ISLAM: A SURVEY from 622CE Photo courtesy ~crystalina~
ISLAM TODAY http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Muslim_distribution.png There are over 1 billion Muslims worldwide, of which 85% are Sunni and 15% are Shiite, although these figures are surely not exact. This accounts for over 20% of the world’s population. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MuslimDistribution2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Islam
ISLAM EXPANSION http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Age_of_Caliphs.png A Caliph is the head of the Caliphate . Likewise, a Sultan is the head of a Sultanate . Although they are both rulers of an Islamic Empire, the difference is that a Caliph must be a successor of Muhammad the prophet. The 500 year span from 700CE to 1200CE is known as the Islamic Golden Age.
MUHAMMAD http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mohammed_kaaba_1315.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Blackstone.JPG
THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM <ul><li>Shahadah (Declaration of Faith) </li></ul><ul><li>Salah (Prayer) </li></ul><ul><li>Zakah (Charity) </li></ul><ul><li>Sawm (Fasting) </li></ul><ul><li>Hajj (Pilgrimage) </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Supplicating_Pilgrim_at_Masjid_Al_Haram._Mecca%2C_Saudi_Arabia.jpg A page of a Qur’an from the 1400’s. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Large_Koran.jpg
KAABA Photo courtesy G.M Farooq Cuboidal form located inside the mosque at al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The mosque was build around the structure. The Kaaba is made of domestic materials - granite on a marble base specifically, and is masonry architecture. In terms of orientation, the four corners point to the four cardinal directions. The structure is covered in black silk and golden embroidery (a Kiswah ), with calligraphic text taken from the Qur’an.This covering is changed annually. http://www.sxc.hu/photo/985250 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Hajj1.gif
ISLAM IN IRAQ: THE ABBASID CALIPHATE http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Spiral_minar_samarra.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Samaraa_Grand_Mosque_-_Map.GIF Built in 848-852CE of baked bricks, the Great Mosque of Samarra is known for its 52m spiral minaret (Malwiyya). The Mihrab is located on the interior of the South (Qibla) wall.
ISLAM IN SPAIN: IBERIAN MOORS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Muslims_of_Spain.jpg Red and white striped arches are stylistic trademarks of the Moorish empire in Spain. A building of many metamorphosis, La Mezquita was first a temple, subsequently a mosque, and finally a Catholic cathedral. Photo courtesy Jialiang Gao Islamic forms of government controlled the peninsula for around 800 years, from Emirates to Caliphates (Umayyad and Hammadid) La Mezquita of Cordoba
ISLAM IN SPAIN: IBERIAN MOORS Alhambra citadel/palace of Granada http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Atauriques.jpg Photo courtesy Yves Remedios http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Patio_de_los_Arrayanes.jpg Photo courtesy Jan Zeschky http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:80525560_0eb2c1d54a_o.jpg Photo courtesy Comakut The Court of the Lions “ The Red One” as it is called, was built towards the end of Muslim rule, from around 1338-1390.
ISLAM IN SPAIN: IBERIAN MOORS Photo courtesy Javier Carro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Arabescos_en_la_Alhambra.JPG Alhambra citadel/palace of Granada http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tassellatura_alhambra.jpg Photo courtesy Gruban Tessellation: A repeated shape that covers a plane, without overlap. Arabesques: Plant and/or animal forms in an elaborate, geometric pattern. Repetition is a key quality of the style.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Storks_samarkand.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Registan_-_Samarkand_-_15-10-2005.jpg ISLAM IN UZBEKISTAN: SAMARKAND Photo courtesy Steve Evans Occupying a central position on the Silk Road, Samarkand (Stone Fort in Old Persian) received many influences, exemplified by the Bibi-Khanym Mosque (1399-1404).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Bibi_Khonym_Mosque.jpg ISLAM IN UZBEKISTAN: SAMARKAND http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Minaret_in_Samarkand.jpg Minarets & Domes are standard features of Islamic architecture. Photo courtesy Trollderella
ISLAM IN MALI: TIMBUKTU The University of Timbuktu (from the 1400’s) is comprised of three mosques/Madrasahs: Sankoré, Djinguereber, and Sidi Yahya. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Mosqueetombou_01.JPG The Minaret of Djingareyber was constructed with mudbrick and Toron stakes (Acacia wood). Stakes act as permanent scaffolding for repair. Photo courtesy Upyernoz http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Sankore_Mosque_in_Timbuktu.jpg Sankoré Sidi Yahya http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Medersa_Sankore.jpg Photo courtesy KaTeznik
MANSA MUSA & ASKIA THE GREAT http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mansa_Musa.jpg A devout Muslim, Mansa Musa ruled the Mali Empire from 1312 - 1337 in Niani. His pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca was famous as he gave gold to towns along the way to build mosques. On his return, along with a vast collection of volumes in Arabic, he also brought religious scholars, and even an Arab architect by the name of al-Sahili to help construct islamic palaces, universities, and mosques in Timbuktu and Gao. His style was very influential to the Sudan. As stone was not to be found, wood-reinforced mud was a primary source of material. Another material that became popular for the homes of the wealthy was burnt brick. Other innovations included: flat roofs, pyramidal minaret. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Afryka_1890.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Askia.jpg Photo courtesy Taguelmoust Tomb of Askia (Songhai Emperor) in Gao (late 1400’s) Early West African Kingdoms Ghana Empire: 300-1076CE Mali Empire: 1200 - 1550CE Songhai Empire: 1500 - 1591CE
ISLAM IN TURKEY: THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE Section view http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Hagia-Sophia-Laengsschnitt.jpg Plan view Hagia Sophia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Hagia-Sophia-Grundriss.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Aya_sofya.jpg Photo courtesy Saperaud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ayasofya-Innenansicht.jpg The structure was converted into a mosque around 1453, when Constantinople was conquered by the Turks.
MINARETS The Blue Mosque: Istanbul, Turkey Photo courtesy Daniel Duchon
GEOMETRIC FORM The use of geometric patterns is a common device with Islamic design. These patterns are thought to be spiritual. Circles, like Allah, are considered infinite. Repetition (symbolic of unending) of motifs is widespread, showing again this infinite quality on both large and small scales. The Arabesque (plant) motif is a popular choice. http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1006633 Istanbul
MIHRAB Photo courtesy Radomil Binek http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Haga_Sofia_RB5.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Pórtico_del_Mirhab_.jpg Hagia Sophia: Istanbul, Turkey La Alferia: Zaragoza, Spain A niche “doorway” oriented to Mecca, Mihrabs function as spiritual portals for prayers aimed at the Kaaba. This direction is known as Qibla .
HORSESHOE ARCH http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Alcazaba-IMG_2892b.jpg Photo courtesy of Rama
ISLAM IN INDIA: AGRA & THE MUGHAL EMPIRE http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Taj_Mahal_in_March_2004.jpg Photo courtesy Dhirad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:TajCalligraphy3.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Shahjahan.jpg Shah Jahan Completed around 1648
FASHION http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Woman_walking_in_Afghanistan.jpg Photo courtesy Steve Evans Burqa : Ladies garment (long pleated gown) which envelopes the entire body.This picture was taken in Afghanistan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Muslim_woman_in_Yemen.jpg Photo courtesy Steve Evans This Yemenese woman is wearing a Niqab, or veil to cover her face.
FASHION http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Women_in_shiraz_2.jpg Women in Iran wear a Chador , which is a full-length piece of fabric that is held together by the hands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sabaa_Nissan_Militiaman.jpg Photo courtesy Christiaan Briggs Iraqi man wearing a Keffiyeh , or traditional cotton headdress. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Agal.jpg Photo courtesy F.Dany Bahraini man wearing Agal.