Trainer Objectives• Explain the general requirements for guarding the hazards of machines.• Describe precautions to be taken around woodworking machinery.• List fundamental requirements for abrasive wheel machinery.• Identify important terms associated with operation of mechanical presses.• Describe the requirements for guarding moving parts of machinery.
1910.212(a)(1) Types of guarding• One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by: – Point of operation, – Ingoing nip points, – Rotating parts, – Flying chips and sparks
Standard Interpretations 12/20/1994 - Machine-guarding requirements• You will notice that this standard requires that machine guards be provided to protect employees from several identified hazards (e.g., points of operation, ingoing nip points), but does not specify the type of machine guard that an employer must use. The standard recommends several types of machine guards, including barriers, tripping devices, and electronic safety devices, but leaves to the employer the decision regarding which machine guard best suits the working conditions.
Standard Interpretations 12/20/1994 - Machine-guarding requirements• By not specifying the types of machine guards that must be used, this standard is referred to as a "performance" standard (i.e., the employer is free to adopt a machine guard that "performs" in such a manner as to meet the standards objective--to protect employees from the identified hazards).• If OSHA had specified the types of machine guards that must be used, the standard would be a "specification" standard.
1910.212(a)(2) General requirements for machine guards• Guards shall be affixed to the machine where possible and secured elsewhere if for any reason attachment to the machine is not possible• The guard shall be such that it does not offer an accident hazard in itself
1910.212(a)(3) Point of Operation• (i)Point of operation is the area on a machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed• (ii)The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury, shall be guarded
1910.212(a)(3) Point of Operation• (ii)The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards therefor, or, in the absence of applicable specific standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle
1910.212(a)(3)(iii) Hand Tools• Special hand tools for placing and removing material shall be such as to permit easy handling of material without the *Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding operator placing a hand required by this section, but can only be used to in the danger zone* supplement protection provided.
1910.212(a)(3)(iv) Examples of machines• Types of machines which normally require point of operation guarding: – Mills – Drills – Grinders – Power presses – Shears – Saws
1910.212(a)(4) Barrels, containers, and drums• Revolving drums, barrels, and containers shall be guarded by an enclosure which is interlocked with the drive mechanism, so that the barrel, drum, or container cannot revolve unless the guard enclosure is in place
1910.212(a)(5) Exposure of blades• When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than seven (7) feet above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded• The guard shall have openings no larger than one-half (1/2) inch.
1910.212(b) Anchoring fixed machinery• Machines designed for a fixed location shall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving This pedestal grinder is designed for anchoring, and is not anchored, creating a potential hazard
CPL 2-1.35 National Emphasis Program on Amputations• Identify and reduce workplace hazards likely to cause amputations• top five machines that cause amputations are: – Saws, – Shears, – Slicers, – Slitters, and – Presses.
Saws• Used primarily in woodworking and manufacturing shops• Two types – Table – Radial arm• Other types include: Hand held Band saw Miter saw
Shears• Self-contained machines using a mechanically driven ram• Ram moves a nonrotary blade at a constant rate past the edge of fixed blade
Slicers• Commonly used to slice meat and food• Use rotary blade• Guillotine cutters used in other industries• Most injuries occur in restaurants and grocery stores
Power Presses• NEP covers all types of power presses• Presses consist of stationary bed, and slide• Used in a variety of industries
Program Procedures• NEP includes three • If present, a thorough activities: inspection will be conducted focusing – Outreach on: – Targeting/selection – Nip points – Inspection – Pinch points – Shear points – Cutting actions – Point(s) of operation
1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements• (a)(1)Each machine shall be so constructed as to be free from sensible vibration when the largest size tool is mounted and run idle at full speed.
1910.213 Woodworking machinery requirements• (a)(11)The frames and all exposed, noncurrent- carrying metal parts of portable electric woodworking machinery operated at more than 90 volts to ground shall be grounded and other portable motors driving electric tools which are held in the hand while being operated shall be grounded if they operate at more than 90 volts to ground. The ground shall be provided through use of a separate ground wire and polarized plug and receptacle.
1910.213(a)(12) Guarding blades under tables• For all circular saws where conditions are such that there is a possibility of contact with the portion of the saw either beneath or behind the table, that portion of the saw shall be: – Covered with an exhaust hood, or, if no exhaust system is required, – With a guard that shall be arranged as to prevent accidental contact with the saw
1910.213(b) Machine controls and equipment• A mechanical or electrical power control shall be provided on each machine to make it possible for the operator to cut off the power from each machine without leaving his position at the point of operation
1910.213(b)(3) Non-restart devices• On applications where injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart after power failures, provision shall be made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power
1910.213(b)(4) Location of controls• Power controls and operating controls should be located within easy reach of the operator while he is at his regular work location, making it unnecessary for him to reach over the cutter to make adjustments
1910.213(c) Ripsaws• Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table and that portion of the saw above the material being cut
1910.213(c)(2) Spreaders• Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be furnished with a spreader to prevent material from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator Spreader
1910.213(c)(3) Non-kickback fingers• Each hand-fed circular ripsaw shall be provided with non-kickback fingers or dogs so located as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator
1910.213(g)(1) Swing cutoff saws• Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with a hood that will completely enclose the upper half of the saw, the arbor end, and the point of operation at all positions of the saw
1910.213(g)(2) Swing cutoff saws• Each swing cutoff saw shall be provided with an effective device to return the saw automatically to the back of the table when released at any point of its travel
1910.213(h) Radial saws• The upper hood completely encloses the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor• Radial saws used for ripping provided with nonkickback fingers or dogs located on both sides of the saw so as to oppose the thrust or tendency of the saw to pick up the material or to throw it back toward the operator
1910.213(i) Bandsaws• All portions of the saw blade shall be enclosed or guarded, except for the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table
1910.213(i) Bandsaws• Bandsaw wheels shall be fully encased• The outside periphery of the enclosure shall be solid• The front and back of the band wheels shall be either enclosed by solid material or by wire mesh or perforated metal
Treadle• Each operating treadle shall be covered by an inverted U-shaped metal guard, fastened to the floor, and of adequate size to prevent accidental tripping
1910.215(a)(2) Guard design• The safety guard shall cover the spindle end, nut, and flange projections• The safety guard shall be mounted so as to maintain proper alignment with the wheel
1910.215(a)(2) Guard design• The strength of the fastenings shall exceed the strength of the guard, except: – Where the work provides suitable protection, the guard may expose the spindle end, nut and flange – Where the work entirely covers the side of the wheel the side cover(s) of the guard may be omitted
1910.215(a)(4) Work Rests• On off hand grinding, work rests are required, to support the work• Rigid construction, and adjustable with wheel wear• Must be kept closely adjusted, max gap = 1/8" to prevent work from jamming & breaking wheel Work rest is closely adjusted• Securely clamped after each adjustment•
Angular exposure for wheel peripheryMaximum angle of exposureabove the horizontal = 65º Maximum wheel exposure = 90º Horizontal plane of the spindle For bench and floor stand grinders
1910.215(b)(9) Exposure adjustment• Safety guards of the type where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall be so constructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to the constantly decreasing size of the wheel• The distance between the periphery and the adjustable tongue guard shall never exceed one-fourth
1910.215 (d) Mounting• Inspection: – Immediately before mounting, all wheels shall be closely inspected and sounded by the user (ring test) to make sure they have not been damaged in transit, storage, or otherwise – The spindle speed of the machine shall be checked before mounting of the wheel to be certain that it does not exceed the maximum operating speed marked on the wheel
1910.215 (d) Mounting -Ring Test • Sound the wheel by tapping around the wheel periphery with a wood handled screwdriver* • Good wheel portions will “ring” like a bell • Cracks will sound “dead” *A non-metallic implement, wood mallets may be needed for larger wheels
1910.215 (d) Mounting• The spindle speed of the machine shall be checked before mounting of the wheel to be certain that it does not exceed the maximum operating speed marked on Compare this number to the the wheel. spindle speed on the grinder motor
Definitions• "Antirepeat" means the part of the clutch/brake control system designed to limit the press to a single stroke if the tripping means is held operated• "Antirepeat" is also called single stroke reset or reset circuit
Definitions• "Brake" means the mechanism used on a mechanical power press to stop and/or hold the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train, when the clutch is disengaged.
Definitions• "Clutch" means the coupling mechanism used on a mechanical power press to couple the flywheel to the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train.• "Full revolution clutch" means a type of clutch that, when tripped, cannot be disengaged until the crankshaft has completed a full revolution and the press slide a full stroke.
Definitions• "Part revolution clutch" means a type of clutch that can be disengaged at any point before the crankshaft has completed a full revolution and the press slide a full stroke.
Definitions• "Continuous" means uninterrupted multiple strokes of the slide without intervening stops (or other clutch control action) at the end of individual strokes* *Should generally only be used for auto-feed operations where the operator does not enter the point of operation (Stamping for example)
Definitions• "Device" means a press control or attachment that: – Restrains the operator from inadvertently reaching into the point of operation, or – Prevents normal press operation if the operators hands are inadvertently within the point of operation, or
Definitions• "Device" means a press control or attachment that: – Automatically withdraws the operators hands if the operators hands are inadvertently within the point of operation as the dies close, or – Prevents the initiation of a stroke, or stops of stroke in progress, when there is an intrusion through the sensing field by any part of the operators body or by any other object
Definitions• "Hand feeding tool" means any hand held tool designed for placing or removing material or parts to be processed within or from the point of operation.• "Jog" means an intermittent motion imparted to the slide by momentary operation of the drive motor, after the clutch is engaged with the flywheel at rest.
Definitions• "Inch”* means an intermittent motion imparted to the slide (on machines using part revolution clutches) by momentary operation of the "Inch" operating means*"Inch" is a function used by the die setter for setup of diesand tooling, but is not intended for use during productionoperations by the operator
Definitions• "Point of operation" means the area of the press where material is actually positioned and work is being performed during any process such as shearing, punching, forming, or assembling
Definitions• "Press" means a mechanically powered machine that shears, punches, forms or assembles metal or other material by means of cutting, shaping, or combination dies attached to slides.• A press consists of a stationary bed or anvil, and a slide (or slides) having a controlled reciprocating motion toward and away from the bed surface, the slide being guided in a definite path by the frame of the press.
1910.217(a)(5) Excluded machines• Press brakes, hydraulic and pneumatic power presses, bulldozers, hot bending and hot metal presses, forging presses and hammers, riveting machines and similar types of fastener applicators are excluded from the requirements of this section
1910.217(b)(2) Brakes• Friction brakes provided for stopping or holding a slide movement shall be inherently self- engaging by requiring power or force from an external source to cause disengagement
1910.217(b)(3) Full revolution clutches• Machines using full revolution clutches shall incorporate a single-stroke mechanism**That means after one complete cycle the press returns tothe full open position, and will not re-engage until anothercycle is initiated
1910.217(b)(4) Foot pedals (treadle)• The pedal mechanism shall be protected to prevent unintended operation from falling or moving objects or by accidental stepping onto the pedal Treadle• A pad with a nonslip contact area shall be firmly attached to the pedal
1910.217(b)(6) Two-hand trip controls• Hand controls protected against unintentional operation• Two-hand trip systems on full revolution clutch machines shall incorporate an antirepeat feature
1910.217(b)(7) Part revolution clutches• The clutch shall release and the brake shall be applied when the external clutch engaging means is removed, deactivated, or de- energized• The stop control shall override any other control, and re-actuation of the clutch shall require use of the operating (tripping) means which has been selected
1910.217(b)(7) Part revolution clutches• A red color stop control shall be provided with the clutch/brake control system• Momentary operation of the stop control shall immediately deactivate the clutch and apply the brake
1910.217(b)(7) Part revolution clutches• A means of selecting Off, "Inch," Single Stroke, and Continuous (when the continuous function is furnished) shall be supplied with the clutch/brake control to select type of operation of the press
1910.217(c)(2) Point of operation guards• It shall prevent entry of hands or fingers into the point of operation by reaching through, over, under or around the guard;• It shall conform to the maximum permissible openings of Table O-10;
1910.217(c)(2) Point of operation guards• It shall, in itself, create no pinch point between the guard and moving machine parts;• It shall utilize fasteners not readily removable by operator, so as to minimize the possibility of misuse or removal of essential parts;
Table O-10 [In inches]___________________________________________________ |Distance of opening from point | Maximum width of of operation hazard | opening____________________________ |__________________ | 1/2 to 1 1/2 ................. | 1/4 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 ............... | 3/8 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 ............... | 1/2 3 1/2 to 5 1/2 ............... | 5/8 5 1/2 to 6 1/2 ............... | 3/4 6 1/2 to 7 1/2 ............... | 7/8 7 1/2 to 12 1/2 .............. | 1 1/4 12 1/2 to 15 1/2 ............. | 1 1/2 15 1/2 to 17 1/2 ..........… | 1 7/8 17 1/2 to 31 1/2 ............. | 2 1/8____________________________ |__________________
1910.217(c)(2) Point of operation guards• Preventing and/or stopping normal stroking of the press if the operators hands are inadvertently placed in the point of operation; Presence sensing device
1910.217(c)(2) Point of operation guards• Requiring application of both of the operators hands to machine operating controls and locating such controls at such a safety distance from the point of operation that the slide completes the downward travel or stops before the operator can reach into the point of operation with his hands; or
Presence sensing devices• The device may not be used on machines using full revolution clutches!
1910.217(c)(3)(iv)(d) Pull-out device• Each pull-out device in use shall be visually inspected and checked for proper adjustment at the start of each operator shift, following a new die set-up, and when operators are changed.• Necessary maintenance or repair or both shall be performed and completed before the press is operated.• Records of inspections and maintenance shall be kept in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
1910.217(c)(4) Hand feeding tools• Hand feeding tools are intended for placing and removing materials in and from the press• Hand feeding tools are not a point of operation guard or protection device and shall not be used in lieu of the "guards" or devices required in this section
1910.217(d) Setting and feeding dies• Furnish and enforce the use of hand tools for freeing and removing stuck work or scrap pieces from the die, so that no employee need reach into the point of operation for such purposes
1910.219(b)(1) Flywheels• Flywheels 7 feet or less above the ground shall be guarded• Sheet, perforated, or expanded metal or woven wire, or with• Guard rails between 15 to 20 inches from flywheel rim• Toe board if within 12 inches of floor or extends into a pit• All projections shall be covered
1910.219.(c) Shafting• Each continuous line of shafting shall be secured in position against excessive end movement• Inclined and vertical shafts* shall be securely held in position against endwise thrust *Particularly inclined idler shafts
1910.219.(c) Shafting• All exposed parts of horizontal shafting 7 ft. or less above the floor shall be guarded (except: runways used for oiling or running adjustments) by a stationary casing, or by a trough• Troughs must enclose sides and top, or sides and bottom of shafting as location requires
1910.219.(c) ShaftingProjecting end shafts shall present a smooth edge and project not more than 1/2 the diameter of the shaftUnused key ways shall be filled up or covered
1910.219(d) Pulleys• Pulleys, any parts of which are seven feet or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded in accordance with the standards specified in paragraphs (m) & (o)• Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on which the point of contact between belt and pulley is more than six feet six inches from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disc covering the spokes
ExampleBelt width = three inches Distance between pulleys = 2 inches Guides must be placed in this area
Guard Unguarded portion seven ft. minimumFloor
1910.219 (f) Gears sprockets and chains• Gears, sprockets and chains shall be guarded by one of the following methods:• By a complete enclosure; or• By a standard guard as in paragraph (o), at least seven feet high, extending six inches above the mesh point of the gears; or
1910.219 (o) Approved Materials• (1)(i)(a)All guards shall be rigidly braced every three (3) feet or fractional part of their height to some fixed part of machinery or building structure.• Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment additional strength may be necessary.
1910.219(o)(2) Wood guards• Wood guards may be used in the woodworking and chemical industries, in industries where the presence of fumes or where manufacturing conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of metal guards• In construction work and outdoors where extreme cold or heat make metal guards and railings undesirable
1910.219(o)(2) Wood guards If wood, 2"x 4" toprail midrail half way in-between height 42" Posts not more than 8 apart,Toeboards at least 4" high permanent, substantial, smooth, w/ no protruding nails, bolts or splinters