Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09
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Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09

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    Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09 Armytage: PhD Viva 02.11.09 Presentation Transcript

    • Ph.D THESIS
      • Judicial Reform in Asia:
      • The journey to fairness and equity
      • L.Armytage
      • U.Syd 2009.
    • 1. PRINCIPAL ARGUMENTS
      • I critique the prevailing theory of judicial reform in international development assistance. This has an economic instrumental justification to promote growth. It is insufficient.
      • To redress this insufficiency, there is a need to revise this theory by elevating a constitutive humanistic dimension. Judicial reform should promote justice as fairness and equity.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • KEY FINDINGS
      • I argue there are two major deficiencies:
      • Lack of coherent compelling theory for reform Theme of purpose : - What is judicial reform supposed to do? This is the ‘ what ’ question.
      • No consensus how to measure success Theme of evaluation : - How should we measure success? This is the ‘ how ’ question.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • MAJOR PROPOSITIONS
      • I redress these deficiencies in two proposals:
      • Purpose of judicial reform should be to promote justice as fairness and equity
      • Success should be measured using normative framework of international human rights law.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • CONTRIBUTION TO DISCOURSE
      • Critique existing theory of reform against available empirical evidence of practice
      • Meta-evaluate reform endeavour
      • Present substantial body of original evidence of practice from Asia
      • Refine the theory of reform, and supply means to measure success.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • 2. STRUCTURE & CONTENT
      • Part 1: Purpose – the theory of reform: answering the ‘ what ’ question [Chapters 2-5].
      • Part 2: Evaluation – measuring success: answering the ‘ how ’ question [Chapters 6-8].
      • Part 3: Empirical – case studies of practice: synthesis of Asian experience [Chapters 9-11].
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 1: PURPOSE - ARGUMENTS
      • Reform theory is formative, dynamic, evolving
      • Economic growth justification has primacy - instrumental
      • Theory only partially validated empirically
      • No evidence goals attained > disappointment
      • Alternative justifications being explored: ‘J4P’ …
      • Need to promote equitable distributional dimension of justice - both constitutive and instrumental.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 1: Purpose Ch.2 – CONTEXT + HISTORY
      • Recent rapid substantial growth
        • World Bank: 1,400 projects, USD5.9billion (Dañino R, 2005)
      • ‘ Five waves’ (Jensen), or ‘three moments’ (Trubek)
      • Standard packages of ‘thin’ procedural reforms in ‘rule or law,’ ‘law and justice’ or ‘access to justice.’
      • Divergent purposes:
        • Economic, political, social, humanistic.
      • Reform endeavour searching for success.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 1: Purpose Ch.3 – JUSTIFICATION
      • Classical, enlightenment, modern philosophy:
        • Role of state: supply of public goods inc. justice
        • State and market: capable, small, enabling ...?
        • Constitutionalism, liberalism, enforcement of social contract
      • Consensus: reform is important, but why … ?
      • Discourse riven by contest over theory
        • Instrumental role; new institutional economics (Weber + North)
        • Constitutive role; fairness, rights, capability (Rawls, Dworkin, Sen)
      • To date: justice subordinated to economics.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 1: Purpose Ch.4 – EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
      • Determinants of growth – what works?
      • Some evidence justice correlates with growth
        • ‘ New comparative economics’: Dollar + Kraay, Knack + Keefer, Djankov, Feld + Voigt, La Porta, North, Rajan, Rodrik …
      • But, substantial misgivings at failure to promote equitable growth; internally-contested
        • World Development Report 2006: poverty = equity; ‘equity gap.’
        • UNDP’s Human Development Reports ….
        • Stiglitz, Sachs, Easterly, Collier’s ‘bottom billion’ …
      • Prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient: it is ambiguous, incomplete and often doesn’t work.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 1: Purpose Ch.5 – CRITIQUE
      • Mounting perception of disappointment
        • Trubek, Carothers, Messick, Hammergren, Jensen …
      • Confusion, conflation, collision
      • Deficiencies of theory, knowledge, method, results
      • Process of theory-building ongoing
      • Imperative to reframe theory constitutively, and space to elevate equitable distributional dimension of justice.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 2: EVALUATION ARGUMENTS
      • Evaluation of deficiency = x3 level gap:
        • Development performance: perceptions of disappointment
        • Evaluation gap between rhetoric and practice; no orthodoxy
        • Meta-evaluation of reform: rarely done, poorly done
      • Qualifies initial perception of disappointment.
      • Need to formalise evaluation approach
        • What : normative, ‘thick’, rights-based: part 1
        • How : convergence of JR + HR discourses
        • Universally endorsed framework of IHRL
        • Work-in-progress ….
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 2: Evaluation Ch.6 - DEVELOPMENT
      • MDGs - poverty alleviation; no justice goal.
      • Paris Declaration of Aid Effectiveness , 2005
      • OECD-DAC professionalisation
      • MfDR: M&E to centre stage – but, transitional :
        • Paradigm war between positivism and constructivism
        • Accountability v learning; efficiency v effectiveness; outputs v outcomes
        • Critique: no assurance change linear, or monitoring improves results
        • Measuring impact difficult, costly, slow
      • Evaluation gap.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 2: Evaluation + Meta-Evaluation Ch.7 + 8 - JUDICIAL REFORM
      • Measuring what, how?
      • Proliferation of monitoring frameworks - too little>much:
        • Justice Reform Index, Vera, IFES, CEPEJ, RechtspraaQ, Court Excellence, Berteslmann, Freedom House, Global Integrity, TI, WGI, WGA …
      • Evaluation: deficiencies
        • Performance practice – disappointing results (cht.5)
        • Development evaluation – unresolved debates, no orthodoxy (cht.7)
        • Meta-evaluation practice – lack of methodological rigor, rarely done (cht.8)
      • No closer to evaluating / demonstrating success
      • Success should be measured normatively
        • Justice requires ‘thick’ and ‘thin’ measures
        • Convergence with IHRL discourse: economic, civil, political, social, cultural rights
        • Framework under development (UNHRI, Alston, Darrow, Kinley, Decker) …
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 3: CASE STUDIES FINDINGS + ARGUMENTS
      • Endorses literature
        • Practice is exploratory, evolving
        • Prevalence instrumental economic rationale; ‘thin’ procedural reforms
        • Challenges: conceptual, technical, operational
        • Mixed results: IT, CM, training …
      • New evidence
        • Initial successes promoting substantive rights – South Asia
        • Embryonic capacity to demonstrate success – PNG
        • Evaluation: discretionary judgment of worth.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 3: Case studies METHODOLOGY
      • 3 case studies of practice from Asia:
          • Asian Development Bank 1990-2007
          • PNG - AusAID: 2003-2007
          • UNDP - Practitioners’ voices (OUP): Asia/Pacific 2000+
      • Original documents-based, qualitative induction
      • Ethno-methodology reflexive critical analysis of ‘ordinary, routine, details of everyday life’ (Patton) of my participation as reform practitioner/evaluator .
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 3: Case study (a) ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
      • Major donor in region: 400+ projects
      • Innovative, exploratory, evolving approach
        • Traditionally state-centred, ‘top-down’
        • Justifications: economic > governance > empowerment …
      • Policy ambivalence; anomalous …
      • Under-investment in research, evaluation
      • A priori; leap of faith.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 3: Case study (b) PNG - AUSAID: 2002-7
      • Major bilateral program: USD100m+
      • Evolution from law+order to law+justice
      • Unprecedented investment in M&E
      • Planned linkage: reform targets + results
      • Difficulty implementing restorative justice vision
      • Capacity to measure performance change
      • No evidence of attributable results after 4 years.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • Part 3: Case study (c) PRACTITIONERS IN ASIA (OUP)
      • Generic challenges:
        • refining goals, proactive leadership, involving community, balancing independence with engagement, integrating training in change management, strengthening evaluation capacity, demonstrating improving results.
      • Evidence: promoting ‘thick’ conceptions of justice
        • judgments enforcing rights to fresh water and air, clean environment, education, shelter, health, free legal aid, speedy trial (South Asia).
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage
    • 3. Cht.12: CONCLUSIONS
      • The prevailing instrumental theory is insufficient. This insufficiency is evidenced by the equity gap, and mounting perceptions of disappointment.
      • There is an imperative to elevate a humanistic dimension to this theory which justifies reform constitutively to promote justice as fairness and equity.
      • Measurement of success should be normative, and build on framework of international human right law.
      Ph.D Thesis: Judicial Reform in Asia Livingston Armytage