Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09

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Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09

  1. 1. Ph.D THESIS <ul><li>Judicial Reform in Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>The journey to fairness and equity </li></ul><ul><li>L.Armytage </li></ul><ul><li>U.Syd 2009. </li></ul>
  2. 2. 1. PRINCIPAL ARGUMENTS <ul><li>I critique the prevailing theory of judicial reform in international development assistance. This has an economic instrumental justification to promote growth. It is insufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>To redress this insufficiency, there is a need to revise this theory by elevating a constitutive humanistic dimension. Judicial reform should promote justice as fairness and equity. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  3. 3. KEY FINDINGS <ul><li>I argue there are two major deficiencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coherent compelling theory for reform Theme of purpose : - What is judicial reform supposed to do? This is the ‘ what ’ question. </li></ul><ul><li>No consensus how to measure success Theme of evaluation : - How should we measure success? This is the ‘ how ’ question. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  4. 4. MAJOR PROPOSITIONS <ul><li>I redress these deficiencies in two proposals: </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of judicial reform should be to promote justice as fairness and equity </li></ul><ul><li>Success should be measured using normative framework of international human rights law. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  5. 5. CONTRIBUTION TO DISCOURSE <ul><li>Critique existing theory of reform against available empirical evidence of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Meta-evaluate reform endeavour </li></ul><ul><li>Present substantial body of original evidence of practice from Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Refine the theory of reform, and supply means to measure success. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  6. 6. 2. STRUCTURE & CONTENT <ul><li>Part 1: Purpose – the theory of reform: answering the ‘ what ’ question [Chapters 2-5]. </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2: Evaluation – measuring success: answering the ‘ how ’ question [Chapters 6-8]. </li></ul><ul><li>Part 3: Empirical – case studies of practice: synthesis of Asian experience [Chapters 9-11]. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  7. 7. Part 1: PURPOSE - ARGUMENTS <ul><li>Reform theory is formative, dynamic, evolving </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth justification has primacy - instrumental </li></ul><ul><li>Theory only partially validated empirically </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence goals attained > disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative justifications being explored: ‘J4P’ … </li></ul><ul><li>Need to promote equitable distributional dimension of justice - both constitutive and instrumental. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  8. 8. Part 1: Purpose Ch.2 – CONTEXT + HISTORY <ul><li>Recent rapid substantial growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Bank: 1,400 projects, USD5.9billion (Dañino R, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Five waves’ (Jensen), or ‘three moments’ (Trubek) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard packages of ‘thin’ procedural reforms in ‘rule or law,’ ‘law and justice’ or ‘access to justice.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic, political, social, humanistic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reform endeavour searching for success. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  9. 9. Part 1: Purpose Ch.3 – JUSTIFICATION <ul><li>Classical, enlightenment, modern philosophy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of state: supply of public goods inc. justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State and market: capable, small, enabling ...? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutionalism, liberalism, enforcement of social contract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consensus: reform is important, but why … ? </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse riven by contest over theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental role; new institutional economics (Weber + North) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutive role; fairness, rights, capability (Rawls, Dworkin, Sen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To date: justice subordinated to economics. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  10. 10. Part 1: Purpose Ch.4 – EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE <ul><li>Determinants of growth – what works? </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence justice correlates with growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ New comparative economics’: Dollar + Kraay, Knack + Keefer, Djankov, Feld + Voigt, La Porta, North, Rajan, Rodrik … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, substantial misgivings at failure to promote equitable growth; internally-contested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Development Report 2006: poverty = equity; ‘equity gap.’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNDP’s Human Development Reports …. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stiglitz, Sachs, Easterly, Collier’s ‘bottom billion’ … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient: it is ambiguous, incomplete and often doesn’t work. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  11. 11. Part 1: Purpose Ch.5 – CRITIQUE <ul><li>Mounting perception of disappointment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trubek, Carothers, Messick, Hammergren, Jensen … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confusion, conflation, collision </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies of theory, knowledge, method, results </li></ul><ul><li>Process of theory-building ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative to reframe theory constitutively, and space to elevate equitable distributional dimension of justice. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  12. 12. Part 2: EVALUATION ARGUMENTS <ul><li>Evaluation of deficiency = x3 level gap: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development performance: perceptions of disappointment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation gap between rhetoric and practice; no orthodoxy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta-evaluation of reform: rarely done, poorly done </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualifies initial perception of disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to formalise evaluation approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What : normative, ‘thick’, rights-based: part 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How : convergence of JR + HR discourses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universally endorsed framework of IHRL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work-in-progress …. </li></ul></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  13. 13. Part 2: Evaluation Ch.6 - DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>MDGs - poverty alleviation; no justice goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness , 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>OECD-DAC professionalisation </li></ul><ul><li>MfDR: M&E to centre stage – but, transitional : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradigm war between positivism and constructivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability v learning; efficiency v effectiveness; outputs v outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critique: no assurance change linear, or monitoring improves results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring impact difficult, costly, slow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation gap. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  14. 14. Part 2: Evaluation + Meta-Evaluation Ch.7 + 8 - JUDICIAL REFORM <ul><li>Measuring what, how? </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of monitoring frameworks - too little>much: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice Reform Index, Vera, IFES, CEPEJ, RechtspraaQ, Court Excellence, Berteslmann, Freedom House, Global Integrity, TI, WGI, WGA … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation: deficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance practice – disappointing results (cht.5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development evaluation – unresolved debates, no orthodoxy (cht.7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta-evaluation practice – lack of methodological rigor, rarely done (cht.8) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No closer to evaluating / demonstrating success </li></ul><ul><li>Success should be measured normatively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice requires ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence with IHRL discourse: economic, civil, political, social, cultural rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framework under development (UNHRI, Alston, Darrow, Kinley, Decker) … </li></ul></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  15. 15. Part 3: CASE STUDIES FINDINGS + ARGUMENTS <ul><li>Endorses literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice is exploratory, evolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevalence instrumental economic rationale; ‘thin’ procedural reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges: conceptual, technical, operational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed results: IT, CM, training … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial successes promoting substantive rights – South Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryonic capacity to demonstrate success – PNG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation: discretionary judgment of worth. </li></ul></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  16. 16. Part 3: Case studies METHODOLOGY <ul><li>3 case studies of practice from Asia: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asian Development Bank 1990-2007 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PNG - AusAID: 2003-2007 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UNDP - Practitioners’ voices (OUP): Asia/Pacific 2000+ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Original documents-based, qualitative induction </li></ul><ul><li>Ethno-methodology reflexive critical analysis of ‘ordinary, routine, details of everyday life’ (Patton) of my participation as reform practitioner/evaluator . </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  17. 17. Part 3: Case study (a) ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK <ul><li>Major donor in region: 400+ projects </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative, exploratory, evolving approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally state-centred, ‘top-down’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justifications: economic > governance > empowerment … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy ambivalence; anomalous … </li></ul><ul><li>Under-investment in research, evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>A priori; leap of faith. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  18. 18. Part 3: Case study (b) PNG - AUSAID: 2002-7 <ul><li>Major bilateral program: USD100m+ </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution from law+order to law+justice </li></ul><ul><li>Unprecedented investment in M&E </li></ul><ul><li>Planned linkage: reform targets + results </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty implementing restorative justice vision </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity to measure performance change </li></ul><ul><li>No evidence of attributable results after 4 years. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  19. 19. Part 3: Case study (c) PRACTITIONERS IN ASIA (OUP) <ul><li>Generic challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refining goals, proactive leadership, involving community, balancing independence with engagement, integrating training in change management, strengthening evaluation capacity, demonstrating improving results. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evidence: promoting ‘thick’ conceptions of justice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>judgments enforcing rights to fresh water and air, clean environment, education, shelter, health, free legal aid, speedy trial (South Asia). </li></ul></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
  20. 20. 3. Cht.12: CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>The prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient. This insufficiency is evidenced by the equity gap, and mounting perceptions of disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an imperative to elevate a humanistic dimension to this theory which justifies reform constitutively to promote justice as fairness and equity. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of success should be normative, and build on framework of international human right law. </li></ul>Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage

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