Armytage: PhD. Viva # 02.11.09
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Armytage: PhD. Viva # 02.11.09

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Armytage PhD Viva Presentation 2 November 2009

Armytage PhD Viva Presentation 2 November 2009

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Armytage: PhD. Viva # 02.11.09 Armytage: PhD. Viva # 02.11.09 Presentation Transcript

  • Ph.D THESIS
    • Judicial Reform in Asia:
    • The journey to fairness and equity
    • L.Armytage
    • U.Syd 2009.
  • 1. PRINCIPAL ARGUMENTS
    • I critique the prevailing theory of judicial reform in international development assistance. This has an economic instrumental justification to promote growth. It is insufficient.
    • To redress this insufficiency, there is a need to revise this theory by elevating a constitutive humanistic dimension. Judicial reform should promote justice as fairness and equity.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • KEY FINDINGS
    • I argue there are two major deficiencies:
    • Lack of coherent compelling theory for reform Theme of purpose : - What is judicial reform supposed to do? This is the ‘ what ’ question.
    • No consensus how to measure success Theme of evaluation : - How should we measure success? This is the ‘ how ’ question.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • MAJOR PROPOSITIONS
    • I redress these deficiencies in two proposals:
    • Purpose of judicial reform should be to promote justice as fairness and equity
    • Success should be measured using normative framework of international human rights law.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • CONTRIBUTION TO DISCOURSE
    • Critique existing theory of reform against available empirical evidence of practice
    • Meta-evaluate reform endeavour
    • Present substantial body of original evidence of practice from Asia
    • Refine the theory of reform, and supply means to measure success.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • 2. STRUCTURE & CONTENT
    • Part 1: Purpose – the theory of reform: answering the ‘ what ’ question [Chapters 2-5].
    • Part 2: Evaluation – measuring success: answering the ‘ how ’ question [Chapters 6-8].
    • Part 3: Empirical – case studies of practice: synthesis of Asian experience [Chapters 9-11].
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 1: PURPOSE - ARGUMENTS
    • Reform theory is formative, dynamic, evolving
    • Economic growth justification has primacy - instrumental
    • Theory only partially validated empirically
    • No evidence goals attained > disappointment
    • Alternative justifications being explored: ‘J4P’ …
    • Need to promote equitable distributional dimension of justice - both constitutive and instrumental.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 1: Purpose Ch.2 – CONTEXT + HISTORY
    • Recent rapid substantial growth
      • World Bank: 1,400 projects, USD5.9billion (Dañino R, 2005)
    • ‘ Five waves’ (Jensen), or ‘three moments’ (Trubek)
    • Standard packages of ‘thin’ procedural reforms in ‘rule or law,’ ‘law and justice’ or ‘access to justice.’
    • Divergent purposes:
      • Economic, political, social, humanistic.
    • Reform endeavour searching for success.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 1: Purpose Ch.3 – JUSTIFICATION
    • Classical, enlightenment, modern philosophy:
      • Role of state: supply of public goods inc. justice
      • State and market: capable, small, enabling ...?
      • Constitutionalism, liberalism, enforcement of social contract
    • Consensus: reform is important, but why … ?
    • Discourse riven by contest over theory
      • Instrumental role; new institutional economics (Weber + North)
      • Constitutive role; fairness, rights, capability (Rawls, Dworkin, Sen)
    • To date: justice subordinated to economics.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 1: Purpose Ch.4 – EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
    • Determinants of growth – what works?
    • Some evidence justice correlates with growth
      • ‘ New comparative economics’: Dollar + Kraay, Knack + Keefer, Djankov, Feld + Voigt, La Porta, North, Rajan, Rodrik …
    • But, substantial misgivings at failure to promote equitable growth; internally-contested
      • World Development Report 2006: poverty = equity; ‘equity gap.’
      • UNDP’s Human Development Reports ….
      • Stiglitz, Sachs, Easterly, Collier’s ‘bottom billion’ …
    • Prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient: it is ambiguous, incomplete and often doesn’t work.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 1: Purpose Ch.5 – CRITIQUE
    • Mounting perception of disappointment
      • Trubek, Carothers, Messick, Hammergren, Jensen …
    • Confusion, conflation, collision
    • Deficiencies of theory, knowledge, method, results
    • Process of theory-building ongoing
    • Imperative to reframe theory constitutively, and space to elevate equitable distributional dimension of justice.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 2: EVALUATION ARGUMENTS
    • Evaluation of deficiency = x3 level gap:
      • Development performance: perceptions of disappointment
      • Evaluation gap between rhetoric and practice; no orthodoxy
      • Meta-evaluation of reform: rarely done, poorly done
    • Qualifies initial perception of disappointment.
    • Need to formalise evaluation approach
      • What : normative, ‘thick’, rights-based: part 1
      • How : convergence of JR + HR discourses
      • Universally endorsed framework of IHRL
      • Work-in-progress ….
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 2: Evaluation Ch.6 - DEVELOPMENT
    • MDGs - poverty alleviation; no justice goal.
    • Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness , 2005
    • OECD-DAC professionalisation
    • MfDR: M&E to centre stage – but, transitional :
      • Paradigm war between positivism and constructivism
      • Accountability v learning; efficiency v effectiveness; outputs v outcomes
      • Critique: no assurance change linear, or monitoring improves results
      • Measuring impact difficult, costly, slow
    • Evaluation gap.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 2: Evaluation + Meta-Evaluation Ch.7 + 8 - JUDICIAL REFORM
    • Measuring what, how?
    • Proliferation of monitoring frameworks - too little>much:
      • Justice Reform Index, Vera, IFES, CEPEJ, RechtspraaQ, Court Excellence, Berteslmann, Freedom House, Global Integrity, TI, WGI, WGA …
    • Evaluation: deficiencies
      • Performance practice – disappointing results (cht.5)
      • Development evaluation – unresolved debates, no orthodoxy (cht.7)
      • Meta-evaluation practice – lack of methodological rigor, rarely done (cht.8)
    • No closer to evaluating / demonstrating success
    • Success should be measured normatively
      • Justice requires ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ measures
      • Convergence with IHRL discourse: economic, civil, political, social, cultural rights
      • Framework under development (UNHRI, Alston, Darrow, Kinley, Decker) …
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 3: CASE STUDIES FINDINGS + ARGUMENTS
    • Endorses literature
      • Practice is exploratory, evolving
      • Prevalence instrumental economic rationale; ‘thin’ procedural reforms
      • Challenges: conceptual, technical, operational
      • Mixed results: IT, CM, training …
    • New evidence
      • Initial successes promoting substantive rights – South Asia
      • Embryonic capacity to demonstrate success – PNG
      • Evaluation: discretionary judgment of worth.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 3: Case studies METHODOLOGY
    • 3 case studies of practice from Asia:
        • Asian Development Bank 1990-2007
        • PNG - AusAID: 2003-2007
        • UNDP - Practitioners’ voices (OUP): Asia/Pacific 2000+
    • Original documents-based, qualitative induction
    • Ethno-methodology reflexive critical analysis of ‘ordinary, routine, details of everyday life’ (Patton) of my participation as reform practitioner/evaluator .
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 3: Case study (a) ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
    • Major donor in region: 400+ projects
    • Innovative, exploratory, evolving approach
      • Traditionally state-centred, ‘top-down’
      • Justifications: economic > governance > empowerment …
    • Policy ambivalence; anomalous …
    • Under-investment in research, evaluation
    • A priori; leap of faith.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 3: Case study (b) PNG - AUSAID: 2002-7
    • Major bilateral program: USD100m+
    • Evolution from law+order to law+justice
    • Unprecedented investment in M&E
    • Planned linkage: reform targets + results
    • Difficulty implementing restorative justice vision
    • Capacity to measure performance change
    • No evidence of attributable results after 4 years.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • Part 3: Case study (c) PRACTITIONERS IN ASIA (OUP)
    • Generic challenges:
      • refining goals, proactive leadership, involving community, balancing independence with engagement, integrating training in change management, strengthening evaluation capacity, demonstrating improving results.
    • Evidence: promoting ‘thick’ conceptions of justice
      • judgments enforcing rights to fresh water and air, clean environment, education, shelter, health, free legal aid, speedy trial (South Asia).
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  • 3. Cht.12: CONCLUSIONS
    • The prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient. This insufficiency is evidenced by the equity gap, and mounting perceptions of disappointment.
    • There is an imperative to elevate a humanistic dimension to this theory which justifies reform constitutively to promote justice as fairness and equity.
    • Measurement of success should be normative, and build on framework of international human right law.
    Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage