 2005. ISBN 978-0- 12-088436-0 Parts available @ Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=V vSoyqPBPbMC&printsec=frontcover &source=gbs_slider_thumb#v=onep age&q=&f=false Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 48
  • 48. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 HCI book structure • Part 2: requirements • Part 3: design • Part 4: evaluation Sequence is an artefact! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 49
  • 49. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Additional book (optional) How to design & Report Experiments by Andy Field and Graham Hole Published by SAGE, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7619-7382-9 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 50
  • 50. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Grading • 60%: Assignments • 30%: Exam • 10% Lab exercises – No grade for Lab exercises. 1,5 points - when the answers show that an appropriate amount of work has been done. 0.75 points - if the work is poor but not altogether bad. • To pass: – submit solutions to all Lab exercises – submit all assignments – score of written exam => 5.5 – total weighted grade => 5.5 Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 51
  • 51. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Schedule • Schedule covers 3 weeks (!) • 2 Lectures a week • 2 Lab sessions a week • Assignments: choice of predefined domains • Exam • Make sure of your (group) planning Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 52
  • 52. Human-Computer Interaction Course 2014: Lecture 1 Enjoy the course! Lora Aroyo, Web & Media Group 53