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Dictionary of Gems and Gemology



Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. Mohsen Manutchehr-Danai. Second Edition.

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Dictionary of Gems and Gemology Dictionary of Gems and Gemology Document Transcript

  • Mohsen Manutchehr-DanaiDictionary of Gems and Gemology
  • Mohsen Manutchehr-DanaiDictionary of Gemsand Gemology2nd extended and revised editionWith approx. 25 000 entries, 1 500 figures and 42 tables
  • AuthorProfessor Dr. Mohsen Manutchehr-DanaiDr. Johann-Maier-Straße 193049 RegensburgGermanyLibrary of Congress Control Number: 2004116870ISBN 3-540-23970-7 Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkThis work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the materialis concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitations,broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplica-tion of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copy-right Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be ob-tained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law.Springer is a part of Springer Science+Business Mediaspringeronline.com© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005Printed in GermanyThe use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does notimply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevantprotective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.Cover design: Erich Kirchner, HeidelbergTypesetting: Camera ready by the authorProduction: Luisa TonarelliPrinting and binding: Stürtz, WürzburgPrinted on acid-free paper 30/2132/LT – 5 4 3 2 1 0
  • Preface to the Second EditionThe worldwide acceptance of the first edition of this book encouraged me to exten-sively revise and extend the second edition. The book was of value to readers of widelyranging interests as demonstrated by the letters received from scientists, students, min-ing engineers, editors of periodical papers and teachers. This revision comes five years after the publication of the first edition. Many entrieshave been improved and now include new data. In total it includes about 25 000 entries,1 500 graphic figures and 42 tables. The first edition was criticized by readers who felt that some entries were not relatedto respective materials: but I would like to emphasize that many minerals are describedin the form of references necessary for determining other gemstone materials. In this edition chapters on light, color and colorant are dealt with in more depth, alarge section introduces new terms applying to these areas. If you have criticisms or suggestions please feel free to contact the author. Mohsen Manuthehr-Danai Regensburg, Germany, January 2005
  • Acknowledgements (Second Edition)I appreciate the time and effort of Ms. Pamela Krimsky, Meshed/Iran for proof themanuscript of the second edition. I was very pleased with her conscientious and reli-able work. I appreciate the criticism of Mr. Michel J. C. Sandillon, France, as well as his timeand effort. He provided me with some new and exact information about diamond lo-calities in India. I appreciate the time and effort of Professor Hofmeister from the Institut fürEdelsteinforschung, University of Mainz, Germany for helping me to find some specialbooks and for much useful information. I appreciate the time and effort of Dr. G. Niedermayr of the Naturhistorisches Mu-seum Vienna, Austria, who willingly gave me additional new information about refer-ences to jade. I would like to thank my beloved son Human who is worthy of far more acknowl-edgments than I have space for. He was always standing beside me. I cannot finish without gratefully acknowledging the help and support of Dr. ChristianWitschel of Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. My thanks go again to my friend and attorney Mr. Karl Abt for his support andprofessionalism. I would like to thank Mr. Michael Schmidt for his great help in resolving computerproblems.
  • Preface to the First EditionSince World War II the amount of information generated in the science of Gemologyhas increased tremendously. Therefore this book “Dictionary of Gems and Gemmologyand related terms” was written with the aim of providing a “relatively” complete dictio-nary to assist all students, hobbyists, scientists and interested parties in the fields ofgems and gemology. The forerunner to this book was called “Dictionary of Gems and Gemmology” (En-glish-Persian, Persian-English, published in Tehran-Iran in 1997) and was written withthe aid of more than thirty reference books relating to gemology. In response to theeffort required to clarify the terms within, I decided to compile a book that brings allthe relevant terms into one book. This new book eliminates the use of different refer-ence books and compiles nearly all the relevant terms into a one-stop useful text. It tooktwenty five years to collect the terms and the information so as to present a completeand functional lexicon. The text is supported by nearly 170 illustrations and 21 tables to provide detailedand succinct information. I hope and trust that this book will reach the high standard of other gemologicaldictionaries. If you have criticisms or suggestions please feel free to contact the author. Manutchehr-Danai, Mohsen Los Angeles, Tehran, Regensburg
  • Acknowledgements (First Edition)The author acknowledges all those who were of valuable assistance during the writingand publishing of this book. My thanks go to my good friend Professor Dr. Farhad Rahimi of Meshed University,Iran for pioneering my first book in English-Persian, Persian-English and for his fur-ther work on my current book. I appreciate the time and effort taken by my good friend Mr. Bozozrgmehr Vakhshooriwho spent a great deal of time helping with the preparation of this book and by Mr.William Ohara for his indefatigable effort in publishing this book. I am grateful to my proof reader Eleanor Gorman, B.A. Communication, Australia. I would like to thank my beloved son Human who is worthy of far more acknowl-edgments than I have space for. My grateful appreciation goes to my good friend Mr. Dr. Hassan Parvizinia for hisskillful graphic work. I appreciate the support and professionalism from my friend and attorney Mr. Karl Abt. I cannot finish without gratefully acknowledging to Dr. Heinz Sichert, Rechenzentrumof the University of Regensburg, Mrs. Heidi Krinner and Mr. Hannes Völklien fromPustet Company, Regensburg.
  • Abbreviations and Symbols Used in the TextÅ Ångström Nanometer 10–9 metera cell edge in the x direction nm nanometerAb albite NaAlSi3O8 ω ordinary ray in uniaxial crystal. Refrac-Abbr. abbreviation tive indexα, β, γ the three refractive indices in biaxial crys- Or orthoclase KAlSi3O8 tal from least, intermediate to greatest Pa-sec Pascal-secondAdj. adjective Port. PortugueseAn anorthite CaAl2Si2O8 RI: generally refractive index, also for cubicÅngström 0.1 nanometer and amorphous substanceb cell edge in the y direction RI; refractive indices of ω: ordinary ray, ε:Birefringence in uniaxial crystal is the difference be- extraordinary ray in uniaxial crystal tween ω and ε. In biaxial crystal is the RI; refractive indices of α: alpha, β: beta, γ: difference between α and γ gamma in biaxial crystalc cell edge in the z direction Russia formerly Soviet Union°C degrees Celsius, a unit of temperature, SG specific gravity known as centigrade Sri Lanka formerly Ceylonct(s). carat(s) or metric carat(s) SWUV light short-wave ultraviolet lightDiaphaneity transparent or translucent, or opaque Thailand formerly Siamε extraordinary ray in uniaxial crystal. Re- X[] X represent the number of formula units fractive index per unit cellFa fayalite FeSiO4 x, y, z crystallographic axesFo forsterite MgSiO4 Zimbabwe formerly RhodesiaH hardness on the Mohs’s scale optically negative, when ε is greater thanHz hertz SI unit of frequency (c/s) ω in uniaxial crystal. In biaxial, when in-Lat. Latin termediate refractive index β is near to γLWUV light long-wave ultraviolet light than αMalagasy formerly Madagascar ⊕ optically positive, when ω is greater than εMt. Mountain in uniaxial crystal. In biaxial, when interme-Myanmar formerly Burma diate refractive index β is near to α than γN.Y. New York → see
  • Source of IllustrationsDe Beers (CSO): 1-fire rose cut, 2-dahlia cut, 2-marigold cut, 4-sunflower cut,5-zinna cut.Eppler, Praktische Gemmologie: Highlight brilliant cut, king cut, magna cut androyal 144 cut.Liddicoat (GIA), Diamond Dictionary: American brilliant cut, baguette cut, rondellecut, tapered cut, Trielle cut and whistle cut.Maier, Brillianten und Perlen: Situation of facets, modified brilliant cut, Peruzzi cut.Miller and Sinkankas, Standard Catalog of Gems: Honeycomb cut, refraction oflight, star and step brilliant cut.Vollstädt and Baumgärtel, Edelsteine: Prismant.Webster and Read, Gems: Cross rose cut, blades of tortoise shell.
  • the shell. These shellfish originate in the waters ofAa California, Mexico, New York, Japan, and are also found in the Atlantic Ocean. Abalones in New Zealand are known as paua shell and in Japan Awabi shell. Haliotis, paua shell.a; a symbol for one of the three crystallographic axes. abalone pearl; usually small iridescent salt-water pearls, With subscript 0, as a0. The letter “a” usually appears in with a high quality nacre. Usually abalones produce italics. blister pearls of various shapes classified as baroque,A; the first line of Fraunhofer lines, in the deep red of flattened button, irregular pear, and elongated. These the solar spectrum. Its wavelength is 760.60 nm caused are true pearls found occasionally in Mexico, Japan, by oxygen in the earth’s atmosphere. and California. Many of them are hollow. These pearls ; alpha: symbol for denoting the major allotropic form are usually of pronounced green, yellow, blue, pale of a substance. green or pink hues. The iridescence is only skin-deep. ; alpha: a radiation consisting of helium nuclei. abalone shell; a member of the salt-water mollusk ; alpha: a symbol for optical rotation. family. ; alpha: a symbol for phase constant. abandon; to leave, to give up or stop excavating aÅ; an abbreviation of Ångström and Ångström unit. mining site due to unprofitable or unsafe business Also spelled A or ÅE. conditions.A; same as Å. Abàsi; correctly spelled Abbassi from Abbass. An oldÅE; same as Å. Persian weight for pearls. Weighing 2.66 troy grains.Aaron’s Breastplate; same as breastplate of the Jewish Also spelled Abbassi. High Priest. abate; to carve or produce a relief figure using hammer.abacus; a Mexican term used for stone wash trough. abatement; a term used in cutting for waste produced aAbadia do Dourados; a city in Minas-Gerais region, cut stone to a specified size. Brazil. Abbas-Mirza-Diamond; an Indian rose diamond of 130 Abadia do Duorados Diamond; a clear pale brown cts. In 1832, it appeared at the capture of Abbas-Mirza diamond of 104 cts, found around 1938/39 in Brazil. Crown-Prince of Iran. Now in National Jewel Treasury Present location unknown. of Iran, Tehran?Abadia do Duorados Lilac Diamond; a clear lilac Abbassi; Abàsi. diamond of 63 cts, found in 1939 in Brazil. Previously Abbé condenser; an eyepiece or lens system placed sold to an African, the present owner is unknown. Also, below the stage of a microscope, which corrects the called Abadia do Duorados Lilac Diamond.Abadia do Duorados Rose Diamond; a natural rose colored diamond of 33 cts, found in 1936. Present location unknown.Abaeté Brilliant Diamond; an uncut diamond of 144 cts. Found in 1791 in the Abaeté River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Present location unknown.Abaeté-Diamond; a rose pink rough diamond of 238 cts, found in 1926 in the Abaeté River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Present owner unknown.Abaeté Rose Diamond; a pink rough diamond of 118 Abbe condenser cts. Found in 1929 in the Abaeté River, Minas Gerais, aberration of rays. It is known as an Abbé substage Brazil. Present location unknown. Also known as the condenser and consists of two or three lenses, and has a Cross of the South Diamond. wide aperture.abalone; term for a marine gastropod, mollusc haliotis Abbé number; same as reciprocal dispersion. of the genus Haliotidae. A species of ear shell, also Abbé refractometer; an optical device, which is used to called ormer, from which mother-of-pearl is produced. measure the refractive index of minerals, gemstones, Other pearl-bearing shellfish from abalone genus is the and liquids. Its function is based on the measurement of ormer shell or haliotis tuberculata, which live in the variation of the critical angle in a hemicylinder of shallow waters. Haliotis rufrescens is a reddish member highly refractive glass. of the abalone family. Colored baroque pearls produced Abbé-Pulfrich-totalrefractometer; an optical device by abalone have the same iridescence as the interior of used for the measurement of the refractive indices of
  • Abbé theory - abrasive material 2 gems and minerals. Made by Abbé and Pulfrich (1840- aberration, chromatic; aberration. n abies balsamica; same as abies canadensis. C abies canadensis; a genus of gymnosperm fir trees from which Canada balsam is obtained. Also called abies N E balsamica. Canada balsam. E ablation; the removal away of rock debris, as by erosion D D or weathering. C C abortive ova theory; a brilliant cell in the center of B bright A freshwater mussels marine oysters when opened show an equal size of ova of the same oyster, which formed Pufrisch refractometer upon the external surface of this ovum. A theory from Everard Home. 1905). Abbé refractometer. abrade; to wear away by friction, as in, to abrade rocks.Abbé theory; a theory which states that to obtain a true Abrasive. image of an object, the lens used (in a microscope or abraded culet; a term applied to a culet of diamond, other instrument) must be suitably large as to permit the when scratched by other stones or when it has been transmission of the entire diffraction pattern. faceted.abbot’s ring; usually a gold ring, set with a single stone, abrasax; same as abraxas. traditionally worn by an abbot on the third finger of the abraser; a term used for a device to wear resistance right hand. surfaces of a substance or specimen by rubbing.Abdollah-Giw turquoise; a misnomer for the abrash; a Farsi term used for mottled turquoise stone chrysocolla from Abdollah-Giw by Meshed, Iran. with two colors. Turquoise classification inAbdul-Madjidi; a term used in Nishabur turquoise Nishabur, Iran. mine for fine dark color but not pure and soft. abrasion; the wearing off of a part of the earth’s surface Turquoise classification in Nishabur, Iran. by moving water, ice, gravity, waves or wind. OftenAbernethy Pearl; a fresh-water pearl of 43.60 grains diamonds are tumbled or rubbed with other fragments and 11.50 mm in diameter, found in Scotland. in river or in the sea. Belonged to Abernethy Pearl, now on display at the abrasion; sometimes polished diamonds abraded or establishment of Cairncross in Perth, Scotland. Also scratched, by contact with other diamonds. Abraded called Little Willie Pearl. It was known as Bill’s Pearl. culet, paperworn diamond.aberration; failure of an optical or electronic lens or abrasion test; abrasive test. mirror to bring light into focus. When aberration is due abrasive; any natural or artificial hard substance suitable lens for grinding, cutting, polishing, honing, lapping and light beam pressure blasting. Diamond, emery, silica, oilstone, optical garnet, pumice, and diatomite powder are naturally blue focus red focus C axis yellow focus light abrasives. Artificial abrasives include borazon, silicon, beam carbide, aluminum oxide, and boron carbide powder. spherical aberration abrasive; any minute, hard-cornered fragment of rock or lens light mineral that is active in the abrasion of the earth’s blue beam red optical surface and rock material. axis red C abrasive grain; tough refractory particles, which are blue light used as abrasive material. Abrasive material. beam chromatic aberration abrasive material; hard, and sometimes brittle, natural or artificial substances used for grinding, polishing, or to the form of the lens or mirror, it is called spherical scouring. Also called abrasive matter. Varieties of aberration. When aberration is due to a change in the abrasive materials are: a-carbonado, which consist of refrangibility of light of different colors, it is called microcrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon. b- chromatic aberration. Aberration in magnifiers often Hailstone borate: containing alternate sheets of causes an inaccurate diagnosis of flawlessness or color diamond and other substance. c-Framsite, which is of gems. There are various types of aberration, such as more granular than carbonado and contains less chromatic aberration, coma, spherical aberration, diamond. d-Stewartite: similar to carbonado but also astigmatism, and distortion. Also called optical contains of some magnetite. e-Ballas: microcrystalline aberration. diamond, usually free of inclusions. Also termed shot
  • 3 abrasive matter – absorption spectrum boart. Found in diamond mine areas. Abrasive, ballas. optical density.abrasive matter; abrasive material. absorption; in optics, the reduction of the light intensityabrasive point; abrasive or grinding point in different in transmission through an absorbing substance forms, set on a shank, used by dentists and also for metal removal.abrasive test; this test employs a rotating grinding wheel or plate, charged with diamond powder, against which gemstones are held. The test sample is abraded for a given number of revolutions. The loss of weight of the gemstone is a measure of the abrasion resistance of the material. Also called abrasion test. Attrition milling.abrasive wheel; wheels, which are provided with light wave and absorption (medium) or in reflection from a surface, in crystals, minerals and gems. Absorption may vary with wavelengths of vibration in the direction of the transmitted light or ray (color). Also called light absorption. absorption bands; narrow dark zones or lines in the absorption spectrum of a given substance due to certain electromagnetic wavelengths in the spectrum being selectively absorbed, on passing through a medium. abrasive wheel machine Known as absorption lines. Absorption spectra. abrasive materials such as diamond or emery set on a absorption differential selective; pleochroism. shank. absorption filter; this filter absorb the unwanted regionsabraxas; an invented word or symbol. An ancient charm of the spectrum by which the energy is usually word engraved on gemstones composed of seven Greek converted into heat. Such filters are made from glasses, letters, which when converted to numerals, totaled 365 plastics, crystals, liquids and gelatins and containing (the number of heavens by Gnostic sect). Originally substances with selective absorptions as transitional believed to have magical powers and inscribed on metal ions. Color filter. amulets, etc. From second century A.D. on, personified absorption lens; an eyepiece, which absorbs certain by Gnostics as a deity, the source of divine emanations. wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. An abraxas is usually engraved with a lion or a cockerel absorption line; narrow dark line of wavelength or head, a human body, etc. Also spelled abraxes, and frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum, caused by abrasax. the absorption of a gaseous element. Also called hairabraxes; same as abraxas. lines. Absorption bands.abrir a cor; opening the color. absorption, selective; the absorption of certain colorsabruki; a trade term used in India for shade of smoke in from incident light, when passing through a colored emerald. gem (medium).absite; a term used in South Australian for a mineral absorption spectra; absorption spectrum. containing titanium, rare earth, uranium and thorium, absorption spectrum; arrangement of spectrum lines or which occurs in pegmatitic association. bands obtained, when white light is transmitted throughabsolute perfect; perfect. a colored gemstone, this is because certain coloredabsolute scale; same as absolute or Kelvin temperature stones have certain wavelengths, which will be scale. Absolute temperature. absorbed more readily than others. When the spectrumabsolute temperature; temperature measured from the is passed through a medium into a spectroscope, the absolute zero, which is used mainly for thermodynamic colors most strongly absorbed may appear as dark work. Absolute zero or zero Kelvin is equal to –273.16º bands or finer lines. This interrupts the continuous C on the Celsius scale, or 0º C = 273.16º K on the spectrum or Newtonian spectrum in characteristic Kelvin scale, or 459.69º F on the Fahrenheit scale. Also positions, which is known as an absorption spectra. The called Kelvin temperature scale. spectrum from the light of the sun is called the solarabsorbance; same as transmission density. Former term: spectrum or, Fraunhofer spectrum. The use of the
  • absorption state – acetate of copper 4absorption spectrum is instrumental in gemological atoms as impurities increases the number of holes in identification. Emission spectrum, Fraunhofer lines, semiconductor such as diamond, which act as acceptors and nitrogen or boron atoms in Type II diamonds as donors. Also known as acceptor impurity. acceptor impurity; acceptor. accessory elements; same as trace elements. accessory mineral; the opposite of essential mineral. Term applied to any mineral occurring in small Aa BC D Eb F G H quantities in a rock, and whose presence or absence does not affect its analysis. countinuus sun absorption spectrum accidental inclusion; a mineral present, or fragments of a crystal, having no genetic connection with the igneous rocks, in which they occur. Also called exogenous inclusion, exogenous inclusure, enallogene bright-line spectra. of lacroix allothigenous ejectum, foreign inclusion,absorption state level; inverted population level. accidental xenolith and xenolith.Abu-Eshaghi; a Farsi term used in Nishabur turquoise accidental pearl; the genuine natural pearl as mine fine dark color with high brilliant and quasi pure. distinguished from the cultured pearl, which is Turquoise classification in Nishabur, Iran. artificially induced.abyssal rocks; rocks occurs in very great depth, which accidental xenolith; accidental inclusion. is a synonym for plutonic rocks. Accra; metropolis of Ghana, Africa.abyssinian gold; imitation gold or a variety of brass Accra Diamond Company; one of the diamond resembling gold used for costume jewelry. Consisting companies in the metropolis of Ghana, Africa, licensed of approximately 91% Cu, 8% Zn, or 86% Cu, 12% Zn, by their government to buy diamonds from native and 1% Sn. Also called gold shell or Talmi gold. miners.Ac; a chemical symbol for the element actinium. Accra Diamond Market; a diamond market in Accra,acacia gum; same as gum arabic. which has the sole right to purchase diamonds producedAcaeté Diamond; a rough diamond of 161.50 from by native diggers, and bears authority from the Brazil, Found in 1971. The current owner is unknown. government of Ghana.accabar; accarbaar. accretion; filling-up of a river due to wave action.accarbaar; a name applied to black coral or King’s accretion; gradual deposition of land on a shore Coral or Antipathes spiralis, in southeastern Asia and because of wave action. the Indian Ocean region. Also spelled accabar, accarbar accretion; gradual buildup of material around or along or akabar. the walls of a cavity.accarbaar item; the highest trade quality black-coral in accretion limestone; limestone formed by the slow southeastern Asia. accumulation of organic remains.accarbar; accarbaar. accumulative rock; those igneous rocks formed byaccelerated erosion; erosion taking place more rapidly accumulation of crystals, which elected out from than geologic norm. magma mass by action of gravity. Also calledaccelerator; a gigantic machine developed for cumulate. increasing the kinetic energy of substance particles or acentela; Spanish name for rock crystal. atomic nuclei, in which the particles spiral inside two acetate; a colorless, corrosive liquid with a pungent flat, D-shaped, hollow metal electrodes, under the odor, of a salt or an ester of acetic acid, consisting of effect of a strong vertical magnetic field. Particles gain monovalent ion CH3COOH or the group CH3COO–. energy by high-frequency voltage, applied between the Contained in vinegar. Used in the manufacture of electrodes. Often used to change the color of diamond cellulose acetate and artificial resins or plastics and green, and dark tourmaline is to green, yellow, or fibers. reddish-brown. Electron accelerator, cyclotroned acetate of copper dye; a term used for heat-treated diamonds. beryl (or quartz), by which the stone after heating willacceptor; in molecular structure an attraction between plunged into a bath of bright green acetate of copper, ions of opposite charges, one of which is an electron verdigris, indigo, or copper salts. Due to cracking and donor, and the other an electron acceptor upon cooling the dye color drew within the recessesacceptor; in Type I diamonds, the presence of aluminum and give suitable color to it. Dyeing with acetate of
  • 5 acetic acid – acid rocks copper. to minimize chromatic aberration usually made ofacetic acid; CH3COOH, a clear, colorless, corrosive crown and flint glass. liquid used undiluted for testing. Used also as adhesive achromatic loupe; achromatic lens. for plastics. Miscible with water, alcohol, and acids. achromatic triplet; a corrected loupe for chromaticacetone; an organic, colorless, volatile, flammable, aberration. Achromatic lens. sweet smelling liquid form of CH3COCH3. Miscible with water, alcohol and ether. Soften cellulose plastics and therefore useful in their distinction. RI:1.361.acetylene; a colorless, flammable, poisonous gas of CHCH, with a disagreeable odor, soluble in alcohol, acetone, and water. Used with oxygen or air for welding and melting metals.acetylene tetrabromide (tetrabromoethane); a yellowish, heavy liquid, the formula of which is acicular C2H2Br4. Used for specific-gravity determination and for the separation of gemstones. RI:1.63. SG:2.964 at acicular; needle-like in form, referring particularly to 20o C. Miscible with water, alcohol, ether and xylole. crystals, such as rutile needles in quartz Also called sym-tetrabromoethane. acicular; a particle whose length is more than its width.Achaemenian Jewelry; artifacts articles of gold acicular crystals; crystals or minerals consisting of fine, jewelry, including ear-rings, finger rings, bracelets, and needle-like, crystal forms such as natrolite or rutilated anklets from the Achaemenid dynasty, of Cyrus the quartz. Also called acicular habit. Great, in Persia (559-330 BC). Exhibited in acicular habit; same as acicular crystal. Schmuckmuseum, Pforzheim, Germany. aciculate; needle-shaped, or needle-like.Achat; German name for agate. acid and solvent; acids, particularly dilutedachate; second stone at Jewish High Priest Breastplate. hydrochloric acid, are of great value in testing gems. Breastplate. They serve a variety of purposes, for example, anyachates; an ancient name for agate. carbonate, such as calcite, when dyed can be used asachirite; a Buchara merchant, Achir Mehmèd. An imitation jade, coral, shell, smithsonite, rhodochrosite, obsolete name for dioptase. pearl, malachite, etc. The original nature is revealed byachite; a Hebrew term for agate. Also spelled achite. the process of pronounced effervescence, where a drop achito; same as agate. of dilute hydrochloric acid is placed on the surface.achlusite; a green altered topaz resembling steatite. acid cleaning; same as aciding, or acidizing. Mounted Cloudy and misty in appearance. diamonds are sometimes boiled in sulfuric acid toachroite; a colorless variety of tourmaline, used as a remove the dirt and other residue from the girdle. gemstone. aciding; treating a diamond with acids (usually hot) toachromatic; without color, such as many colorless clean it after mining or cutting, especially to remove gemstones oxides or polishing residue from surface fissures.achromatic; capable of reflecting or refracting light acidizing; a method for cleaning and removing the color without chromatic aberration. coating from rough diamonds, in a solution consistingachromatic color; white, black or any nuance of gray, of hydrofluoric acid. devoid of hue. acid dye; an azo dye with acid constituents such as nitroachromatic lens; any composite lens or loupe designed acid, carboxy acid, or sulfonic acid. Used as dyes. Also called anionic dye. acidic; applied to igneous rock and magma rich in silica, where silica forms more than 2/3 of the mass or consisting at least 65% of the rock. acid polishing; a process of polishing cut decorations on glass articles by immersing the specimen in a acid bath b y for several minutes, rinsing in water, and brushing out optical r axis r the cut parts. y b acid rocks; a subdivision of igneous rocks. Applied to rocks rich in silica to the extent, where silica forms principal composition of doublet achromatic lense more than 2/3 of the mass. Generally of light color and
  • acid test - adamantine 6 oversaturated with silica, so that free silica or quartz, is H: about 5.5. present. Chief types are granite, syenite, rhyolite, dacite and pegmatite.acid test; acids used for testing noble metals such as nitric acid.acid test; a process whereby small bubbles of gas escape from a mineral’s surface, when acid is dropped on it. Especially as a result of chemical action such as carbonate, minerals are the result of such chemical action.acid test; acidizing.acier; a French term for steel. actinolite crystal and its aggregateaciform; needle-shaped or needle-like.acira; a Sanskrit word for diamond and sun. Optics; :1.619-1.622, :1.632-1.634, 1.642-1.644.acmite; same as aegirine. Birefringence: 0.022-0.026. .acquamarine; an Italian term for aquamarine. Found in all countries.acquamarine se Siam; an Italian misleading term for activators; crystals with large band-gap known as blue zircon. activators. Idiochromatic, nitrogen, sensitization.acquamarine crysolide; an Italian misleading term for active mine; a profitable mine peridot. acute; sharply pointed, needle shapedacrolein; a colorless to yellowish liquid with acute; an angle less than 90. disagreeable odor of CH2CHCO. Soluble in water, acute bisectrix; in crystallography the line, which alcohol and ether used as polyester resin. Very toxic.acronym; a term formed from the syllables or initial of opt is ax ic a Z n t ic other words. Z xis op Y ci r 2V cul ar tionacrylic jewelry; acrylic resin (plastics). s ec S tion ar sec c ul S ciracrylic resin (plastics); a clear glass-like synthetic Z X X Y X a X material (polymethyl-methacrylate), which can be suitably colored. It is used widely in scientific and XY circular section optical instruments. It has been used for the production YZ section Z XZ section equal n to optic plane a three axial ellipsoid sketch of an of molded faceted imitations of sapphire, amethyst, biaxial positive crystal with three ruby, emerald, topaz, garnet and for the cores of solid different refractive indices, bead imitation pearls. RI:1.485-1.50. SG:1.18. H:2. It is acute bisectrix of a positive crystal better known to the English under the name Perspex and to Americans as lucite. bisects the acute angle between the optic axes in biaxialactinolated quartz; rock crystals, which include crystals. fibrous-like crystals of green variety of actinolite adamant; the term was formerly used for diamond, and known as byssolite. sometimes for corundum.actinolite; a member of the amphibole family of adamant; a very hard stone, mineral, metal or material, minerals. This mineral is an end member of the real or imaginary. tremolite-actinolite series. Green occurs as fibers, and Adamant Research Laboratory; a subdivision research microscopic inclusions in sagenitic quartz. A tough, laboratory of Diamond Research Laboratory, compact variety that supplies the mineral of commerce Johannesburg of South Africa to make commercial known as nephrite. The fibrous variety is known as production of synthetic and industrial diamond. asbestos. Founded by De Beers-Anglo-American company. System: monoclinic. adamantean; a poetical term for diamond or Formula: 2[Ca2(Mg, Fe)5(Si4O11)2(O,OH)]. adamantine. Luster: vitreous, often with silky shining to dull. adamantine; a term used to describe typical diamond Colors: white to green. luster. Diamondlike. Luster. Diaphaneity: transparent to nearly opaque. adamantine; hardness associated with diamond, zircon, Streak: none or colorless. demantoid and some diamond imitations. Cleavage: {110} good, {100} parting. adamantine compound; a chemical compound with the Fracture: uneven to subconchoidal. Brittle. same tetrahedral covalent crystal structure an SG: 2.90-3.20. arrangement of atoms as the diamond.
  • 7 adamantine luster - Adiel Topazadamantine luster; a term used to describe typical in finger rings and used as amulets. Also called diamond luster. Possessed only by minerals of high serpent’s stone. refractive index. Luster. additional facets; in diamond cutting, so as to createadamantine spar; a term applied to silky dark grayish- new and fashionable variations, occasionally cutters brown variety of corundum or sapphire, chiefly to dull add symmetric facets to a standard-cut. These added opaque corundum from India, used as polishing agent. facets are not blemishes and are not to be confused withadamas; an ancient Gr. name for diamond. extra facets.adamellite; a plutonic rock consisting of plagioclase, additive coloration; a term used in optics to process of orthoclase and quartz with tiny biotite, hornblende, producing or reproducing color by excessive addition of apatite, zircon and some oxides. Also called quartz color centers to the crystal structure by exposing a monzonite. crystal to excessive metal such as fluorite exposing toadamellite; a synonym for a granite consisting of 2/3 hot calcium vapor. Addition of color centers to the of the total feldspars from which 1/3 is plagioclase. crystal structure can done by using electrodes to a heatadamite; a rare transparent to translucent mineral. fluorite crystal when an electric passing through it. Colorless, yellow, green, rose and purple pleochroism. Additive primary colors, subtractive color process. additive color process; a process of producing or reproducing color by mixing additive primary or three different colors in various proportions. Additive primary colors, subtractive color process, additive coloration. additive primary colors; a term used in optics to three different colors usually red, green and blue, which are mixed together in a additive process, proportion is adamite crystals determine the color will obtained. Additive color process, subtractive color process, additive coloration. Vivid green luminescence under SW and LW light. addorsed; a term used for turned or set figures back to Rarely cut as faceted gems but prized by collectors. back as adorned pieces on a coat of arms. System: Orthorhombic. adductor muscle; in bivalve mussel, a muscle passing Formula: 4[Zn2(OH)AsO4]. Frequently Co, Cu. across one valve to another, valve and connecting the Luster: vitreous. two valves or halves. Color: colorless, light yellow, light green, greenish, rose and pink, Adelaide ruby; a local and misleading term for the parti-colored. blood-red almandine or pyrope (garnet), from Adelaide, Streak: colorless. Australia. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. ADEX; an acronym for Australian Diamond Exploration Cleavage {011} perfect. Joint Venture. Fracture: subconchoidal to uneven. Brittle. adhesion; intermolecular attraction which hold matter SG: 4.32-4.48 together, particular contiguous surfaces, such as liquid H: 3½. in contact with a solid. Optics; :1.71-1.712, :1.735-1.736, 1.758-1.76. adhesive; substances which hold materials together by Birefringence: 0.041-0.049. . surface attachment, such as liquid glues, cements, dry Dispersion: strong. film, etc. Found in Italy, Mexico, Greece, Chile, Turkey, ADIA; an acronym for American Diamond Industry Algeria, Nevada, California, and Utah (USA). Association.adamite; a commercial term for artificial corundum adiabatic; a term used in thermodynamic and other test powder, manufactured for abrasive purposes. Compare of minerals in which no heat enters or leaves. alundum. adiabatic piezoelectric; adiabatic pressure.adamsite; an obsolete term for greenish-black variety of adiabatic pressure; a term used in thermodynamic to muscovite mica. the relationship of pressure and volume in which noadco; a commercial term for certain types of turquoise heat enters or leaves. In an adiabatic operation, imitation made by ceramics or of glazed, fired clay. compression caused rising of temperature andadder stone; colored glass beads, worn in medieval expansion in a system. times, for their protective or curative powers as charm. adiabatic pyroelectric; adiabatic pressure. Toadstone Adiel Topaz; a dark-blue, irradiat Brazilian topaz of 4kgadder stone; a stone with absorbent qualities, once set
  • adinole – aerosiderolite 8 or 20.000cts. It was cut from a rough stone of 7.8kg. H: 6. Found in 1987. Sold to unknown Japanese. Optics; :1.519, :1.523, 1.525.adinole; a German term meaning compacts. A greenish- Birefringence: 0.006. . gray fine-grained, felsitic, contact-metamorphic or Dispersion: 0.014. metasomaticalic rock, rich in quartz and albite. Principally from Sri Lanka. Adinoles are formed by reaction following the intrusion adularia-moonstone; same as precious moonstone. of silicified diabase, or porphyries, into shale or slate adularization; introduction of or replacement by (compare spilosite; desmosite). In German, the term is mineral adularia. Schalstein. adventitious; a term used for non-accidental pearl,adit mining; a miner term used for a mine with a which occurs not naturally, in contrast to accidental horizontal entrance. pearl.adjusting microscope; same as focusing microscope. adventurine; obsolete term for aventurine.ADM; an acronym for Accra Diamond Market, Argyle adventurine feldspar; obsolete term for aventurine Diamond Mines, LTD. feldspar.adobe; a term applied in Mexico and Southwestern adventurine glass; obsolete term for aventurine glass. USA for a heavy-textured, clayey and silty substance adventurine quartz; obsolete term for aventurine used for sundried bricks. quartz.adornar con diamantes; a Spanish term meaning to AE; Å. Ångström. adorn with diamonds. aegirine; an acicular or fibrous crystal of theadular; adularia. clinopyroxene group. Its intense green color, which isadularescence; a milky-white or bluish sheen, seen related to jadeite. Cabochon is rarely cut because of the when a gemstone is held in a certain direction. Usually chatoyance effects. Varieties are acmite, which display adularia, a moonstone feldspar display this property, the chatoyance effect, and aegirine-augite. Also called when it is turned under light, and is effect is caused by aegerite. diffused reflections of light in the gem and due to System: monoclinic. parallel intergrowths of another type of feldspar with a Formula: 4[NaFe(Si2O6)]. slightly different refractive index of that of the main Luster: vitreous to resinous. mass of adularia. It is often called schiller. Adularia, Colors: green, greenish-black, greenish-brown. schiller, labradorescence. Streak: yellowish-gray, green.adularia; named after the Adular mountains in Diaphaneity: opaque to translucent. Cleavage: {110} good, {010} parting. Fracture: uneven. Brittle. SG: 2.50-3.60. H: 6-6½. Optics; :1.76, :1.785, 1.806. For aegirine-augite :1.740-1.748, :1.76-.1767, 1.78-1.79. Birefringence: 0.046. . For aegirine-augite: 0.040-0.042. . Found in Arkansas, Colorado, New Jersey (USA), adularia crystal Montreal (Canada), Greenland, Norway, Brazil and Portugal. Switzerland. A pure colorless to milky variety of aegirine-augite; aegirine. orthoclase feldspar, often with silky shining. Same as aegirite; same as aegirine. precious moonstone. Sometimes spelled adular. aeoline rocks; rocks or placer, which has accumulated Valencianite is a local term for adularia from Valencia, by wind action. Eolian, eolian placer, eolian marble. Mexico. aeoline deposit; same as aeolian rocks. Formula: 4[KAlSi3O8]. aeolotropic; crystal anisotropy. System: triclinic, pseudo-orthorhombic. aeolotropy; crystal anisotropy. Luster: vitreous aeroide; a term for used by Pliny for pale sky-blue Colors: colorless, white to milky. aquamarine beryl. Streak: white or colorless. aeroides; a local American term for pale sky-blue Fracture: uneven to conchoidal. Brittle. aquamarine beryl. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. aerolites; meteorite. cleavage, {001} perfect, {010} less perfect. aerosiderolite; stony iron meteorite. SG: 2.54-2.57.
  • 9 aetites - agateaetites; eaglestone. Ghana, licensed by its Government to buy diamondsAffenrücken; a German term meaning monkey-back. from native miners in Ghana, Africa. Also, an alluvial area, which produces diamonds in Afro-West Mining, Ltd.; an Australian diamond South-West Africa owned and operated by corporation operating mines in Western Australia. Consolidated Diamond Mines of South-West Africa. afterglow; a luminescent glowing effect after theAfghanistan amber; a misleading term for orange to induced energy has disappeared. Many diamonds, show orange-brown, semi-translucent thermosetting or an afterglow effect (phosphorescence). Also called thermoplastic amber imitation from Afghanistan or persistence. Middle East, which named as prayer beads and also Ag; a chemical symbol for the element silver called Egyptian amber. (argentum).Afghanistan lapis; a deep blue, top quality lapis lazuli Aga Khan III Diamond; the flawless, pear-shaped from Fizabad of Badakhshan, Afghanistan. Russian diamond of 33.13 cts, which had been recut from a 38 lapis is of the same high quality. cts, pear-shaped stone. Named after Aga Khan III, itAfghan turquoise; a misleading term for stained was most recently sold in 1988. magnesite. agalite; a fine fibrous variety of talc, which is pseudo-African amber; a term applied to yellow, opaque, morphosed after enstatite. oblate or barrel-shaped amber imported from Baltic agalite; a synonym for asbestine. area to Africa, which were worn by natives with agalmatolite; a soft, waxy, silica-rich and compact colorful glass beads. mineral or stone such as painite, pyrophyllite, andAfrican amber; a misleading term for copal amber. steatite of a greenish, grayish, yellowish and brownishAfrican Diamond Diggers Association; formerly, a color. RI:1.552-1.600. SG:2.80-2.90. H:1-1½. union of independent Nigerian Diamond Miners in Consequently, it has a greasy touch. Used by Chinese Ghana, Africa, now inactive. for craving small images, miniature pagodas, and otherAfrican Diamond Winners Association; formerly, a objects. Some agalmatolites are steatite Mg3Si4O10 union of independent Grannies Diamond Miners in (OH)2 or pyrophyllite Al2Si4O10(OH)2. Synonym: Ghana, Africa, now inactive. figure stone, pagodite, lardite, pagoda stone, lard stone,African blue marble; a less brilliant blue, marble, from figured stone. Sometimes loosely called soapstone or Kenya, Africa. soap rock.African emerald; a misleading term for green fluorite agalmatolite; sometimes incorrectly called to jade. from South-West Africa. agmatite; a migmatite in which introduced xenolithicAfrican emerald; a misnomer for green tourmaline materials. from Africa. agmatite; fragmental plutonic rocks which areAfrican emerald; yellowish green emerald from the embedded in granitic cement. Transvaal of South Africa. Optics; :1.593, :1.586. agaphite; named after the scientist Demetrios Agaphi. A SG:2.75. Also, found in Zimbabwe. vitreous variety of Persian turquoise from Nishapur,African jade; a misleading term for a green, compact Iran. variety of grossular garnet from Africa. Also called agaric chalk; synonym for sepiolite. Transvaal jade, or South African jade. agaric mineral; synonym for moon milk.African nephrite; a misleading term for Transvaal jade. Agastimata book; an Indian ancient book before theAfrican pearl; a natural pearl, fished off the east coast 10th century A. D., which treatise gemstones and of Africa, between Zanzibar and Inhambane. recognize 8 categories of emerald.African star coral; a misleading term for a precious agate; a subvariety of chalcedony of varying shades or, opal of the genus Allopora nobilis from Africa. translucent to semitransparent cryptocrystallineAfrican tourmaline; a commercial term for all varieties of quartz. Often, variegated chalcedony, yellowish-green to bluish-green tourmalines, of any alternates with opal. This type is characterized by origin, the same as Transvaal tourmaline. colors arranged in alternating stripes or bands as inAfrican tourmaline; frequently used for fine, nearly banded agate, sometimes with onyx. In the translucent emerald-green tourmaline from South West Africa. form agate shows irregular cloud-like shapes withAfrican Yellow Diamond; the yellow cut diamond of mossy or dendritic inclusions (moss-agate), frequently 112 cts, which historically noted in 1882. Present creating the impression of landscape or vegetation. owner unknown. Found in virtually all colors, and usually of lowafricita; Spanish for black tourmaline (schorl). intensity, it commonly occupies vugs in volcanic rocks,Afro-American Enterprises: a company in Accra, and cavities in certain other rocks. Most gray-banded agate is dyed to improve its color. Often used for
  • agate bead – Agra Diamond 10 gemstones, cut cabochon, beads, pendants and for agate mortar; a bowl-shaped vessel made from agate, in which hard brittle substances, principally glass and minerals, are ground into powder. agate, onyx; same as onyx agate. agate opal; misleading term for either opal or agate. It is mineralogically impossible for a stone to be both. Also called opal agate. Opalized agate. agate shell; from the agate snail, a large land snail, of no gemological interest. agate thunder egg; thunder eggs, star-shaped core. section through an agate with partly concentrical agate ware; in pottery, a variety of Wedgwood, veined varicolored bands and mottled in colored, and marked to resemble agate. carving objects, and for example clock cases. Agate Clay bodies are formed by blending different colored varieties are found in India, Brazil, Hungary, Malagasy, clays, or by coloring surfaces with different colored Mexico, Namibia, Uruguay, Germany, and the USA. slips. The different classification of agate, jasper, and Agathis australis; copal. chalcedony are based upon its transparency. Jasper is agathocopalite; kauri, kauri copal. the opaque variety, while chalcedony is translucent. agatiferous; term meaning to produce agate, or containing agate. agatine; term meaning pertaining to agate, or agate-like. agatize; term meaning to convert into, or cause to resemble, agate. agatized coral; same as fossil coral. Used as cabochon and sometimes dyed blue or pink. agatized wood; chalcedonic pseudomorphic wood or, a variety of silicified wood, which may resemble any of the agates. Also, called silicified wood, petrified wood, a hostorical agate working center in or wood agate. Mineralization. Idar-Oberstein, Germany. After Vollstaedt & Baumgaetel agaty; a miners term used in Australia to a mixture of Many translucent and bright colored stones are known potch and colored clay which gives a banded effect to as agate: Banded agate, clouded agate, moss agate, the stone. Also called agatey potch. agatey potch; agatey. aged; stress cracks in amber. age of gymnosperms; Mesozoic. age of reptiles; Mesozoic. agglomerate; a chaotic assemblage of coarse, angular, pyroclastic fragments embedded in an ashy matrix, as the result of explosive volcanic activity, which united by action of heat, as opposed to a conglomerate. agglomerate; uncoated or loosely-attached pyroclastic typical concentric rings on polished surface of agate fragments. aggregate; (lat.: corporate, collective), a cluster or group scenic agate, lace agate, fire agate, shell agate, of minerals. A mass of units or parts somewhat loosely Turritella agate, and onyx. associated one with the other by a natural bindingagate bead; an agate bead resembling coral in color. agent, which is separable by mechanical means.agate glass; a type of glass of various colors, which Mineral aggregate, crystalline aggregate. resembles agate. Agate ware. Agilulf, King; Crown of King Agilulf.agate, inclusions in; fibrous of quartz in agate. agmarine; a French term for aquamarine.agate jasper; an impure mixture of jasper containing agmatite; migmatite looking like a breccia. veins of chalcedony occur. It occurs in many colors, agnostogenic; rocks or minerals of unrecognized origin. what is now called jasper agate, was once known as Ago Bay; a major center in Japan for culturing pearls, jaspe fleuri. Also called jaspagate. are farmed in Mie Prefecture, Honshu, Japan.agate like; similar to agate. Agra Diamond; the rose, cushion-shaped diamond,
  • 11 agrostemma – Airy’s spiral possibly of Indian origin. Said the Baber (1483-1530) Jaccutian district of Siberia, the Russian Federation, the first Mogul Shah from India possessed this diamond CIS. Also spelled Aikhal. at one time and named it after the city of Agra. It was Aichal pipe; a kimberlitic pipe of diamond, which smuggled to Europe, and bought by Duke of Brunswick occurs in the Aikhal district of Siberia, the Russian in 1844, after having been recut in Paris, reducing its Federation, CIS. weight from 46 cts, to 31.50 cts. Again sold in 1904 by aigrette; an ornament, or piece of jewelry in the form of Christie’s, to the CIBA Corporation of Hong Kong, a plume of feather, used as a hair ornament. Also called China. aigrette jewel. Jeqa.agrostemma flos jovis; equivalent Latin term for flower aigrette jewel; aigrette. of jove used by Pliny. aigue-marine; French name for aquamarine.AGS; an acronym for American Gem Society. aigue-marine chrysolite; a French misleading name forAGS color grading system: the AGS color system, aquamarine colored peridot. which has eleven grades, from colorless to yellow aigue-marine de Siam; a French misleading name for designated as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. The aquamarine colored zircon. steps are broader than the traditional scale. Often called aigue-marine orientale; a French misleading name for the American system. See appendices. aquamarine colored sapphire.Agstein; a German term for jet. aigue-marine; French name for aquamarine.aguacate cut; a drop-cut form like avocado, polished ajkaite; ajkite. without facets used as pendant. Aikhal; same as Aichal.Agua Suja Mine; a diamond mine neat the Bagagem Aikal pipe; Aichal pipe. River in Minas-Gerais, Brazil, famous for its gem- aikinite; a mineral of PbCuBiS3. Orthorhombic crystal. quality diamonds. Gray to black color. Metallic luster. Streak black.Agulhas; Brazilian miner’s term for titanium oxide, Needle-shaped crystals. SG:7.07. H:2. Found in Russia associated with diamonds found in Brazilian Diamond and Idaho, USA. It is of interest to gem collectors. mines. Also called needle-ore, patrinite and belonite.aguamarine; Spanish spelling for aquamarine. air etching; small cavities or etch marks formed on theagua-marinha; Portuguese spelling for aquamarine. surface of minerals or crystals during weatheringagua-marinha de Sião; a Portuguese misleading term process. for aquamarine colored zircon. air void; same as air pore or air interstice.ahlämäh; a term for the ninth stone of Aaron, the airy disc; a bright spot of light that can be seen around biblical High Priest Breastplate. Generally associated the diffraction rings, which produces a clear point while with amethyst and engraved with the name Dan. In an optical lens system can not produce a point image, Hebrews, Dan means dream. due to the nature of waves of light. This diffractionAhmed-Abad Diamond; an Indian diamond, bought by pattern is known as antipoint. Tavernier who had recut it in Paris, reducing its weight Airy’s spiral; an optical interference effect which can from 157.25 cts, to 94.50 cts. It sold once in Persia. It be seen in a twinned uniaxial crystal such as quartz or has been recut since.Ahrens Prism; a modification of calcite, or the Nicol prism. A transparent calcite prism used for production plane, and for polarized light to obtain a more economical use of calcite.ahtet-kya; a Burmese term used for fourth class corundums which are known as ahtet-kya and graded into two categories. Corundum classification in Myanmar.ahtet-kya; a Burmese term with the means fallen from Airys spiral interference figure the top. A term used for mixed corundum stones of the of quartz crystal above grades therefore little defective in shape and water. Parcels of lower grade stones. Corundum particularly in amethyst in which the brushes classification in Myanmar. intersecting similar to black cross at the center but theAhura; Ahura-Mazda ends of crosses are curved in a spiral form and do notAhura-Mazda; asura cross the color rings. Also called Airy’s spiralAichal diamond mine; (Russ.: glory), the mine digging interference. the kimberlitic pipe of diamonds occurring in the Airy’s spiral interference; Airy’s spiral.
  • A-jade - alabastrite 12A-jade; a term applied to some jades, treated or coated Akoya-oyster; a Japanese term for the Pinctada wit wax or paraffin. martensi (silver-lipped or gold-lipped), PinctadaAjerlaut; a fancy term for the sea-green diamonds from maxima (black-lipped), Pinctada margaritifera (black- Borneo, Indonesian. winged) mollusk used for cultivating pearls.ajkite; a pale-yellow to dark reddish-brown, sulfur- aku-vamarin; Turkish name for aquamarine. bearing fossil resin found in brown coal. Synonym: Akwatia; an alluvial diamond mine, on the east bank of ajkaite. the Birim River in Ghana, Africa.Ajmer-Merwara Emerald Field; an emerald field in akyan-the; a Burmese term used for like asa-yo but for south Rajasthan, Indian with fine crystal of smaller corundum stones. Corundum classification Precambrian in calc-silicate rocks, quartzites, in Myanmar. limestones, and schists. akyaw-the; a Burmese term used for pale, minuteà jour; a French term which literally meaning to allow corundum stones of good quality. Corundum light to penetrate. Used to describe an open style setting classification in Myanmar. for gems mounting which permits a view of its Al; a chemical symbol for the element metallic pavilion. Most modern mounts are of this type, unlike aluminum. the earlier closed setting. alabandine; alternate pronunciation for almandine.AK-1 Pipe; Argyle Kimberlite Number 1. Almandine garnet.akabar; or accarbaar, a name applied to black coral alabandine ruby; a misleading term for alabandine found in the southeastern Asia and the Indian Ocean garnet (contain Mn) from the ancient district of regions. Alabanda, Asia Minor.akaganeite; a natural mineral of goethite family or beta- alabandine ruby; a misleading term for now sometimes FeO(OH), occurring at the Akagane mine, Japan. used to refer to violetish-red spinel. Goethite. alabandite; an old term for almandine, from Alabanda,Akbar Shah; Akbar Shah Diamond. in Asia Minor.Akbar Shah Diamond; a famous Indian diamond, alabaster; a firm very fine-grained, massive ornamental believed to have once been set as one of the eyes of the variety of gypsum. Usually snow-white and translucent Peacock Throne, named after Shah Akbar and Shah but sometimes, delicate shades with yellow, gray, Jehan. When Nadir Shah of Persia invaded India in brown, red, or orange. Because its soften, it is used in 1739, he retrieved this diamond and brought it back to interior decoration, also, widely used for ornamental Persia. In 1866, it was sited again in Constantinople purposes and for statues. Optics; :1.5207, :1.5230, where it had been renamed as Shepherd Stone 1.5299. Birefringence: 0.010. . SG:2.32-2.33. H:2. Diamond. It was recut into a drop shape in London, Found in Italy, and England, where it is known as pink reducing its weight from 116 cts, to 73.60 cts. Also Welsh alabaster. It may be dyed. Also spelled known as The Akbar shah or Jahan Akbar Shah. Its alabastron. present owner is unknown. alabaster; sometimes also incorrectly referred to is theakerite; a term used for blue spinels, found in marbles beautifully banded form of stalagmitic calcite occurring in Aker, Norway. in Algeria, and in Egypt. Gypsum, onyx marble,akerite; an augite-bearing syenite rock from Aker Egyptian alabaster, Oriental alabaster. The alabaster of Norway, containing microcline, oligoclse, and augite. ancients was calcite, but what we now call alabaster isakerite; fine-grained, leucocratic essexite and normarkite. massive gypsum. Also called alabastrite.akerite; an augite-bearing syenite rock from Aker alabaster glass; a special opalescent glass used for Norway, containing microcline, oligoclase, and augite. imitation pearls. Not to be confused with true alabaster.Akim Concessions, Ltd.; a Ghanese diamond company alabaster-jade; a misleading term used for amazonite. that works an alluvial deposit in Ghana, Africa. alabaster onyx; incorrect name for a colorless, bandedakori coral; a horny, porous, blue variety of coral travertine or stalagmite calcite, or marble. (Allopora subirolcea), which was used in ancient times alabaster of ancient; a misleading term for alabaster, for jewelry. It was collected, fashioned and prized by Oriental. the black people of the West African coast and in alabaster, Oriental; a misleading term for stalactite and Samoa. Also called blue coral stalagmite varieties of calcite, consisting of straight orakori coral; the name has been recently applied to parallel bands of calcite of alternating shades. Also substitutes such as pearl, glass, coral, and rock. miscalled Algerian onyx, alabaster of ancient. Black coral. alabaster pearl; alabaster beads, coated with a pearl-Akoya-Gai; a Japanese term for the Pinctada martensii like surface. mollusk, used for cultivating pearls. alabastrite; another term for alabaster.
  • 13 alabastron - albumenalabastron; an earlier and misleading term for calcite- or oligoclase inclusions are exsolved in microcline or marble. orthoclase feldspars, and they are visible to the nakedalabastron; another spelling for alabaster. eye this is called perthite. Albite moonstone, sunstonealacolite; same as diopside.Aladdin Mine; an opal mine operating in Thackaringa Hills, Queensland, Australia, founded in 1878 by Paddy Green.alagite; a dull red, or green, altered rhodonite.alajites; a Mexican name for altered rhodonite.alalite; a local term for the green variety of diopside from Ala Valley, Piedmont, Italy. Also, found in Brazil, and Austria. crystal twin polysyntheticalamandine; same as almandine. albite crystal and polysynthetic twinningAlamasi Ltd.; Almasi Ltd.alambre; a Portuguese term applied to Amber. and aventurine feldspar are varieties. Feldspar,Ala mine; a small grossularite garnet deposit of brilliant perthite feldspar, antiperthite. System: triclinic. hyacinth-red color from Ala, Turin, Italy. Formula: 4[NaAlSi3O8 + nCaAl2Si2O8].alaqueca; Spanish pronunciation for hematite. Luster: vitreous.alargan; a German alloy of aluminum and silver, used Colors: white to colorless, occasionally reddish, bluish, yellowish, as a substitute for platinum in jewelry, and in making greenish, gray, gold, or brownish-pink. commercial handicrafts. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent.Alaska black diamond; a misleading term for hematite. Fracture: uneven or conchoidal. Brittle.Alaska diamond; a misleading term for a transparent Streak: white or colorless. rock crystal from Alaska. cleavage: {001} perfect, {010} nearly perfect, and {110} imperfect.Alaska jade; an incorrect name for pectolite. SG: 2.60-2.63.Alaskan amber; Alaskan amber is found in Cretaceous H: 6-6. strata. Optics; :1.527, :1.531, 1.538.alaskite; a leucocratic, granite, which contain quartz Birefringence: 0.011. . and feldspar, when it consisting mostly of quartz; it is a Dispersion: 0.012. transitional phase between alaskite and quartz. Found: widespread.alaskite-quartz; an acidic quartz-feldspar rock, albite as inclusion; in some topaz albite feldspar can be containing mostly quartz; it is a transitional phase seen as inclusion. between alaskite and quartz. albite-epidote-hornfels; a hornfels rock, whichalasmoden pearl; a freshwater pearl of the best quality, contains albite and epidote. Also called albite-epidote found in the Alasmodon margaritifera mollusk in Nova rock. Scotia, Canada, and in Chinese rivers. albite-epidote rock; same as albite-epidote-hornfels.alberene stone; a commercial term for a dense gray albite moonstone; a rare variety of albite feldspar- soapstone, known as polyphant stone. found in plagioclases, which exhibits a silvery sheen. Albermarle County, North Carolina, USA. albite porphyrite; albitite.alberene; a trade name for a dense gray soapstone, albite twin law; refers to a type of twin law seen in occurring in Albermarle County, North Carolina, USA. albite feldspar with orientation of alternate lamellae, inalbertite; a jet-like mixture of hydrocarbonate or asphalt which the twinning plane is brachypinacoidal and is mineral. Albertite have an adamantine luster and a common in albite. Albite. conchoidal fracture. RI:1.55. SG:1.097. H:2. Occurs in albitite; a coarse-grained porphyritic igneous rock veins in oil bearing strata. Insoluble in most organic containing phenocrysts of albite in groundmass. solvents. Used for carving and as imitation jet. Found in Common accessory minerals are quartz, garnet, Albert County, and New Brunswick, Canada. muscovite, apatite and opaque oxides. Also calledalbite; an end member of the plagioclase series of the albitophyre, albite porphyrite. feldspar group. A transparent to translucent mineral. albitophyre; albitite. Varieties are albite moonstone, and peristerite, which is albolita; a plastic cement consisting mainly of silica and also called pigeon stone. Albite sometimes display magnesia. Also spelled albolith. adularescence and chatoyancy effects. Some albite or albolith; Albolita. oligoclase is the source of weak sunstones. When albite albumen; a substantial part of the corozo nut or the
  • alcohol – alexandrite-like 14 white of an egg. It is a water-soluble, albumin protein. System: orthorhombic.alcohol; especially ethyl alcohol. A transparent, Formula: 4[Al2BeO4]. colorless, aromatic volatile liquid. Composition Luster: vitreous. C2H5OH. Used for diluting certain heavy liquids and as Colors: emerald green in daylight, reddish to violet by artificial light. an immersion liquid in microscopy. RI:1.36. Also Streak: none or White. called ethanol. Diaphaneity: transparent.aldehyde; formula: CH3CHO, it has a pleasant smell. Cleavage : {110} distinct, {010} imperfect,{001} indistincts. Used essentially for synthetic resins. Also called Fracture: conchoidal to even. Brittle. aldehyde resins (plastics). S.G. : 3.75 0.10.aldehyde resins (plastics); same as aldehyde. H: 8 .aldur; same as pollopas. Optics; :1.746, :1.748, 1.756.alejandrita; Spanish pronunciation of alexandrite. Birefringence: 0.009-0.012. may be also .Alençon diamond; a misleading term for smoky rock Dispersion : 0.015 crystal from Alenon, France. The French spelling is From Sri Lanka, Brazil, China, and Russia. Pierre d’ Alenon. alexandrite; a misleading trade term for imitationAlenoon diamond; a misnomer for rock crystal. alexandrite, which is made from certain other syntheticAleppo stone; same as eye agate. Cyclops agate. stones, such as vanadium colored synthetic corundum,alessandrine turquoise; another spelling for or spinel. Mistakenly named synthetic alexandrite. Alexandrian turquoise. Also called Egyptian turquoise. Twinning in chrysoberyl.Alexander Bay; named for the German geologist who it alexandrite absorption spectrum; contains a broad in 1926, discovered the southern lip of the diamond- absorption band at 580 nm for chromium, while bearing district at the mouth of the Orange River in alexandrite is strongly trichroic and has a different Namaqualand, Africa.Alexander Bay Development Corporation; a diamond 550 500 450 400nm 700nm 650 600 company, operated the alluvial deposits south of Alexander Bay, on the west coast of South Africa. Now red orange yellow green blue violet called Alexcor. 678.5alexanderite; a smart misspelling of alexandrite, which has been deceptively used for alexandrite-like synthetic sapphire, or synthetic spinel. 680.3 665 655 645 473 468Alexandrian turquoise; a commercial term for Sinai alexandrite absorption spectrum Peninsula, Egyptian turquoise. From Sinai. Also known as Egyptian turquoise.Alexandria shell; also called Egyptian shell, synonym spectrums in different direction. Alexandrine. for mother-of-pearl. alexandrite cat’s-eye; a chatoyant variety ofalexandrine; a misleading term for synthetic alexandrite, with parallel inclusions. Cut en cabochon, alexandrite-like sapphire, which changes color. Also it has a light cat’s-eye effects. called synthetic alexandrite. alexandrite-colored sapphire; alexandrine sapphire.alexandrine sapphire; a misleading term for a sapphire, which is blue in natural daylight. But changes to violet, alexandrite cut; mostly for yellow stones used mixed purple or reddish under most artificial light, same as cut, step cut and also cut cabochon, accentuates cat’s- alexandrite. Synonym: alexandrite-like sapphire. eye effects.alexandrite; named after Russian Tsar Alexander II. A alexandrite doublet; a misleading term for both suitably colored synthetic sapphire and spinel, which are used to highly dichroic, rare variety of chrysoberyl. Emerald green in natural daylight, reddish in violet by artificial create alexandrite doublet. light, due to its unusual absorption properties. One of alexandrite garnet; a misleading term for a garnet, the hardest and most important gemstones. A fine which display color change. variety is the night stone. Iron-rich varieties are yellow, alexandrite inclusions; needles of actinolite and green and brown in color, and are inert under UV light goethite, mica, apatite, quartz, displaying two or three or X-rays. Only alexandrite exhibits a weak, red phases of inclusions. luminescence under SWUV light. Synthetic alexandrite-like sapphire; alexandrine sapphire. alexandrites are produced by the Czochralski, the alexandrite-like synthetics; suitably-colored, synthetic puling method, the flux process, and the floating-zone sapphire and spinel, used to imitate alexandrite. method. Alexandrine sapphire, synthetic alexandrite.
  • 15 alexandrite-like – alkali garnetalexandrite-like tourmaline; synonym for Alice Roosevelt Aquamarine; same as Roosevelt chameleonite. Aquamarine, Alice.alexandrite twinning; commonly twinned pseudo- align properly; in a triplet stone sometimes inclusions hexagonal, as trillings, cyclic twin or flowers exist in are seen in the crown which may are not similar to the some Russian alexandrite. inclusions of pavilion or do not align properly with it.alexandrium; an artificial gem comprised of lithium alizarin; an orange-red crystal natural and synthetic aluminum silicate and made in a variety of colors. dyes C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)2. Soluble in aromatic neodymium as a coloring agents yields pink lavender solvent, hot methyl alcohol, ether and very less in colors. A vivid, laser blue variety blue is colored by water. Used as indicator and dyes. copper. alizarin red; an orange-red crystal natural and syntheticAlexcor; Alexander Bay Development Corporation. dyes. Soluble in aromatic solvent, hot methyl alcohol,alexite; a misleading term used by manufactures for ether and very less in water. Used as indicator and dyes. synthetic or imitation diamonds such as YAG, in the alizarin yellow; a compound contain an azo group and USA. the most important natural and synthetic dyes, prismaticalfrax; electrically fused alumina (Al2O3), which is used or needle form aggregate, yellow brown powder. as a refractory. Soluble in water, used as indicator and dyes. Alsoalgae; dark brown, wavy patterns characteristic of algae. called madder, turkey red, C.I. 75330, and C.I. natural Same as seaweed. red.algal marble; a marble containing remains of fossiled alkali; a substance, which dissolves in water to form an algae. Coralline marble. alkaline solution found in arid and semi-arid regions.algam; in Wales, a common word for the metallic alkali; hydroxides of sodium (NaOH) and potassium element, tin. (KOH) and lithium (LiOH) are known bases.Algeiba Star; the yellow, cushion shaped diamond of alkali; any bitter-tasting salt, composed of sodium or 133.03 cts, probably from South Africa. Formerly potassium carbonate named as Mahjal, it was sold in 1983. Present alkali; a general name for an alkali metal. whereabouts unknown. alkali and earth metal spectrums; spectrums of alkaliAlgeiba Star Diamond; a yellow, cushion-shaped and earth metal are seen below. diamond of 133.03 cts, from South Africa. It was recut nm 700 600 500 400 nm from a stone of 139.38 cts, which was known as the Mahjal Diamond (an India Maharajah of Kapurthala, Na Punjab). Sold by Christie’s in 1983. Also called Mahjal K Diamond. LiAlgemene Diamantbewerkersbond van Belgie; an Tl organization of diamond cutters in Belgium. CaAlgemene Nederlandsche Diamantbewerkersbond; an organization of diamond cutters in the Netherlands. SrAlgerian coral; a trade classification for a medium- Ba quality coral from the coast of Algeria, Africa. alkali and Earth-alkali flame spectras Coral,-trade classification of.Algerian onyx; a misleading term for a stalagmitic alkalic; a solution containing alkali cation. Igneous variety of calcite, characterized by beautifully banding. rocks with more alkali elements than average for their Also known as Alabaster Oriental or Oriental class, with less than 51% alkali-lime index. Alabaster, Algerian onyx (marble). Alabaster. alkali earth metals; the bivalent and strongly basicAlgerian onyx (marble); Algerian onyx. metal in group IIA of the Periodic System, comprisingalgerite; an alteration of scapolite mineral, usually of beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, related to painite. and radium. Alkali and earth metal spectrums.algodonite; a silver white to steel gray, opaque, copper alkali-etchants; potassium hydroxide used for etching arsenate (Cu6As) with a hexagonalic system. It’s crystals, minerals, gemstone, etc. Alkali metallic luster, which quickly tarnishes on contact with alkali feldspar; an alkali-bearing feldspar such as air. SG:8.38. H:3-4. Found in Chile, the Czech orthoclase, microcline, albite, sanidine, adularia, and Republic, Iran, and Michigan. Sometimes cut as anorthoclase, which contains very little calcium. cabochon. Domeykite, mohawkite. alkali garnet; a term for a member of the sodalite group,alignment of facets; facet alignment. closely related chemically and crystallographically to the garnets.
  • alkali granite - allophane 16alkali granite; an acidic, coarse-grained rock, Allmana Avensk, Elektrika Aktiebolaget; a Swedish containing free quartz, and characterized by a great corporation, which, since 1953 produces synthetic excess of alkali-feldspar over plagioclase. diamonds. Abbreviation: A.S.E.A.alkali metals; the monovalent metal in group IA of the allocation; a scope of rough diamonds, selected by the Periodic System, namely, lithium, sodium, potassium, Central Selling Organization, for each sightholder. rubidium, cesium and francium. allochroite; a calcium-chromium garnet, the light brownalkaline; having the qualities of a base, synonym for variety of andradite. basic. allochromatic; a term which refer to those gemstones oralkaline; substance which have PH greater than 7. minerals, which in their purest state, are colorless butalkaline earth; the oxides of barium, strontium, colored by a minor impurities of coloring agent added calcium, beryllium, magnesium, and radium. to their chemical composition of minerals. Opposite ofalkalinity test of beryl; alkaline reaction of moistened idiochromatic. Allochromatic minerals. crushed of calcined beryl family on litmus paper while allochromatic crystals; allochromatic minerals. uncalcined beryl do not react. allochromatic gems; allochromatic minerals.alkali spinel; green, gray and black, isometric varieties allochromatic minerals; the term referring to minerals, of spinel, containing minute amounts of the alkalis, which in their purest state are perfectly colorless or K2O and Na2O 1.31% and 1.38%. Found in northern white. Because the major elements consisting minerals Sweden. do not produce characteristic color, if the mineral isalladinite; an artificial thermoplastic resin. Used to pure it will be colorless or white when transparent. By produce imitation gemstones. chance, these are colored by submicroscopic impurities, or inclusions, of other minerals. Generally a metallic oxide, which has no essential part in the chemical composition of a particular mineral, such as corundum, which when pure, is colorless (white sapphire). When it containing titanium oxide the result is a blue color (sapphire). A trace of chromium oxide yield a red (ruby), while iron gives green and yellow (green and yellow sapphire). The opposite is an idiochromatic mineral. Same as allochromatic gems or allanite or orthite crystals allochromatic crystals. Idiochromatic stones.allanite; a cerium-bearing mineral of epidote group. allochromatic transitional elements; transitional Radioactive, it is of interest to gem collectors. elements. Synonym for orthite. allochthonous; term meaning not formed or occurring in System: monoclinic. the place where it is found. Drifted, transported. Not in Formula: 2[Ca,(Ce,Th)2(Mg,Fe+3,Fe+2)Al2(O|OH|SiO4|Si2O7)]. situ. Autochthonous. Luster: semimetallic to vitreous, alloclastic breccia; a breccia formed by volcanic Colors: reddish, greenish, brown to black, activity, composed of nonvolcanic rock in a volcanic Streak: none or white. matrix. Diaphaneity: Semitranslucent to opaque, allogene; an allogenic mineral or rock is not formed on Cleavage: none. the spot, which is derived from pre-existing rocks and Fracture: conchoidal to even. Brittle. transported to the present spot such as a xenolith in an SG: 3.00- 4.20. igneous rock or a detrital mineral in a placer deposit. H: 5 -6. Also called allothigenous, allothogenic or allothigenic. Optics; :1.640-1.791, :1.650-1.815, 1.659-1.828. Authigene. Birefringence: 0.013-0.036. may be also . allomerism; same as isomorphism. Dispersion: 0.019 similar to epidote. allomorph; same as pseudomorph. From Saxony, New York, New Jersey, Norway, allomorphism; different crystalline forms of the same Finland, Ural and Sweden. chemical composition.allcharite; same as goethite. allomorphite; barite mineral which is pseudomorphousAllende meterorite; heteronuclear intervalence after anhydrite. charge transfer. all-opal; a term applied to formation rich in opal.allexite; commercial term for synthetic alexandrite all-opal; an inferior type of jelly opal with almost grown by the Czochralski technique, and made by transparent potch color. Diamonair Company of Liton Airtron. allophane; an amorphous clay mineral of Al2O3.SiO2 or
  • 17 allophane - alluvium hydrous aluminum silicate gel with various colors such sloping mass of rock material, shaped like an open fan as colorless, snow white, blue, green, brown, or or a segment of a cone, deposited by the action of a yellow. Often occurs in incrustations and rarely as stream. Sometimes called prism. Alluvial cone. stalactitic masses. alluvial gold; gold fragment found associated withallophane; kandite. waterworn material.allothigenic; allogene. alluvial gold-digging; a term applied to mining ofallothigenous; allogene. diamond in placer.allothigenous ejectum; same as exogenous inclusion. alluvial gold-gravel; loose deposits of gold, which haveallothogenic; allogene. been brought down by rivers, and are found in theirallotriomorphic; anhedral. dried-up beds.allotriomorphic-granular; same as xenolith-granular. alluvial gravel; loose deposits of valuable minerals, Anhedral. which have been brought down by rivers, and are foundallotrope; term meaning one of the different crystal in their dried-up beds. Also called gem gravel. forms of a particular substance that displays Alluvium, alluvial deposit. allotropism, such as diamond and graphite, which are alluvial laterite; a white to cream to red residual clay both allotropes of carbon. Polymorphism. produced in humid tropical and subtropical conditionsallotropic; the name applies to the phenomenon shown of good drainage by the weathering of igneous rocks, by some chemical compositions or elements, which usually of basic composition. Contains some silica, exist in different metastable forms, over a given particularly of iron oxides and hydroxides and temperature range, such as carbon, which from which aluminum hydroxides. It is related to bauxite and found diamond, charcoal or graphite may be formed. in alluvial deposit.allotropy, allotropism; the capability of some alluvial mining; the process of exploration of alluvial substances to exist in more than one form, different placers, or deposits, such as gold, gemstones, rare characteristics at different temperatures. Allotrope. earths, platinum. Recovered by hydraulicking, byalloy; an intimate confusion of two or more metallic dredging or by shallow drifting and sometimes panning. elements with nonmetallic elements, such as steel. Also called alluvial digging.alloy; a mixture of two or more metallic elements such alluvial ore; loose particles of valuable minerals, which as bronze, which is an alloy comprised of copper and have been brought down by rivers and are found in silver. Electrum is a naturally alloy. Alloys are their dried-up beds. produced to achieve other characteristic properties such alluvial placer; concentration of valuable alluvial as greater durability, strength, hardness, etc. minerals such as gold, diamond, and ruby on thealluvial; pertaining to, or having the character of, surface, chiefly of fluviatile origin. Recovered by alluvium; meaning deposited by the action of waves or hydraulic washing, dredging, and sometimes panning. of running water. Used for valuable minerals, such as Alluvial deposits, alluvial ore. gold, diamond, and ruby, which are associated with an alluvial quartz; loose particles of quartz minerals, alluvial placer, such a secondary deposit is known as an which have been brought down by rivers. alluvial deposit. Synonym: alluvium. Deposit. alluvial sand small fragment of detrital rock, whichAlluvial; an obsolete term for tertiary. have been brought down by rivers. Mostly composed ofalluvial cone; a low, outspread, relatively flat to gently quartz. sloping mass of rock material, shaped like an open fan alluvial sorting; same as alluvial stone; for example or segment of a cone, deposited by a stream. Also alluvial diamond deposits in South Africa on the west called debris cone, and dejection cone. Alluvial fan. coast of Namibia.alluvial deposit; unconsolidated, or loose, secondary alluvial stone; natural sorting of gemstone or minerals deposits of valuable minerals, which have been which have been transported and deposited by streams. deposited by rivers and are found in their dried-up beds. alluvial tin; tin fragment found associated with Alluvium. waterworn material.alluvial diamond; diamond found associated with alluvial values; recoverable from mineralized alluvial waterworn material. beds such as gold, diamond, cassiterite, rutile,alluvial diamond-bearing gravel; loose particles of monazite, platinum and other gemstones. diamond, which have been brought down by rivers and alluvion; alluvium. are found in gravel. alluvium; mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel and otheralluvial digging; same as alluvial mining. unconsolidated rock materials. Deposited duringalluvial fan; a low, outspread, relatively flat to gently comparatively recent geologic time, by running or flowing water, as sorted and semisorted sediment, in
  • almagra - alomite 18 the bed of a stream or, on its flood plain. Known as alluvial deposits and alluvion. Alluvial.almagra; a dark red ocher from Andalusia, Spain, 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nm similar to Indian red. Used for polishing glass and orange green violet red yellow blue metals, and as pigment.almagre; red ocher from Mexico.almandine; term applied to the iron-aluminum group of 617 576 527 505 467 garnets, a red to purple gem quality, which occur in mica-schist, and other metamorphic rocks. Usually a almandine absorption spectrum hollow cabochon, cut to lighten the color, is known as a carbuncle. Sometimes this is seen as a weakly formed of four-pointed or six-pointed star can be seen. Such almandine, inclusion in; inclusion in almandine stones are known as star almandine. These four-rayed garnet. and 6-rayed star almandine occur due to fine needles almandine spinel; a misnomer for the reddish-purple to inclusions. Almandine is practically opaque to X-rays. purple red color of gem spinel. Ruby spinel. almandite; a misleading trade term for synthetic almandine spinel. almandite; a mineralogical name for almandine almandite; a misleading term for synthetic reddish to violet colored spinel. almandite ruby; an incorrect name for reddish to violet spinel. almandite sapphire; an incorrect name for bluish to violet spinel almashite; a local, Rumanian name for the green or black amber from Almash, Moldavia, that is poor in almandine crystals oxygen. It shows fluorescence qualities. Almasi; Alamasi Ltd. Sometimes the word almandine is used as a prefix, Almasi, Ltd.; a small diamond-mining company in which is a misnomer, for example, almandine spinel, Tanzania, Africa. Also spelled Alamasi or Alamasi Ltd. etc. or Cape garnet. Alabandite is an obsolete term. almaz; a term for uncut diamonds, in Russian or Slavic Also called almandite, noble garnet, precious garnet, languages. oriental garnet. Also spelled alamandine Garnet, Almaz Export; the marketing agency of Russian almandine spinel. diamonds, Almazy Rossii-Sakha. Under contract to De System: cubic. Beers, it sells rough diamonds, which are exported to Formula: 8[Fe3Al2(SiO4)3]. the Central Selling Organization. Luster: vitreous to resinous. Almaz Juvelier Export; a Russian corporation, controls Streak: white. Russian diamonds and gemstones, located in Antwerp, Colors: purplish to deep red, violet-red and black. Belgium. Diaphaneity: transparent. Almazni Fund; one of the world’s most famous Fracture: conchoidal to even. Brittle. museums of gems, diamonds, and jewelry, in the Cleavage: none. Kremlin, Moscow, Russia. Russian Diamond fund. SG: 3.80 - 4.20. Almazy Rossii-Sakha; meaning Diamonds, of Russia H: 7-7 . and Sakha. This diamond agency, which operates in RI: 1.75-1.83. Sakha (Yakutia) through Yakutalmaz. The production Birefringence: none. of rough material is marketed through, this agency’s Dispersion: 0.024-0.027. Almazexport subsidiary. Also known as Diamonds of From many localities. Russia and Sakha.almandine absorption spectrum; the three main bands almeria ore; a Spanish name for hematite. are due to ferrous iron, at 576 nm in yellow, 526 and almond rock; same as amygdaloid. 505 nm in green. A weak line is displayed at 617 nm in almond-shaped cavity; same as amygdaloidal cavity. orange, and at 462 nm in blue. almond stone; a synonym for almandine garnet.almandine cut; almandine. alomite; named after Charles Allom. A commercial termalmandine garnet; same as almandine.
  • 19 alowalt - aluminatchromite for blue sodalite, from Bancroft, Canada. An alshedite; a variety of titanite, or sphene, containing ornamental stone, also called princess blue. Used for yttrium. Named after the parish of Alsheda in Sweden. ornamental objects. alstonite; synonym for bromlite. Not to be confusedalowalt; trade name for fused aluminum oxide (Al2O3). with bromellitealoxite; a commercial term for an abrasive material alstonite; a double carbonate composed of calcium and made of synthetically produced aluminum oxide, or barium. artificial corundum (Al2O3) powder. alteration; in mineralogy, the change in the chemicalalpha amyrine; a major part of resin obtained from and mineralogical composition of a rock or mineral, species of angioperms a kind of flowering trees. since its original formation. It implies changes to newalpha chalcosite; same as digenite. minerals or new rocks textures. Altered rock.alpha decay; spontaneous radioactive disintegration of altered diamond; same as treated diamond. an unstable atomic nuclei or change of one nuclide into altered mineral; a mineral that has undergone some one or more different isotopes by the emission of an changes in its chemical and mineralogical composition atomic particle. Also called radioactive disintegration. to varying degrees. Alpha ray. altered rock; a rock that has undergone some chemicalalpha diamond; -C, a stable, cubic diamond. change under geological action.alpha disintegration; alpha ray. altered stone; natural stones are frequently altered in aalpha index; the lowest index in biaxialy minerals or manner that may have an important bearing on their gemstones. value. Any stone, of which the appearance, especiallyalpha irradiation; the exposure of certain pale or poorly the color, has been changed by any artificial means, colored gemstones or diamonds to alpha rays, to whatsoever. Such changes may be either external or enhance their color. Alpha ray. internal.alpha particle; a positively charged particle emitted by alternant system; a term used for organic colorants with certain radioactive materials during radioactive decay, non-significant variants or allomorphs such as which has two neutrons and two protons. Hence, it is resonance of benzene. Resonance. identical with the nucleus of a helium atom. Also called Alto Ligonha Beryl; a pink and blue beryl crystals -ray, alpha radiation. forming sometimes large aggregate until 200 tons arealpha particle treatment; cyclotron-treated quarried found in Mozambique. diamonds, cyclotroned diamonds. Alton Noel; an analyzing refractometer from Noelalpha quartz; polymorphic quartz, stable below 573° C, Alton. A refractometer employing the polarizing which has formed in veins, geodes and large system to analyze the nature of the birefringence of pegmatites. Its vertical axis has three-fold symmetry, gemstones. and the three horizontal axes have two-fold symmetry. alum; a hydrous, double sulfate of aluminum and It has a higher refractive index and birefringence than potassium. that of beta quartz. Also called low quartz and spelled alum; in chemistry, any one of a group of salts, which -quartz. are hydrous, double sulfates of aluminum, chromium,alpha radiation; alpha ray. iron, or manganese, and one of the alkali metals. -ray; a less-preferred synonym for alpha particle. alum; in Mineralogy a group of minerals consisting of Alpha ray. hydrous, double sulfates of aluminum, chromium, iron,alpha ray; a less-preferred synonym for alpha particle. or manganese, and one of the alkali metals such as Also spelled -ray, alpha particle, alpha radiation. alum, kalinite, mendozite, soda alum and ammonalaunalpha zircon; in mineralogy an obsolete term for any (tschermigite). high quality zircon. Optics; :1.920-1.940, :1.970- alumag; a commercial term for colorless synthetic 2.010. Birefringence: 0.036-0.059. . Dispersion: spinel, used as a diamond simulant. 0.039. SG:4.67-4.70. Alpha zircon is the only type of alumina; an important constituent of aluminum oxide zircon, which used in jewelry. Also called high zircon. (Al2O3) occurring as the minerals corundum and emery, Low zircon, zircon. and in hydrated forms, as bauxitealpine cleft; a name used for the cave features in the alumina; any silicate, in which aluminum oxide is an rock of European Alpine where the rocks are folded important part of the composition, such as feldspar, and distorted by movement of the earth’s crust, in mica, feldspathoid, etc. which several fine minerals are found. alumina ceramic; any ceramic white ware, in whichalpine diamond; an incorrect name for pyrite, from the aluminum oxide is the essential, crystalline part. Alpine. aluminatchromite; Alumo-chrompicotite.
  • aluminate - amatista 20aluminate; any mineral or constituent of aluminum alumo-berezowskite; members of the spinel group, oxide. from chromite, with the compositionaluminium; British spelling for aluminum. (Mg,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4. Alumo-chrompicotite.aluminoelbaite; a suggested name for elbaite-schorl alumo-chrompicotite; members of the spinel group mixture of tourmaline. from magnesiochromite, with the composition (Mg,aluminobuergerite; a suggested end-member of Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4. Synonym: aluminatchromite. Alumo- tourmaline. berezowskite.alumino-silicate; same as aluminum silicate. alumocalcite; a variety of opal, with alumina and limealuminum; a light, silver-white, ductile, malleable impurities, from Australia. metal, with a high electrical conductivity and good alumogel; an amorphous, aluminum hydroxide of resistance to corrosion. Its chemical symbol is Al. Used indefinite composition, forming the constituent of in jewelry, for costume jewelry and junk jewelry. bauxite. Used as an abrasive.aluminum as impurity in quartz; the color of smoky alum rock; a basic hydrous, double sulfate of aluminum quartz is probably caused by natural defect color and potassium. centers produced by impurity of aluminum and alundum; the registered, commercial term for an irradiation. For producing smoky color in quartz is an abrasive material made of synthetically produced unpaired electron necessary this will happen by aluminum oxide or artificial corundum (Al2O3) powder. trivalent aluminum ion replacing tetravalent silicium alurgite; a manganiferous, rich variety of mica or biotite ion. This replacement needed an alkali element of purple color. (monovalent) such as sodium ion or a hydrogen ion for alveolar; abalone pearl having a small cell-like or pitted electrical balance. During irradiation of such quartz surface, like of a honeycomb. with an impurity of aluminum one of a pair of alveolar structure; a term used for some kind of electrons may be thrown off its position such as an abalone pearl of hollow nature without concentric oxygen ion adjacent to an aluminum. This action nacreous layers like oriental pearl. leaves the other electron unpaired which giving rise to alveolar structure; same as honeycomb structure. a hole color center. Am; a chemical symbol for the element americium.aluminum enamel; a porcelain enameled specifically amakusa; the Japanese equivalent of china stone. composed with aluminum oxide. amalgam; an alloy composed of mercury with one oraluminum gold; an alloy containing 22 % aluminum more other metals. Used for gilding metals. Known as and 78 % gold, with a ruby red color. Its melting point fire gilding, or mercury gilding. is 1060° C. amalgam gilding; amalgam.aluminum minerals; minerals which contain aluminum amargosite; a commercial term for bentonite. oxide, such as alunite, andalusite, bauxite, corundum, amarantsteen; a rarely used Dutch term for aquamarine cyanite, sillimanite, topaz, spinel, turquoise, emerald. amblygonite, etc. amarud; French term for aquamarine emerald.aluminum oxide; a white or pink powder, of natural or Amarillo Starlight Diamond; the diamond of 16.37 cts, synthetic corundum, used as a polish and abrasive also found in 1975, at the crater of Diamonds State Park, used in ceramic bodies. Also called alumina, Arkansas. Is named after Amarillo a town in Texas, diamontite, diamontine. Linde A. compound is a USA. sapphire or ruby powder. Emery is an intimation amarillo stone; a term applied to figured chalcedony, mixture of alumina and magnetite, or hematite, bauxite, from Texas. diaspor, and gibbsite. amaryl; a commercial term for light green, syntheticaluminum powder; aluminum in the form of powder, is corundum, named as such become similar to leaves of used as a pigment in paints, inks, etc., usually, after an amaryllis. In South Africa, named belladonna lily. coating with a lubricant, to gain luster and leafy amas; a Japanese term for girls who dive to fish pearl appearance. oysters.aluminum silicate; a chemical compound, which amas; a Middle Farsi or Pahlavi term for diamond. containing varying proportions of silica and alumina, in Amati Diamond; a diamond weighing 31 cts, which some cases with water or hydroxyl, such as feldspar, once belonged to Mrs. N. Coffin (Maiden name was mica, etc. Also called alumino-silicate. Amati), stolen in 1949.aluminum solders; an alloy of gold, silver, copper, and amatista; Spanish pronunciation for amethyst. zinc; used for soldering aluminum brass. amatista mosquito; Spanish name for mosquitoaluminum spinel; an isometric, synthetic crystal of amethyst. aluminum spinel (Al3O4).
  • 21 amatite - amberamatite; a manufactured of synthetic imitation of amber; a Farsi (Persian) term for transparent, to diamond, such as YAG in USA translucent, to opaque fossil resin of hydrocarbons,amatrice; a commercial term for the concretions variety from extinct varieties of certain pines, particularly the of variscite, found in the reddish, gray or brownish Pinis succinifera (succus mean sap or gum), which matrixes of chalcedony, or quartz, or both together. flourished in Oligocene times, more than 60 million Frequently found with wardite, or/and variscite. years ago. Chemically amber is an isoprene unit (C5H8) SG:2.60. H:5-7. Also called amatrix, variscite quartz. which is found in natural resins. Amber is warm to theamatrice; a green, gem variety of variscite, cut as touch, light in weight, and induces negative static cabochon, with its surrounding matrix, from Utah. Also electricity when rubbed. Sometimes in it embedded are called Utah matrix. remains some extinct insects, plants or other organic oramatrix; name applied to a mixture of variscite, with inorganic material, from prehistoric times and or, stress reddish or brownish quartz (or chalcedony) from Ely, marks, which resemble crackling. Opaque or cloudy Nevada. Cut cabochon. SG:2.60. H:5-7, and which amber can be clarified and change in color, when boiled found in Stockton, Utah, USA. Once called American in capable oils, such as colza oil or rape oil. After matrix. Also called amatrice. treatment frequently some crack-like marks resemblingamause; another term for strass, a metalloxide, colored nasturtium leaves and are known as sun spangled can glass or enamel. be seen can be seen. Pressed or reconstructed, amber isamausite; a fine, crystalline quartz, or devitrified glass. made by melting small fragments of the material and Also called petrosilex.amazonite; a bright green, to blue-green, laminated variety of microcline-feldspar. An ornamental stone, cut en cabochon or used for tumbled gems. Synonym for amazon stone. Perthite feldspar, antiperthite, excuded amber drops bareketh. from the tree. System: triclinic. From Hortus Formula: 4[KAl(Si3O8)]. 1507 Luster: vitreous. Streak: white. Colors: light green to white-green. Diaphaneity: semitransparent to opaque. Fracture: uneven. Brittle. compressing it into blocks by hydraulic pressure. Since SG: 2.56-2.58. Bronze age, it has been used as ornament and talisman H: 6-6½. cut cabochon, for beads, rosaries, and carved objects. Cleavage: 001 perfect, 010 perfect. Rarely is faceted. Sea amber occurs along certain Optics; : 1.514-1.529, : 1.518-1.533, : 1.521-1.539 shores, while pit amber (distinguished it from sea Birefringence: 0.008-0.010. . amber) is mined from Oligocene gravels in Myanmar Dispersion: 0.012. (Burma) and Sicily. A variety is called muntenite from Found in Russia, Virginia, Pike’s Peak, Colorado and Rumania, and the variety gedanite from Poland, and other sources. Mexico. Imitations are made from kauri gum, copal,amazonite cut; cut en cabochon as ovals, and tumbled. ambroid, glasses, and plastics. Amber can beamazonite jade; a misleading term, applied to the bright distinguished from imitations by its lighter specific green, laminated variety of microcline-feldspar. gravity and characteristic odor of pine, when heated or Sometimes referred to as Amazon jade, which is a burned. Electrum was an obsolete ancient Greek term misnomer. for amber. In northen of Europe amber was known as gles. Amber of Chinese is calling hu-p’o, meaning soulamazonite luminescence; yellow-green under LWUV. of tiger. True amber, block amber, gedanite, Inert under SWUV. Under X-rays green. burmite, rumanite, simetite, bastard amber, almashite,amazonite rough; rough material is obtained from ambergris, kauri gum, copal. Virginia, Colorado (USA), Ontario (Canada), South System: amorphous. Africa, Norway and Finland. Formula: C10H16 + H2S.amazon jade; a misleading term for amazonite jade. Luster: resinous.amazon stone; same as amazonite, also written Streak: white. amazonstone. Colors: It is usually yellowish or brownish but may also be red,ambar; a Spanish term applied to Amber. Also spelled orange, black, whitish, greenish, bluish, or violetish or be stained ambeur.
  • amber – amber electrical 22 various colors. Red color caused by oxidation, rarely penetrates amber,-care of; for stringing of amber beads used silk deep. or lined thread with knot between each beads. Amber Diaphaneity: transparent, semitransparent to opaque. Cloudy variety pieces should not be stored with other gemstones or is called bastard amber. metal objects, but in soft velvet or flannel cloths or Fracture: uneven to conchoidal. Very brittle. pouches. Do not bring amber in contact with hot water, SG: 1.05-1.08. soap, detergents, perfumes, kitchen substances, H: 2-3. hairspray or ammoniac. For cleaning and removing Cleavage: none. dust wiped with soft flannel cloth moistures with clean RI: 1.539-1.545. lukewarm water. Stroked with clear olive oil, then Source: from southern shores of the Baltic Sea in cleaned with a soft cloth to remove excess the oil. Poland, shores of East Germany, Sicily, Stringing. Mediterranean Sea of Sicily, Upper Myanmar amber catcher; a device was made in Germany for (Burma), Canada, Mexico and Rumania. prevent amber from being washed back to sea. Alsoamber; a term applied to orangey-yellow color opal, as called in German amber Kascher or amber Schöppen. in amber. Also called amber glass and amber opal. amber,-classification of; classification of amber isamber; a term applied to any natural formed resin of based on degrees of transparency and color shades. amber from prehistoric trees which was similar in all Generally, ambers are classified in two categories: (a) regions have taken place in different epochs. Variation clear or transparent amber, (b) cloudy amber that is of amber is in present or absence of succinic acid. subdivided in several degrees such as semi-transparent Amber resins. to opaque.amber acid; same as succinic acid. amber,-clear; clear amber.amber against evil-eye and witchcraft; amber was amber,-cloudy classification in trade; trade used as a safeguard for immortality and powerful classification of cloudy amber. protection against evil-eye and against witch craft such amber colophony; same amber pitch. as amber heart, amber phallus and flat mound amber. amber, comb-shaped; a small comb-shaped pieceamber aging; artificially by heating at low temperature made of Baltic amber wearing women and men as can be produce aging of amber. pendant may used as protection from 900-1200 A.D.amber antique; imitation beads made of celluloid Amber, Crown of; a crown carve from a single piece resembling amber. Also called celluloid imitation of Baltic amber by Danzig Guild, which was presented amber. to the King of Poland (ca. middle 1600).amber beach rider; riders were sent out to prevent the amber cuirasse; same as amber pouch. loose ambers washed to the shore after storm. Amber, Cup of; a cup made of a single piece reddish-amber Beach Master; a term was used in 14th centuries golden Baltic amber of Bronze Age. Found in a tomb in Amberland for all collecting of amber which done in Dorchester with measures 6.2 cm high and 8.7 cm under supervision of a Beach Master. wide.amber bead; a term used for beads made of amber amberdan; (a Farsi or Persian name), tests indicate that color. this is not a true amber, but a suitably colored, syntheticamber bead; a misleading term for beads made from plastic material, closely resembling true Baltic amber in coral of amber color. appearance; produced in rectangular blocks.amber blood coagulation; same as amber blood stilling. amber disc; peculiar Baltic amber disc carved inamber blood-stilling; a believing of magical properties ancient times in Sambia as symbol of sun-worship of amber is when a piece of amber placed on the nose culture. Sometimes is decorated with dots chiseled in it will stop or coagulated the excessive bleeding. Also lines and pits. called amber blood coagulation. amber drop; a name describing the usual drop shape inamber boar; a symbolic figure of goddess of Balts which amber occurs. folks made of amber, a sacred animal of Celtic tribes amber doublet; a composite material consisting of a of ancient Britain. Also called lucky pig amber. piece of genuine amber used as a base, upon which isamber boron nitride; same as borazon. placed an insect, which is then covered with a materialamber burning glass; a piece lens made of transparent like copal resin. amber in 16th centuries for providing fire. amber ear; carved amber in form of ear or corn of fruitamber button; a small lens-shaped button of Baltic in Aquileia, Italy with the believing of magical amber with a perforated cone-shaped hole for attaching properties. on the cloths of Neolithic Age. Sometimes is decorated amber electrical properties; amber electricity is with dots chiseled in lines and pits. strongly negative, attracting small pieces of paper or
  • 23 amber eyeglasses – amber oath straw when rubbed on fur or velvety. celestial bodies were the bodies impart their power toamber eyeglasses; eyeglasses made of transparent amber such as of its golden color association with sign amber in 16th centuries for spectacles. of Leo. Used as birthstone as amulet bringing goodamber fish; carved fish-shaped amber from Myanmar future and protect its wearer. Also, it is related to the made in China because of believing of long life and name Anne. good future during fifth century. amber incense; amber emitted a pleasant resinous odoramber fluorescence; amber has blue, green, yellow, of pine, because of this amber set out to fire as incense orange and frequently white fluorescence. Also called in temples in Middle and Far East. fluorescence of amber. amber, inclusion in; inclusion in amber.amber forest; a forest whose trees yielded the resin that amberine; a local misleading commercial term for fossilized into amber such as cedars, pines, palms, oaks, yellowish-green chalcedony or moss agate, from Death sequoia, redwoods, olives, chestnuts, camellias, Valley, California, USA. cypress, magnolias, leguminous tree Hymenaea, amber in medicine; was thought amber possess cinnamon trees and Thuja occidentales (similar to white curative power therefore powdered amber was mixed cedar or Arbor vitae). with honey and oil of rose for curing ear problems oramber fruit; carved amber in form of bunches of fruit dimming eyesight. Amber powder or amber oil was corn or ear in Aquileia, Italy with the believing of used in medicine in Ancient Times. Powder of amber magical properties. used for curing the stomach diseases. Amber oilamber glass; amber (opal). resembling turpentine used against asthma andambergris; an opaque, grayish white, yellow or black whooping cough. White powder of amber used in waxy substance, with a strong odor, consisting mainly cordial medicine, which is known as Gascion’s of cholesterol, found floating in tropical seas or washed powder. As bezoar or bezoar stone used as mixed ashore. It is a morbid secretion of the sperm whale white powder as ingredient with other materials. Syrup Physeter catodon). Used in the manufacture of of amber is mixture of succinic acid and opium was perfumes, but rarely in jewelry. Often popularly used in China as sedative, anodyne, etc. Amber confused with amber. French amber jaune. blood-stilling.amber heart; carved amber in form of heart from amberite; another term for ambrite. Baltic folks because of believing of magical properties amber islands; a term was used in Roman times and protecting against the evil eye, witchcraft and keep perhaps for Frisian Island. Also was spelled Elektrides. their love free from harm. amberita; a term was used in Lithuanian and may otheramber horse; carved amber in form of horse or wild Baltic countries for amber. horse from Baltic area of Neolithic Age. Amber Kascher; same as amber catcher.amber, imitation; transparent amber imitation made amber lac; a commercial term for amber pitch powder from kauri gum (formerly kauri pine), copal resin, dissolved in turpentine or linseed oil. Also called amber ambroid, glasses, acrylic, styrene, celluloid, polyester varnish. amberland; a term used to amber-bearing countries along the Baltic Seashore, Europe. amber lord; a term was used in 15th century because the value of amber increased which became esteemed to made rosary beads and controlled whole marketing. amber mica; same as phlogopite. amber morphology; common forms of natural amber are drop-shaped and stalactites, which was exuded bubble inclusions in bernat resin bubbles in different forms in imitation amber from from prehistoric trees during of production of resins. synthetic resin amber mushroom; carving amber in form of two different imitation ambers mushroom because believing of magical properties such as a symbol of fertility in Europe. resin, and plastics, which contains plant and or insect amber name; amber is a Farsi (Persian) term (not inclusions or sun-spangle fissures similar to naturally Arabic) derived from the ambar or anbar a name for amber. Imitation amber, plastics amber imitation. ambergris in Farsi for anbar-mahi or anbar-fish sameamber, imitation plastics; same as plastics amber as whale with a curiously waxy excrement substance in imitation. form of lumps which was used in essences andamber in astrology; a believing of magical properties perfumes industries. of amber from ancient till today which have relation to amber oath; a swearing celebration was taking place
  • amberoid - ambrite 24 every third years in Samland for any fishermen to blood-stilling, amber in medicine. protect the state’s interest for amber. amber tear; a name describing a shape in which amberamberoid; another term for ambroid. occurs.amber oil; a reddish-brownish oil, distilled from small amber topaz; an amber colored topaz from Brazil with pieces of amber. Also called oil of amber. chatoyancy effect because of several parting parallel toamber opal; a yellowish-brown variety of opal, similar the c-axis. → Topaz chatoyancy. to amber, stained by iron oxide. → Amber (opal). amber treatment; → amber.amber, phallus made of; a symbol was used in amber trees; → amber forest. northern Europe for powerful protection against evil amber varnish; same as amber lac. eye and against witchcraft. ambery; another term for amber-like.amber pitch; a residual product from the distillation ambetti; a type of glass, containing small, opaque process of the oil of amber. specks. Also spelled ambitty.amber poking; a term used for raking amber from the ambeur; a Spanish term applied to Amber. sea bottom with dragnets. Also in German called ambitty; another term for ambetti. Bernsteinstechen. ambivalence; simultaneous existence of doubleamber pouch; a basket attached to the chest of amber valences. fishermen for stowing amber. Also called amber amblygonite; a natural, fluorphosphate, of aluminum cuirasse.amber resins; there are more than 20 fossil amber resins, similar to succinite with different geological age, some of them are used as gem.amber resin trees; → amber forest. quasi parallelamber rock; a term applied to small granular of resin. crystal needles with cloudyAmber Room; a room was made of amber in 18th inclusions in century for Fredrick the Great was presented to Czar Brazil yellow Alexander of Russia. Present whereabouts unknown, amblygonite Russia? Also called Amber Chamber.amber salt; same as succinic acid.Amber Schöppen; Schöppen is German term for amber catcher. and lithium. Suitable for use as gemstone, faceted or cutamber sorting, rough; rough amber were sorted in cabochon. Sometimes called hebronite, montebrasite three categories according to color, form and (OH exceeds F), natromontebrasite (Na exceeds Li). dimension: (I) large piece, flat and mostly cloudy with System: triclinic. the name tiles and plates, used as smoking artifacts. Formula: 4[(Li,Na)Al(OH,F)PO4]. (II) Round piece, opaque tears, frequently flattened Luster: vitreous to greasy, pearly on cleavage. bottom used to make smoking artifacts and gems. (III) Streak: white. Fine and clear pieces with the name pouches or shelly Colors: white to grayish, colorless, yellowish, greenish and bluish. amber, some pieces contains organic remains Fracture: conchoidal to even. Brittle. inclusions such as insects, plants used for gems, Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. museum specimens and other collectors. Cleavage:100 perfect, 110 good, {011} distincts.amber sorting, finished; finished (cut and polished) SG: 3.12-3.03. articles of amber were sorted in four categories H: 5-6. according to usage: (I) used as gem such as pendant, I.R; α:1.591, β:1.605, γ:1.612 . necklace, earring, finger ring, brooches, etc. (II) Make Birefringence: 0.020-0.022. . Μontbrasite may be also ⊕. smoking artifacts such as cigar-holder, cigarette- Dispersion: 0.014-0.015. holder, pipe, etc. (III) Artistic articles such as jewelry Found in Black Hill, USA, Brazil and Africa. case, carving, cup, dish, inlay pattern, mosaic picture, ambra; Italian pronunciation for amber. ornamental pieces, etc. (IV) Different objects or ambre antique; amber imitation from celluloids. articles such as sacred figures, rosaries, etc. ambre jaune; → ambergris.amber striped sands; another term for amber banded ambre; French pronunciation for amber. sands. ambrite; a yellowish-gray, subtransparent fossil resin ofamber talismanic; a believing of protective and retinite or amber, occurring in large masses in several curative power of amber pieces such mouthpiece or coal mines of New Zealand. Formula of C40H66O5. mixed curing the stomach diseases, etc. → Amber
  • 25 ambroid - americiumambroid; a reconstructed amber, made by heating and ADIA. compressing small flakes of poor quality genuine amber American Diamond Mining Corp.; a company that often with the inclusion of other resins at a high mines and sells the diamonds from Arkansas diamond temperature of 180º C, pressure 100.000 pounds per deposits. square inch, air is excluded. May be artificially colored. American emerald; a term used for Colombian Resembles natural amber in appearance and has similar emerald. physical properties. It is to be distinguished by American emerald; a misleading term used in the past embedded, elongated bubbles and visible fusion lines. for Brazilian beryl or aquamarine. Also called pressed amber, reconstructed amber. Also American Gem Society; a non-profit professional spelled amberoid, reconstructed amber. organization of jewelers funded by Robert Shipley inambrosia; a Greek term for immortality drink in 1934. Headquarters for this society are located at: 2960 cognate to amber. Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90010,ambrosine; a yellowish to brownish variety of amber USA. Abbreviation of AGS. found in the phosphate beds near Charleston. American Gemological Institute; same as Gemologicalamelan; a term applied to a rock without colored Institute of American. New Headquarters for this minerals. society are located at: the Robert Mouawad Campus,Amelia Mine; location of spessartite garnet in 5345 Armada Drive, Carlsbad, California 92008, USA. California, USA. Abbreviation: GIA.amerhiste basaltine; a misnomer for pale reddish violet American Golden Topaz; a Light-yellow cut topaz of beryl. 4.58kg. Cut from a rough stone of 11.8kg. Found inAmerican blue topaz; super American blue topaz, 1970 ? Now on display at Smithsonian Museum, USA. super blue topaz, Swiss blue topaz. American green jade; a Chinese commercial term (MeiAmerican brilliant cut; a modification of the brilliant Kuo Lu) for a variety of light green jade, which because cut diamond was devised in America in 1919 calculated of its cheapness, became very popular with American by Tolkowsky, which achieved some popularity, in tourists and exporters in China. The name was heard which the width of the table was reduced to about one after World War I. third of width of the stone, and the height of the crown American ideal cut; same as American brilliant cut. American jade; nephrite from Wyoming, USA. American jade; a misleading term for massive green californite a jade-like variety of vesuvianite or idocrase. American jet; jet found in Colorado and Utah, after polishing is full of cracks. Inferior to Whitby jet. base view American matrix; amatrix. top view top view base view old American-cut American Museum of Natural History; a famous modern American cut museum contains large collections of human and its compair of modern American-cut and old American-cut cultures in New York, USA. American pearl; pearl fished from American shores American pearl; a term, which refers to freshwater is increased to be about two-thirds of the pavilion pearl of North America. instead of one to two. Therefore total number of facets American ruby; a misleading term for red garnet in the crown up to be 40, and 1 table. American cut, (pyrope) from Arizona and New Mexico, USA Tolkowsky brilliant cut. American ruby; a misleading term for rose quartz fromAmerican cut; a modification of cutting round diamond Arizona and New Mexico. brilliant, according to proportions and calculation by American setting; an open (à jour) setting with a Marcel Tolkowsky, which provided the maximum particularly high mount for diamond or other brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire. It was transparent gemstones. worked out by trial and error by master American American System: A.G.S. color grading system. cutters. Also called ideal cut. American brilliant cut, American turquoise; a pale blue to bluish-green or Tolkowsky brilliant cut. greenish-blue turquoise from southwestern of States ofAmerican diamond; a misleading term for synthetic America. Also known as Mexican turquoise. Los cubic zirconia. Used as a fancy yellow diamond Cerrillos turquoise. simultant. americium; a transuranic element with the symbol Am.American Diamond Industry Association; a trade A long life -particle emitter, free of critical hazards organization funded in New York City. Abbreviation:
  • ame-the – amethyst, color 26 and -radiation. amethyst; a misleading term for synthetic purpleame-the; a Burmese term used for corundum stones of sapphire. average 0.20 for five pieces. Corundum amethyst absorption spectrum; absorption spectrums classification in Myanmar. of amethyst is not distinctive but two in the yellow-amethiste basaltine; a French misleading term for pale amethyst colored apatite. 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nmamethyst; a pale violet to purple or violet, transparent variety of quartz, the color being due to present of Fe+2 red orange yellow green blue violet or Fe+3 and traces of manganese, owing to irregular 550 520 absorption spectrum of amethyst amethyst geod surrounded by chalcedony rings. After Sinkankas 1967 green seen at 520 and 550 nm. amethyst basaltin; a German misleading term for pale amethyst colored apatite. amethyst basaltine; a misleading term for pale amethyst colored apatite. color zoning. Pale lilac shades of amethyst are known amethyst basanite; a pale yellow reddish beryl. as rose of France, reddish-violet as Uruguayan stone, amethyst basanite; a color designation meaning violet and reddish-mauve as Siberian stone. When amethysts or purplish. are heated or irradiated the color changes to light amethyst-citrine; a rock crystal containing both yellow to dark yellow, which is frequently is minerals with both colors. Also called ametrine or misnomered as citrine. Amethyst containing Fe+3 before trystine. Heat treatment of amethyst can produce irradiation changes to yellow, when contain Fe+2 the similarly stone. color turns green, which is called prasiolite. When the amethyst, color interference of; frequently color stone is heated to 350-400° obtains a parti-color of interference bands caused due to twinning can be seen amethyst-citrine known as ametrine. It is dichroic blue in naturally quartz or amethyst by using of thins section violet for ordinary ray and reddish-violet for extraordinary ray. Stones from Brazil turns to green. It occurs lining vugh or in cavities. Synthetic amethyst is colored interference bands seen in natural quartz or amethyst due to twinning through in the direction of optic axis by crossed Nicols cross section through amethyst-crystal prependicular to c-axis under and crossed Nicols under microscope. microscope by crossed-Nicol amethyst, color of; a pale violet to purple or violet, made from colorless synthetic quartz, when the iron- transparent variety of quartz. The color being due to rich crystals are irradiated by gamma rays. Mostly present of Fe+2 or Fe+3 and traces of manganese, owing imitation amethyst is made from glasses, synthetic to irregular color zoning. When amethysts are heated to corundum, which is incorrectly named as amethyst. 350-400°C under reducing conditions or irradiated the Used as a gemstone, cut as beads, pendants and those color changes to light yellow to dark yellow, which is with goethite or other needle inclusions shows cat’s-eye frequently is misnomered as citrine. Amethyst effect, when cut cabochon. Found in Siberia, Brazil, containing Fe+3 before irradiation changes to yellow, Uruguay and other sources. Also called soldier’s stone, when contain Fe+2 the color turns green, which is called bishop’s stone, violet quartz. prasiolite or greened amethyst. When the stone isamethyst; a color designation, same as amethystine. heated to 350-400° C obtains a parti-color of amethyst-
  • 27 amethyst cut - ammonite citrine known as ametrine. which may occur due to some kind of growthamethyst cut; cut as faceted gemstones in various sizes, disturbance or pressure may caused internal shearing. cabochon, or are tumbled. ametrine; a combined term used for violet and yellowamethyst imitation; a violet barium-glass. SG: 2.80. RI: striped amethyst-citrine, which grows together, found 1.542. only in Anahi Mine, Bolivian. Used as a gemstone.amethyst inclusions; inclusion in amethyst. amherst stone; blue stone.amethystine; a variety of quartz or glass with patchy amianthus; ancient name for long, fine silky fibered amethyst coloring. variety of asbestos such as chrysotile.amethystine chalcedony; light violet to gray-purple amiantoid; an olive-green, coarse fibrous variety of variety of amethyst-chalcedony from Arizona, USA, asbestos. which is commercially known as damsonite. Amici glass-prism; a lens system that is integral in Chalcedony. some direct-vision spectroscopes consisting of two oramethystine quartz; a massive quartz with patchy amethyst coloring. blue whiteamethystine sapphire; same as violet to purplish beam yellow sapphire. redamethystizonats; the fiery red hue passes at the edges Amici glass-prism into amethyst violet color.amethyst, name of; the term is derived from the Greek Flint name amethystos meaning not drunken refer to a Lens supposed power to mitigate alcoholic excess. In Farsi Crown Crown (Persian) gemast (not drunken).amethyst quartz; a commercial term to designate badly an Amici compound prism in a spectroscope cabochon fashioned from amethyst quartz, especially those from amethystine quartz three or more layers of glass of differing refractiveamethyst quartz; a variety of banded amethyst, in indices to give zero deviation at yellow wavelengths. which milky quartz or agate is included. The lens in the middle of the system is from lead glassamethyst lithia; a misnomer for lilac spodumene. (flint) and both of the end are potassium-glass (crownamethyst oriental; a misnomer for violet corundum. glass). This lens system is arranged to give dispersionamethyst point; hexagonal amethyst crystal from an without deviation of the yellow color. amygdaloidal geode. amicroscopic structure flaw; deviation from an idealamethyst quartz; a variety of banded amethyst, in crystal lattice in unit of 10-7 to 4 x 10-7 cm which milky quartz or agate is included. AMICUT; Diaminir, Ltd.amethyst quartz; a commercial term to designate badly amino group; the radical (NH2)- in organic chemistry. cabochon fashioned from amethyst quartz, especially aminobenzene; same as aniline. those from amethystine quartz. aminoplastics resin; the name applied to the urea andamethyst, synthetic; synthetic amethyst. thiourea or melamine in formaldehyde condensationAmethystus; sixth stone at Jewish High Priest products. They are synthetic resins of the bakelite type. Breastplate. Breastplate. Dyed and used as gemstone imitation. RI:1.55-1.62.amethyst, zebra stripes in; a typical liquid-filled ducts SG:1.50. H:2. Transparent to translucent. Amiti Diamond; a stolen diamond of 31 cts, was owned by Mrs. N. Coffin, her girl’s name was Amiti from Bedford, Massachusetts, USA. ammolite; a term used for doublet made from zebra or lumachelle, a fossiliferous fire marble usually tiger ammonites or baculites. Ammonite. stripes in ammonalaun; a mineral of alum group with chemical amethyst formula: NaH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O. Also called tschermigite. ammonite; an iridescent gem material derived from aragonite-nacreous layer of ammolite fossils. The inclusion in parallel arrangement with a structure polished surface shows closely patches with play-of- appear as striations similar to zebra or tiger stripes, color similar to that of black opal. Worn as brooch or pendant. Found in Alberta, Canada. Sometimes it is
  • ammonite – Amsterdam cut 28 impregnated in plastic to prevent damage and marketed sometimes potassium. The minerals are characterized as korite. Korite, fire marble, lumachelle by prismatic columnar or fibrous crystals. Hornblende,ammonite; an explosive substance, which contains 70- c b a 124° b a cleavage degrees beside front section cleavage pattern three ammonit forms from Trias, amphibole structure cleavage in concern with strucrue Cretaceous and Jurassic amphibole structure and cleavage asbestos, and nephrite are essential amphibole minerals. 95% ammonium nitrate. Crocidolite is a blue member of asbestos amphiboleamorphism; the state or quality of being amorphous, mineral, which changed by oxidation to a fine golden- such as absence of crystalline structure. brown, is known as tiger’s-eye or tiger-eye.amorphous; a term applied to minerals or gem Occasionally has been silicified (pseudomorph) without materials, which have no definite internal arrangement alteration of the blue color, it is known as sapphire- of the atoms or molecules, and hence no external quartz, azure-quartz, siderite, or hawk’s-eye or crystal form. Sometimes its properties are the same in falcon’s-eye. all directions such as amber and glass. The term amphibole; a mineral of the amphibole group such as exclude the existence of any degree of order. Non- hornblende, actinolite, anthophyllite, cummingtonite, crystalline. Crystalline. arfvedsonite, rebeckite, tremolite, glaucophane. Alsoamorphous; a term formerly used to describe rock called amphibole group. occurring in a continuous mass, which is not divided amphibole group; same as amphibole. into parts. amphibolid; amphibolite.amorphous mineral; a mineral with no definite amphibolite; a crystalline, coarse-grained rock, crystalline structure. consisting of amphiboles, those from Malawi, Southamorphous zircon; zircon, which has suffered a break- East Africa. Contain corundums and sapphires. Also down from crystalline form to an amorphous zircon. called amphibolid, amphibololite. Common in minerals containing radioactive elements. amphibololite; amphibolite. The name applied to the low zircon, which has amphigene; same as leucite. decomposed into nearly amorphous SiO2 and ZrO2 amphisilene shale; a polishing slate with menilite from the normally full crystalline zircon mineral. Also concretions and imprints of amphisile fishes from called metamicts. Eocene Age. Used as decoration.amosite; an iron rich anthophylite a variety of asbestos amphoteric; having both function as either a base or an in yellow color from Transvaal, South Africa. acid.amourant; a commercial term for doublet or composite amplitude; the maximum displacement from its main stone made of synthetic white sapphire top and position in connection with vibration. strontium titanate on the bottom. ampullar pearl; natural pearl formed in the shape of anampangabeite; same as samarskite. ampullar or epidermis of the oyster, which isampelite; an old and obsolete term for shale containing distinguished from cyst pearl and muscle pearl. bituminous carbonaceous Amsterdam; very important diamond-cutting center inampelite; another term for cannel coal, carbonaceous the Netherlands. schist. Amsterdam Black Diamond; a pear-shaped diamond ofamphibole; the name applied to a dark colored group of 33.74 cts, was cut from an opaque, rough stone ferromagnesium silicate minerals whose physical and weighing 55.85 cts. It was exhibit at 700th anniversary chemical characters serve to link them together in one celebration of the city Amsterdam in 1975. Also called family of inosilicates with double chains and chemical Amsterdam Diamond. formula of A2B5(Si,Al)8O22(OH)2. Where A=Mg, Fe+2, Amsterdam brilliant cut; Amsterdam cut. Ca, or Na, and B=Mg, Fe+2, Fe+3 or Al. They are Amsterdam cut; a brilliant cut same as European cut. silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, sodium and Synonym: Amsterdam brilliant cut.
  • 29 Amsterdam Diamond - analcimeAmsterdam Diamond; same as Amsterdam Black amygdaloid. Also called amygdaloid geode. Diamond amygdaloidal diabase; diamonds from Africa haveAmsterdam rose; same as Holland rose. reportedly been found in a fine-textured, dark-gray toamulet; a charm, or talisman such as brooch, bracelet, black igneous rock of medium silica content, which finger ring, or gemstone worn by a superstitious person was formed by rapid cooling and contain minute to prevent disease or misfortune and to ward off evil. vesiculars or cellulars. Gems are so worn and may have been before man used amygdaloid geode; same as amygdaloidal. them for adornment. Some amulets were made in the amygdaloidal cavity; an elongated, almond-shaped form of boxes, cases or of carved animals and pendants. cavity. Also called almond-shaped cavity. amygdaloidal marble; a misleading term for gray- green, dark red or mixed color flattened almond-like shaped marble pebbles. amygdule; a round, small or almond-shaped cavity or vesicle in volcanic rocks or lava, which later filled partly or completely with secondary minerals such as calcite, quartz, chalcedony, epidote, set as beads and engraved gems fusiform bead amygdule; pebbzeolite, or native copper, etc. Also spelled amygdale. Ules, which consist of agates. some modern amulets cut or rough from crystals amyl acetate; an organic, colorless, flammable, pear- like odor liquid having formula of CH3-COOC5H11. In China, the examples were made of jade, in Egypt of RI:1.37. SG:0.862-0.866. Dilute with water, alcohol, glass. Believed that talisman has more and wider and ether. The liquid is useful as a test for cellulosic positive power than amulet. Abraxas, talisman. plastics, which soften under its influence. Also calledamulet case; a small hollow container in form of pear oil and isoamyl acetate. cylinder or other shape of gold or silver usually set with Anabar River; an alluvial diamond mining north of gemstones, in which was kept an amulet. Mirnyi of Sakha, Yakutia, the Russian Federation, CIS.amulet scarab; carved scarab mostly from gemstones Anacreon Emerald; among Hope Collection was an may be worn as a protective amulet or talisman, usually emerald of 16 x 14 mm engraved an owl with a human the scarab is invested with powder and at bottom is face. Now on display at Townshed Collection of the engraved image of Holy Isis. Used as brooch, bracelet, Victorian Albert Museum, London. finger ring, and pendant. anacona ruby; a misleading term for rose quartz.amygdale; amygdule. anaglyph; same as cameo.amygdaloid geode; amygdaloidal. Anakie sapphire; a prolific gem district of about 20amygdaloid; any vesicular or cellular igneous rock, in square miles near Anakie, Queensland, Australia. The which the vesicles have been filled partly or completely sapphire from here are dark blue, often green, with secondary minerals such as calcite, quartz, frequently yellow, purplish or pink. Queensland sapphire. analcime; a white or slightly colored zeolite. A amygdale aggregate analcime crystal epidote, zeolite, native copper and etc.amygdaloid; an almond-shaped and sometimes engraved gemstone. collector’s mineral and faceted as a gem. Also calledamygdaloidal; containing amygdules. Like or pertaining analcite. to an amygdaloid, or a geode, this has formed in an System: cubic.
  • analcite - andalusite 30 Formula: 16[NaAlSi2O6.H2O]. Dispersion: strong. Luster: vitreous to greasy. Found in Brazil, France, Austria, Switzerland, Russia, Colors: white to grayish, colorless, yellowish, pink and greenish. Colorado (USA), and other countries. Streak: white. anatasia; Spanish term for anatase. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. anatexis; the partial or incomplete melting of a pre- Cleavage: 001 indistincts. existing rock due to increasing of temperature at Fracture: subconchoidal. Brittle. constant pressure such as formation of basalt due to SG: 2.22-2.29. partially melting of peridotite. H: 5-5. anbardan; a Farsi (Persian) name, which means RI: 1.479-1.493. amberbox. In Iran used for a box in which amber is Found in all countries. deposited. Amber.analcite; another term for analcime. ancillary; gems or minerals colored by iron.analogous pole; a term used in crystallography for ancillary test; a test to appoint the gemstones, which negative end of the c-axis with polar symmetry. will be treated.analyzer; same as a Nicol prism or polarizer disc, which anatherie pearl; anitari pearl. transmits only plane polarized light, is placed above the anatherie; same as anitari. Sri Lankaese commercial objective in a polarizing microscope. Polariscope. term for slightly lower quality of pearl than ani.analyzer quartz-lamp; a quartz lamp used to measure Ancona ruby; a local misleading term for a reddish or the luminescence of gems under ultraviolet ray. brownish quartz (rose quartz), colored by iron fromanamesite; an obsolete term for fine-grained basaltic Ancona, Italy. Rubasse. rock, which has a texture between fine-grained basalt andalusite; it is trimorph with kyanite and sillimanite. It and coarse-grained dolerite. Used as cladding material. is strong dichroic, resembling alexandrite. SomeAnanda; a Chinese term used for Buddha figure carved on jade as Teacher and discipline. Chinese ritual andalusite crystals structure and symbol jades.anatase; a rare transparent to opaque mineral. One of the three polymorphous naturally occurring form of crystals Ti chiastolite cross section o structure and crystals of analusite anatase structure specimens show chatoyancy, when cut cabochon because of streaky inclusions. Cut as faceted gems, when translucent. Variety known as chiastolite, which exhibits cruciform pattern of carbonaceous impurities, anatase structure and crystals when viewed in cross section. Also called viridine and crystalline titanium oxide: rutile, and brookite. Cut into sometimes named as hard spar. cabochon or faceted gemstones and prized by System: orthorhombic. collectors. Synonym: octahedrite and oisanite. Formula: 4[Al2SiO5]. System: tetragonal. Luster: vitreous to subvitreous. Formula: 4[TiO2]. Colors: usually pink, reddish-brown, rose red, rose whitish, grayish, Luster: adamantine to metallic-adamantine. yellowish-white, violet. Colors: various shades of brown to deep blue or black, green and Streak: white, colorless. pale lavender. Diaphaneity: transparent to nearly opaque. Diaphaneity: transparent to nearly opaque. Fracture: uneven to subconchoidal. Brittle. Fracture: subconchoidal. Brittle. Cleavage: {110} distinct, {11-0} vary, {100} indistincts. Streak: colorless to pale yellow. SG: 3.13-3.16 . Cleavage: {011} perfect, {001} perfect. H: 6-7. (chiastolite 3 - 4). SG: 3.28-3.97. Optics; :1.629-1.640, :1.633-1.644, 1.638-1.650. H: 5 -6. Birefringence: 0.007 - 0.013. . Optics; : 2.493, : 2.554 . Dispersion: 0.016. Birefringence: 0.061. . Source: Brazil, Canada, Andalusia (Spain), Sri Lanka,
  • 31 andalusite - andrewsite France, Chile, Myanmar (Burma), Australia, Bolivia, Africa. USA, and Russia. andesine jade; a misleading term for jade-greenandalusite; a commercial misleading term for brown andesine. variety of tourmaline. andesinite; a coarse-grained, phenocrystalline igneousandalusite absorption spectrum; deep green andalusite rock composed primarily andesine. Frequently used as from Brazil has absorption spectrums at 553.5, 550.5, decorative or cladding stone. 547.5, 518, 495, and 455 nm for manganese and a andesite; a fine-grained, dark-colored, igneous narrow band at 436 nm in Sri Lanka samples. extrusive rock composed chiefly of andesine and someandalusite pleochroism; frequently strongly mafic minerals. Frequently used as decorative or pleochroitic, resembling alexandrite with a brownish- cladding stone. red, brownish-orange and brownish-green to yellow- andesite glass; an natural andesitic glass. Frequently green. used as a gemstone.Andamooka; location of opal mining area in Australia. Andhra Pradesh diamonds; Andhra Pradesh is a state inAndamooka matrix; a pale colored matrix, which Central India with some diamond locations: Golconda, frequently can be appeared similar to a black opal. Wajrakarur, Krishna River. City of Hyderabad is capitalAndamooka Opal; a brilliant fire, oval cabochon cut of the Andhra Pradesh State. white opal of 203 cts. It was cut from a rough stone of Andrada Mine; an alluvial diamond-bearing deposit in 850 cts, (170 grams). Found in 1949 at Andamooka, northeastern Angola, Africa. South Australia. Was presented in 1954 to Queen andradite garnet; a mineral of garnet group, which Elizabeth II of England. Now it is mounted in a necklet includes the varieties demantoid, a brilliant green and with 180 diamonds and 2 other opals. Some gray to topazolite in yellow to pale green. All garnet minerals creamy colored inferior quality opals from Andamooka are birthstones for January. The stone once was named are artificially dyed black. as allochroite. Also called andradite. Other varieties, ofAndelibi; a term used in Nishabur turquoise mine for which are: titanium-rich melanite in black, bright green milky stone but lesser than Soliemani. Turquoise variety is known as demantoid. Topazolite is a classification in Nishabur, Iran. misleading term for transparent yellow, greenish-Anderson liquid; same as Anderson-Payne yellow variety of andradite, pyreneite, schorlomite, refractometer. aplome and bredbergite. Succinite garnet is a paleAnderson and Payne liquid; a standard contact liquid yellow amber-colored variety of andradite. composed of sulfur and di-iodoform (C2I4) with the System: cubic. high refraction RI:1.81. Solved in methylene-iodide. Formula: 8[Ca3Fe2(SiO4)3].Anderson-Payne refractometer; a special model, Luster: vitreous to resinous. which the prism incorporating synthetic spinel, blend Colors: green, yellowish-green, yellow, gray-green or black. and diamond. Streak: white.Andes crown; crown of the Andes. Diaphaneity: transparent to opaque.Andes diorite; a quartziferous diorite from Argentine Fracture: uneven. Brittle. Andes containing augite as principal mafic mineral. Cleavage: not determined. Frequently used as decorative or cladding stone. SG: 3.81 - 3.87.andesine; a member of plagioclase feldspar group with H: 6 - 7 . the composition ranging Ab70An30 to Ab50An50. Also RI: 1.856-1.895 . called pseudo-albite. Frequently cut into cabochon. Birefringence: none. System: triclinic. Dispersion: 0.057. Formula: 4[NaAlSi3O8. with nCaAl2Si2O8]. Source: Garnet Hill, Calaveras County, San Benito, Luster: vitreous to resinous. Arkansas (USA), Cornwall (England), Piemont (Italy), Colors: colorless, white, gray sometimes jade-green. Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Romania, Streak: white. Russia and Uganda. Diaphaneity: transparent to opaque. andradite absorption spectrum; a strong line at 443 Fracture: uneven. Brittle. nm, sometimes when demantoid contains Cr at 701, SG: 2.66-2.68. 693, 640 and 622 nm. H: 6-6. andradite cut; cut en cabochon Optics; : 1.543, : 1.476-1.548, 1.551. andrewsite; a bluish-green mineral with the chemical Birefringence: 0.008. or . composition of (Cu,Fe+2)Fe+3(PO4)3(OH)2. SG:3.475. Source: California, Utah, and Colorado (USA), H:4. Optics; : 1.813, : 1.820, 1.830. Birefringence: Greenland, Norway, France, Italy, India, and south 0.017. . Luster silky. Found in Cornwall, England. It
  • angle skin – Anglo American 32 is a mineral with associated turquoise and rashleighite. Bragg angle. Angle of refraction.angel skin; same as angel’s skin coral. angle of repose; same as angle of friction.angel’s skin coral; same as pelle d’angelo. angle of refraction; in optics, the angle, at which aangelite; a term applied to anhydrite of bluish gray refracted ray of light or ray, upon leaving the surface of color. a mineral, makes with perpendicular (called the normal)Angelo pearl; a new or recent imitation pearl consisting to that surface. Also called refraction angle. of mother-of-pearl beads and covered with layers of Refractive index. essence d’orient or plastics. angle of static friction; same as angle of friction.angle; any shape formed by two meeting planes or lines, angle of total reflection; same as critical angle. commonly measured in degrees or radians. angles; bright fissures seen in metamict or low zircon.angle cutter; same as angular cutter. angles; plural of angle.angle of contact; contact angle. anglesite; a white orthorhombic mineral. A collector’sangles of crystal; the interfacial angles by convention the angles between the normals of two crystallographic faces and not the outside angle formed by them.angle of deviation; deviation method.angle of extinction; when a thin section of an anisotropic crystal is revolved between crossed Nicols in a polarizing microscope the light does not transmit, when the mineral planes of vibration are parallel to a Nicol plane.angle of faces; in crystallography, interfacial angles are anglesite determined from angles between two normals. crystalsangle of friction; the greatest angle between the horizontal and the plane surface of contact between two mineral. Also called lead spar, lead vitriol. bodies, when the upper body is just about to slide over System: orthorhombic. the lower. Also called angle of repose, angle of static Formula: 4[PbSO4]. friction. Luster: Adamantine, vitreous to resinous.angle of incidence; the angle, at which a ray of energy Colors: White, green, yellowish and pale shade of green or blue. or light strikes the surface of mineral or an object, Streak: white or colorless. makes it normal to the surface or boundary. Angle of Diaphaneity: transparent to opaque. refraction. Cleavage: 001 good, 210 distinct, and {010} indistincts.angle of minimum deviation; minimum deviation. Fracture: conchoidal. Brittle.angle of polarization; the angle of reflected light from a SG: 6.30-6.39. plane surface, at which the light is polarized. The plan H: 2-3 . of vibration light being at right angles to the plane of Optics; : 1.8771, : 1.8826, 1.8937. incidence. Birefringence: 0.0166. .angle of reflection; the angle of the reflected ray of light Dispersion: 0.044. or energy, measured from a perpendicular (called the Found in the USA, Morocco, Tunisia, Mexico, Russia, Australia, and Scotland. N angle stone; a term used by Australian miners for normal reflected ray incident ray coarse, lenticular and silicified layer variety of sandstone or clay, which is found just above the opal i2 i1 90° bearing strata. The obtained rock often contains cracks, which are filled with precious opal. Also called A B guardian-angle stone, walnut stone. glass r angel stone; a term used by Australian miners for hard semi-spherical pieces of porcellanite, which is formed refracted ray within the clay shale with potch opal along their joint. N Also called walnut potch, yowah nut. Yowah nut. refraction and reflection angles of light angel stone; a term used by Australian miners in Ridge, normal) to the surface, from which the ray is reflected. for a stone formed within the opal level. It is symbolized by (theta). Also called reflection Anglo-American corporation of South Africa, Ltd.; a angle, reflexion angle, angle of reflexion. Same as corporation of capital and holding company for control
  • 33 Angola - anisodesmic of diamond mines and industries. Concerned with De anhydrite; calcium sulfate, without water, CaSO4. Beers Consolidated Mines, Ltd.; Consolidated Diamond Mines of South-West Africa, Ltd.; New Jagersfontein Mining & Exploration Co., Ltd.; Premier (Transvaal) Diamond Mining Co., Ltd.; and Williamson Diamonds, Ltd. 130 1 30Angola; an important diamond-bearing country in central, Africa.Angola diamond; diamonds from the Angola district of Africa.angoshtari; a Farsi or Persian term meaning stone for anhydrite crystals finger ring which is a sky blue turquoise without dendrite (matrix). Turquoise classification in Iran. Usually massive. Orthorhombic system. Transparent. Also spelled angushtary. Colorless to slightly color. Optics; :1.570, :1.5754,Ångström; or Ångström unit; named after the Swedish 1.616. Birefringence: 0.044. . Dispersion: 0.013. physicist A. J. Ångström, (1814-1874). One billionth of SG:2.98. H:3. Found in Italy, and Mexico. Vulpinite is a meter, one tenth-millionth of a millimeter, (1 Å: 10–7 a scaly, granular variety of anhydrite. Also called cube mm), or one hundred-millionth of a centimeter; the unit spar. Used for ornamental purposes. is used for smallest measurements required in the anhydrous; without water, not containing hydrogen, or electro-magnetic spectrum, the wavelength of visible water, in its composition. Often applied to salts without light waves, and X-rays. The standard international (SI) water. unit for the measurement of short-wavelengths is the ani; a Sri Lankan (Ceylonese) commercial term, for nanometer (nm). 1 nm: 10 Å. Å or A, seldom, ÅE is a pearls of fine orient, almost perfectly spherical in abbreviation for the Ångström and the Ångström unit. shape. Millimicron. anidiomorphic; same as xenomorphic.Ångström unit; Ångström. ani-gyi; a Burmese term used for second waterangular; the particles having sharp angles, borders, or corundum of pale red-crimson which are graded due to weight, for sample ani-gyi stone of 2-6 cts. Corundum classification in Myanmar. anil; a basic compound derived from an aromatic angular aniline amine. sand anil dye; an anil compound which used as dye. pebbles aniline; an organic, colorless, oily composition of C6H5- NH2, a liquid used in microscopy as an immersion medium. It turns brown on exposure on air. Soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene and to some degree in water. RI:1.58. Also, used as a coloring agent. Highly corners. poisonous. Also called aminobenzene.angular cutter; a milling cutter, on which the cutting aniline purple, synthetic; a term applied to first face is at an angle, greater or lesser than 90, with regard synthetic dyestuff, which known as mauvein. Also to the axis of the cutter. Also called angle cutter. called Perkin’s mauve.angushtary; another spelling for angoshtary. animal calculi; a term applied to stone-like concretionanhedral; anhedral crystals. consists of minerals and salts found in hollow organsanhedral crystals; crystals which do not show good, of animal body, which used in the past as medicine. outward form, or, have an abnormal external shape, in animals; carved animals from jade are as Chinese contrast to euhedral. Also called anhedral, subhedral or religion symbols are ever-present. Small carving of allotriomorphic. animals was used as tomb pieces as guardiansanhedron; an anhedral crystal. symbols. Chinese ritual and symbol jades.anhydrate; same as dehydrate. animals in amber; insects in amber.anhydric; free of crystallization water. Not containing animal turquoise; same as odontolite. hydrogen, or water, in its composition. anion; a negatively charged atom, ion or radical,anhydride; a compound derived from another opposite of cation. compound (such as an acid), by the elimination of a anionic dye; same as acid dye. water molecule. anisodesmic; a crystal or compound, in which the ionic
  • anisole – Anodonta cygnea 34 bonds have unequally strengths, such as in nitrate. annealing; the method, by which metals or glass areanisole; the organic composition C6H5OCH3, a heated to high temperature, and then slowly cooled, to colorless, toxic liquid, with an aromatic odor, used in give more tenacity, make then less brittle eliminate microscopy, as an immersion medium, RI: 1.516. various stresses and weaknesses Soluble in alcohol, ether, acetone, and benzene, but not annealing; annealed diamonds are diamonds changed in in water. Also called methyl phenyl ether, and color from the green of reactor-treatments to yellow- methoxybenzene. orange, or brown (between 200° C to 800° C or 392° Fanisometric; not isometric, having unsymmetrical parts, to 1,472° F). applied to crystals with three unequal axes. annealing; in the glass industry the heating and slowanisometric; a term applied in petrology to a texture of cooling of glass to reduce stress. a rock in which the grains are different sizes. Anne of Austria; the circular, rose cut diamond of 14anisotropic; crystal anisotropy. cts, or the Rose d’Angleterre, which once belonged toanisotropy; crystal anisotropy. Anne of Austria or the Queen of France. It is one of theanitari pearl; Sri Lankan commercial term for a slightly 50 diamonds that the Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661); a lower quality of pearl than ani. Also called anatherie cardinal, statesman, and prime minister under Louis pearl. XIV, bequeathed to the French Crown.ani-te; a Siamese term used for third water corundum Anne of Brittany’s Ruby; an irregular polished ruby of stones of bright light-crimson known as ani-te or 105 cts. Now on display at the Museum in Louvre, bombaing, which are graded due to weight of 2-6 cts, Paris, France. they were fancied in India. Corundum classification Annex Kleinzee; an alluvial diamond deposit in the in Myanmar. northern part of Namaqualand, Southwest Africa.ani-the; a Burmese term used for mixed minute Kleinzee. corundum stones of second water and fine quality. annite; an iron-rich variety of biotite or mica. Also Corundum classification in Myanmar. called hydroxyl-annite.ankaramite; a Malagasy name for an olivine-bearing anniversaries; same as wedding anniversaries. basalt, containing pyroxene and olivine phenocryst. Anniversary Diamond; the pear-shaped diamond of 65ankerite; a mineral related to dolomite, it is associated cts, from South Africa cut from a rough stone, which with iron ores. Frequently cut cabochon and prized by weighing over 200 cts, by Baumgold in 1951 to collectors. Also called ferroan dolomite, claet spar. celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Baumgold Dolomite. company. The present owner is Canadian. System: hexagonal. anniversary ring; same as eternity ring. Formula: 3[(Ca,Fe,Mg)(CO3)2]. annular; having the shape of an unbroken circle, or ring. Luster: vitreous to pearly. annual ring; a term used for rings of wood, which Colors: colorless, white, grayish, pale brown, greenish, pinkish. indicate one year’s growth of stem of a tree. Similar to Streak: colorless. Diaphaneity: translucent to subtranslucent. Cleavage: {1011} perfect. Fracture: subconchoidal. Brittle. SG: 2.97. H: 3½-4½. Optics; :1.728, :1.531. Birefringence: 0.187. . 2m Source: Algeria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, USA and throughout other countries. 1m annual rings of an oldankerite luminescence; orange, creamy white, blue, 0m tree ca 2.000 years green, pale brown under SWUV. Orange, blue, creamy white, green, pale brown under LWUV. that can be seen in some stones such as coral.ankh symbol; an ancient Egyptian symbol for life, Conchiolin coral. which is in the form of a tau cross. anode; positive electrode, used in a plating bath.ankle ring; same as anklet. anode polishing; same as electrolytic polishing.anklet; an ornament of gold or any other noble metals, anodizing; a method of color covering aluminum, such as a ring, chain, or band, worn around the ankle by aluminum alloys, magnesium, and a few other metals women in Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Also known as an in an electrolytic treatment bath. ankle ring. Anodonta cygnea; a kind of freshwater pearl-bearing
  • 35 anodyne - anthocyanin mussel found in ponds near Turin, Italy. Also called anorthic system: same as a triclinic system, crystals swan mussel. having unequal, oblique axes.anodyne necklace; a charm necklace, used to ward off anorthite; a basic and endmember of the plagioclase pain or illness in 18th century. feldspar series, Ab10-An90 to Ab0-An100, with theanomalous birefringence; anomalous double refraction. chemical formula: CaAl2Si2O8. It consists of calcium-anomalous dispersion; anomalous behavior of aluminum silicate and contains no sodium. Triclinic refractive index versus wavelength being abnormally system. Colorless, white, gray, reddish. Transparent to high on the longer wave side of the band and translucent. White streak. Cleavage: {001} perfect, and {010} nearly perfect. Fracture: conchoidal to uneven. v b g y o r Brittle. Optics; :1.577, :1.585, 1.590. Birefringence absorption coefficient k 0.10 :0.013. . SG:2.74-2.77. H:6-6½. Cut as faceted gems 0.08 refractive index n k for collectors. Also Called calciclase, Ca-spar, calcium 0.06 feldspar, lime feldspar. 1.55 0.06 0.02 anorthoclase; a triclinic feldspar, closely related to the n 1.50 0.00 orthoclase group. Mainly a soda-potash feldspar n K(AlSi3O8)-Na(AlSi3O8). Colorless, white, greenish, 1.45 yellowish, gray, reddish. Transparent to translucent. 400 500 600 700 White streak. Cleavage: {001} perfect, and {010} wavelength in nm anomalous dispersion. After Nassau 1983 abnormally low on the other side, it means absorption spectrum create by a prism is not in its normal order. This effect frequently can be seen in violet crown glass, which has an anomalous band at 550 nm. Also can be seen in fuchsine.anomalous double refraction; double refraction in a normally, single refraction stone, caused by internal stresses. Found in stones, such as almandine garnet, anorthite crystal diamond, synthetic spinel, due to rapidly cooled glass, or cubic minerals. Seen through irregular extinction, perfect. Fracture: uneven. Brittle. Optics; :1.518- when a substance is observed between crossed Nicols, 1.526, :1.522-1.532, 1.522-1.534. Birefringence: or crossed filters, of a polariscope, as in synthetic spinel 0.005. . SG:2.56-2.60. H:6-6½. Found in Australia, and sometimes in garnet. Known as tabby extinction, Germany, USA, Kenya, and Nigeria (Africa). when the effect is alternate light and dark striping. anorthosite; a coarse-grained, igneous rock, containing Synthetic spinel show always displays the anomalous almost plagioclase, near labradorite (Ab63-Or37), which effect, and presence of peculiar strain knots or pseudo- invert to monoclinic system when heated, and interference, is a helpful feature in its identification. containing minor amounts of pyroxene, and olivine. Also called anomalous birefringence. Anomalous Found in the Canadian Shield. Also called soda extinction (anomalous double refraction) always microcline, anorthose. appears at irregular intervals and is rarely orientated at anoxic; deficiency of oxygen or without oxygen. 90º. Also called extinction position. Polariscope, Antarctica; a common beryl deposit of greenish-blue in strain, tabby extinction. quartz veins worked out near Commonwealth Bay,anomalous double refraction in garnet; anomalous Adélie, Australia. double refraction. antelope jade; a term used by the Chinese to describe aanomalous double refraction in glass; anomalous particular color of jade. double refraction in glass is seen due to the suddenly antero aquamarine; same as Colorado aquamarine. cooling of the mass. Anomalous double refraction. anthill garnet; an early pyrope mine in New Mexico,anomalous double refraction in synthetic spinel; Arizona and Utah, USA were large ants and scorpions anomalous double refraction. were constructed the sites by using of garnets.anomaly; deviation from the normal, or average, or anthill scorpion; an early garnet mine in New Mexico, expected, or unusual or irregular. Arizona and Utah, USA were large ants and scorpionsanomite; a term used to a variety of biotite, which were constructed the sites by using of garnet grains. differs from biotite only in optical orientation. anthocyan; same as anthocyanin.anophorite; hornblende. anthocyanin; a flavonoid plant colorant of red, pink,
  • anthochromacy – Antilles pearl 36 and blue colors in leaves and fruits of plants seen as stones. glycosides pigments. Water-soluble. Used as dyes. anthrax; a Greek term for incombustible or cannot be Also called anthocyan. Flavone, cyanidin. burnt, in contrast to charcoal.anthochromacy; metachromacy. Anthrax; a biblical term for the fourth gemstone in theanthodite; gypsum or aragonite that occurs in caves, as Aaron’s Breastplate comparative to nephew. Translated radiating, needle-like, or hairlike crystals, from a as ruby (carbuncle) or probably an almandine garnet or common base. emerald, also hematite. The stone is engraved with theanthosiderite; a pseudomorph of quartz and hydrated word Judah. Also spelled nophech, nophak. iron oxide (goethite), after cummingtonite. anti; corozo nut.anthophyllite; a silicate mineral of the series antibiotic aureomycin; a combat agent against anthophyllite gedrite in the amphibole group and a mortality of oysters, by which the nucleus are dipped variety of asbestos. Occurring as massive, lamellae or in the agent. radiation fibers in metamorphic rocks. Dark violet antidote to poison; powder of emerald it token before fluorescence under SWUV and LWUV light. Cut gems the poison spread all over the body. Alternatively, once exhibit sparkling iridescence and frequently cats-eye a fossiled object consisting of the petrified fish tooth or effect. Also called bidalotite. parallel bone occasionally worn as a protective or System: orthorhombic. curative power, charm or an antidote to poison. Set in Formula: 4[(Fe+2,Mg)7(Si8O22)(OH,F)2]. finger rings as an amulet. Also called poison antidote, Luster: silky to vitreous, pearly on fresh cleavage. virtuous stone, when it is made from gemstones. Color: clove-brown, yellowish-brown to yellowish green, light Toadstone, garalàri. green, light yellow. antigorite; a soft, platy or lamellar, mineral variety of Streak: colorless to light gray. the serpentine group, with a pale green color. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent inclined to opaque. Cleavage: {110} perfect, {010} imperfect, and {100} imperfect. Fracture: not determined. SG: 2.85-3.57. H: 5½. Optics; :1.587-1.694, :1.602-1.71, 1.613-1.721. Birefringence: 0.013-0.028. or . Found in Canada, Greenland, Norway, USA, Italy, Austria, and the Czech Republic. structure of antigorite-serpentine. After Kunze, Ganthophyllite cat’s-eye; a red-brown to clove-brown variety of anthophyllite, it occurs as fibrous which Resembles jade in appearance. Occurring as lamellar exhibit a sharp cat’s-eye effect after cut cabochon. because of intense shearing stress as in dislocation-anthracite; a compact, dense, brittle, glassy or metamorphism. Monoclinic system. Chemical formula: semimetallic luster coal of black color like jet, in 2[Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Optics; :1.560, :1.566, 1.571. which carbon content is 92%-98%. Conchoidal to Birefringence: 0.011-0.014. . SG:2.61. H:2½-3½. uneven fracture. H:2-2.5, SG:1.32-1.37. Ignites with difficulty and burns with a short blue flame and much less smoke. It is of the highest metamorphic rank. Found in China, Russia, USA and South Africa. Used as jet imitation for small ornaments. Also called hard coal, stone coal, black coal, kilkenny coal.anthraconite; a stone emits an odor when rubbed or broken such as bituminous limestone or brown dolomite. spiral-cylindrical structure of antigorite. After Grimm, R.E.anthrakion; a term used by Theophrastus for carbuncle garnet from Orchomenos in Arcadia, Troezen and Synonym: picrolite, and baltimorite. Found in Valle Corinth. d’Antigorio, Piedmont, Italy.anthraquinone; a yellow needle crystal C6H4(CO)2 Antilles pearl; a misleading term for imitation pearl, cut C6H4. Soluble in alcohol, ether, and acetone. Insoluble as beads, from the iridescent, mother-of-pearl of the in water. Used as dyes. Also known as C.I. vat blue 4. turbo sea snail. It has a pearly appearance on surface,anthrax; a red gemstone referred to by the ancients, but a yellowish, non-nacreous bottom. Also called oil probably carbuncle, garnet, ruby or other perhaps red pearl.
  • 37 antilogous pole – Antwerp roseantilogous pole; a term used in crystallography for antique glass; same as cathedral glass. positive end of the c-axis with polar symmetry. antique reproduction; copy made from the design ofantimonite; an obsolete name for stibnite. ancient jewels.antimony; a trivalent, and pentavalent, metalloid antique shape; a gemstone shaped with rounded ends. element of the group VA of Periodic System. It is antiquing; metals or other materials made by objecting metallic, silvery-white, crystalline, and brittle, with the them to atmospheric corrosion, after long exposure, or Symbol Sb. Used as an alloy, in pewter. being chemically treated, so that they take on color,antimony glance; an obsolete name for stibnite. such as naturally occurs on copper and bronze whichAntipathes spiralis; king’s coral, accarbaar. achieves a green film or discoloration, to protects theantiperthite; microcline or orthoclase inclusions metal from further oxidation. Gold may be darkened by exsolved in albite, or oligoclase feldspars. Found in a black chrome. Patina. parallel or subparallel intergrowth formed during the antireflection coating; same as anti-reflex-film. antireflex coating; same as anti-reflex-film. antireflex film; a thin, coating of some substance such as cryolite Na3AlF6 or MgF2, on the surface of gems or cancellation n1 n=/n1n2 1/4 ? n2 antiperthite of orthoclase in albite slow cooling of magma, and visible to the naked eye. antirefection coating on gems and cabochons. Perthite feldspar. After Nassau 1983antipoint; airy disc. imitation gemstones, which gives no reflectingantique amber; antique amber can produce by heat- properties to the stone. Also called antireflection treatment which become rich brown color. Amber will coating, antireflex coating. embedded in heated colza or rape-seeds oil in an iron Anton Dunkels Diamond; the black, drop-shape vessel 30-40 hours. Also called antiqued amber, diamond set in a brooch, named after the diamond toasted amber. Heat treatment of amber. merchant Dunkels.antique amber beads; antique amber beads are often antozonite; a dark violet to black semiopaque variety of golden-orange in color because of exposure to air, fluorite from Wölsendorf Germany, which emits a those fresh amber are yellow-gold in color. strong odor when crushed.antique cut; cushion cut. Antwerp; the most important diamond-cutting center inantique cushion brilliant; named for any of the the world, Antwerp, Belgium. modifications of the brilliant cut, either in outline and Antwerp Diamond; the diamond of 47.50 old cts. King in the number of facets. More or less rectangular, or Philip the II of Spain, bought this diamond in 1559, for his third wife. Antwerp qualities; a commercial term for diamonds cut in Antwerp. Antwerp rose; a cut which has fewer than the usual sixteen and namely twelve, triangular and trapeze- top view base view antique cushion-cut square in form, with rounded corners, and slightly top view curved sides. Cushion-shaped brilliant.antiqued amber; same as antique amber. top view Antwerp rose cut
  • Antwerp rose - aperture 38 hedron tin shape. Also called Brabant, Dutch rose cut, Formula: 2[Ca5(PO4)3 (F,Cl,O,OH)3]. May contain didymium. Antwerp rose cut. Luster: resinous to greasy.Antwerp rose cut; Antwerp rose. Colors: Colorless, white, rose, orange, yellow, red, pink, purple,anyan; a Burmese term used for mixed common water- green, yellows and pale shade of green or blue. worn spinel. Corundum classification in Myanmar. Streak: white.anyan-nat-thew; a Burmese term used for rose spinel Diaphaneity: transparent to semitransparent. of octahedron crystal and perfect luster. Corundum Cleavage: 0001poor, 1010 fair. classification in Myanmar. Fracture: irregular. Brittle.anyan-seinche; a Burmese term used for small spinels SG: 3.16 - 3.22. of quality of anyan-nat-thew. Corundum classi- H: 5. fication in Myanmar. Optics; :1.632-1.649, :1.628-1.642.anygyi; a Burmese name, applied to second-water Birefringence: 0.002-0.013. . rubies. Dispersion: 0.013.anyolite; a green, zoisite rock, containing black Found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Saxony, hornblende and large, opaque ruby crystals. Used as Bohemia, Russia, Sweden, Norway and Maine (USA). ornamental rock. It is an absorption spectrum band is at apatite absorption spectrum; blue apatite has broad 455 nm. Found in Tanzania. Also called Masai 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nm anyolite. red orange yellow green blue violetanyum; a Myanmar (Burmese) name employed to denote first quality, two-carat rubies.anyun; a Burmese term used for corundum stones of 2 512 491 464 absorption blue apatite spectrum of cts., and over. Corundum classification in blue and 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nm Myanmar. yellow red orange green blue violetApache tears; a tear-shaped, , pebble-like, rounded yellow apatite nodule of obsidian. Translucent, iridescent, light to smoky, dark-gray to gray-brown color. The occasional 584 527 presence of silky striations give it a cat’s-eye effect, yellow apatite when cut en cabochon. Supposedly named after their resemblance to the tears of Apache Squaws. Occurs in bands, at 631, 622, 525, 512, 507, 491, and 464 nm. Maricopa and Pilal Counties, Arizona, California, and apatite cat’s-eye; blue apatite with a cat’s-eye effect, Nevada, USA. Used by Indians for arrowheads. used for the cabochon cut.apanica; a Sanskrit term for emerald. apatite cut; colored apatite especially the blue one is cutapatite; a group of variously colored minerals. as a gemstone. Varieties: the blue-green is named as moroxite, the apatite pleochroism; strong pleochroism in blue stones, colorless, known as francolite, the yellow-green called in blue and yellow. Yellow apatite, pinkish-purple asparagus stone, a fine deep-green, from Canada, is under SWUV and LWUV. named trillium, a sky-blue mixture of lapis lazuli and aperiodic balance; a balance, which reads or measures apatite from Siberia, Russia is known as lazurapatite, the magnetic attraction placed on a stone, the weight can be read directly on the scale. Cl Ca aperture; the diameter of the circular opening of a lens Ca or mirror system through which light enters an optical Ca PO4 Ca Cl crystal structure crystal structure and crystals of apatite aperture and the blue with chatoyant effect, is called apatite of a shell cat’s-eye. Dahlite is a carbonate-apatite. Used as gemstones. Also called calcium phosphate, somberite and formerly called phosphorite. system. System: Hexagonalic. aperture of shell; the hole of the quasi circular opening
  • 39 apex - apophyllite of a shell.apex; the top or highest point of a vein, relative to the surface. optical axisapex; the highest point of a landformation.apex of shell; the highest or uppermost point of a shell apex optical axis four different aplanatic leses acidic plagioclase. Used for carving statues and enamel in glass industry. Also calling haplite. apex of shell aplitic; having the fine-grained texture of haplite. organ or structure body. aplome; the yellowish-green, brownish-green to dark-apex stone; the highest ornament stone in a building. green varieties of andradite or manganese garnet. Same Also called saddle stone. as haplome.aphaniphyric; cryptocrystalline. apobsidian; an old, devitrified obsidian.aphanite; any fine-grained compact rock of diorite Apocalypse gems; a term used for an emerald (a variety composition, whose components are not of beryl), which used in High Priest Breast Plate and in distinguishable with the unaided eye. Also called the Apocalypse. felsite, kryptomere. apochromatic lens; a high quality lens, which has beenaphanite; same as fine-grained. Also called cryptomere, corrected for both spherical and chromatic aberration. aphinite, felsitoid. Aplanachromatic lens.aphanitic; very fine-grained igneous rock or apogranite; a term used a in Russia for high-albite groundmass or related to aphanite. The obsolete term (which is sodium-rich) granite enriched in beryllium, felsitic was for light-colored rock with aphanitic lithium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium etc. texture. apogrit; same as graywacke.aphinite; aphanite. apophyllite; a phyllo-silicate mineral. Cut as gems andaphrite; a foliated, lamellar, scaly, chalky variety of prized by collectors. Also, called fish-eye stone variety calcite, having a white, pearly luster. Synonym: earth foam, foaming earth, foam spar foam stone. 25 9 19 22 25 9 25aphrizite; a local term, for a black variety of tourmaline, 9 22 19 19 22 25 25 containing iron. 22 22 19 9 28 31 41 41 31 28aphrodisiac properties; a believing that pearl have 25 28 31 41 25 31 aphrodisiac properties? 41 25 28aphroseline; in Greek, same as adularia.aplanachromatic lens; a lens corrected for both chromatic aberration and spherical aberration. Apochromatic lens. apophyllite structure and crystallsaplanachromatic loupe; a loupe containing an Aplanachromatic lens. of apophyllite is called ichthyophthalm. Apophyllite isaplanatic; an optical system, which produces an image a secondary mineral and occurring with zeolites in free from spherical aberration. geodes in igneous rocks and absalts. System: tetragonalic.aplanatic lens; a lens, which is corrected for spherical Formula: 4[KCa4(F,OH)(Si4O10)2.8H2O]. aberration and coma. Luster: mother-of-pearl. Sometimes with fish-eye effects.aplanatic triplet; an aplanatic lens system, made of Colors: colorless, white, reddish-white, gray, yellowish, greenish, three pieces cemented together, to produce an image flesh-red and brown. free from spherical aberration. A more popular name Streak: colorless. for this term is triple aplanat. Diaphaneity: transparent to semitransparent.aplite; white to gray, fine-textured granitic dike rock, Cleavage: {001} highly perfect, {110} imperfect. consisting mainly of quartz, potassium feldspar and Fracture: uneven. Brittle.
  • apophyllite fish - aquamarine 40 SG: 2.30-2.40. apricotine; commercial term for the yellowish-red H: 4-5 . apricot-colored garnet or quartz pebbles from Cape Optics; :1.537, :1.535. May, New Jersey, USA. Birefringence: ± 0.002. or . apsaras; a Chinese term for an attendance Buddhist Found in Harz (Germany), Mexico, India, Sweden, figure in form of celestial musician and dancers made Transylvania, Switzerland, Brazil, New Jersey (USA), of jade. and Broken Hill (Australia). Apukan River; a district of alluvial diamond deposit inapophyllite fish-eye; the fish-eye variety of apophyllite the Danau Seran area of southern Kalimantan, is called ichthyophthalm. Indonesia.Apostles, gem symbols of Twelve; jasper; Peter, apya; a Burmese term used for flat corundum stones of sapphire; Andrew, chalcedony; James, emerald; John, fine quality. Corundum classification in Myanmar. sardonyx; Philip, sard; Bartholomew, chrysolite; apya-kya; a Burmese term used for apya-sa a term for Matthew, beryl; Thomas, topaz; James the Less, flat corundum stones of second class. Corundum chrysoprase; Jude, hyacinth; Simon, amethyst; Judas. classification in Myanmar.apparent density; an obsolete term for bulk density. apya-sa; same as apya-kya. The weight of an object or mineral, divided by its apyazone; a Burmese term used for flat corundum exterior volume, less the volume of its open pores. stones of third quality. Corundum classification inapple jade; a term used by the Chinese to describe a Myanmar. particular color of jade. apyrite; a term sometimes used for peach-bloom coloredapplied geology; the application or studies of tourmaline or peach-colored tourmaline. geological appearance, economic geology, apyu-the; a Burmese term used for small corundum hydrogeology, engineering geology, reconnaissance stones of pale, inferior quality and rough. geology or military problems. Corundum classification in Myanmar.applied mineralogy; the application of various mineral aqiq; a Hebrew term for agate. Also spelled achite. to economic, engineering, technical mineralogy or aqua aura quartz; a commercial, misleading term for a military problems. bluish-green to pale-blue, iridescent colored, naturalappliqués work; a type of decoration made by affixing. quartz crystal, which is in fact a colorless stone but Gemstone appliqués made from jade, lapis lazuli, and takes on color when coated with pure gold, silver, or other stones are much rarer than inlays or overlays. An platinum. example of a famous appliqué object is the Chinese aqua aura topaz; a commercial misleading term Coromandel room-divider screen. meaning coated topaz with a very thin layer of goldappraisal; an estimation or the fixing a monetary value which is used to become a pale blue color topaz, or to on anything, such as a gemstones or jewelry. It differs improve the color of stone. from valuation and evaluation. aqua fortis; same as concentrated nitric acid.appraiser; one who estimates moderately quality and aquagem; a commercial, misleading term for a light value of an opal mine or deposit. blue synthetic spinel.appearance; the external geometrical forms or shapes, Aquamarijn; Dutch term for aquamarine. in which a crystal occur, such as cube, hexagonal, Aquamarin; German term for aquamarine. Aquamarin; German misleading term for pale blue apatite. Aquamarin; German misleading term used rarely for pale blue topaz. Aquamarin Achter; German misleading term used rarely for pale blue topaz. deltoidicositetrahedron tetrahedron cubic octahedron dodecahedron Aquamarin Chrysolit; German misleading term used rarely for pale blue apatite.some crystallographic appearances in cubic system aquamarine; a pale blue to light green variety of the gem quality of beryl. It is a dichroic gemstone, with so- called twin colors. The term aquamarine is tetragonal, etc. Also called tracht. Single form, misleadingly used as a prefix, such aquamarine closed form, opens form. chrysolite which is a greenish-yellow beryl,approval selection; the largest quantity of cut gems of aquamarine emerald a triplet, made of colorless beryl, the trade, which are prepared and to be sent out for and aquamarine topaz a bluish topaz. Most often, the approval and selection, also single gems.
  • 41 aquamarine – aque marine sky-blue aquamarine in the trade, are heat treated green for genuine beryl or aquamarine triplet. yellow or brown yellow stones which has been exposed aquamarine eyeglass, Nero’s; a fable about aquamarine to temperatures of 250-500° C, sometimes as high as eyeglass, beryl eyeglass and emerald eyeglass used by 700° C, or Indian and Brazilian green beryls. The Emperor Nero (37-68 A.D.) to see the gladiatorial fights chatoyancy effect is frequently seen in some in ancient Rome, which was cut as a lens. Some aquamarines. Usually cut as a brilliant, or step cut. authorities supposed to have been light green or light Synthetic aquamarine is a misleading term for synthetic beryl or perhaps jasper. spinel. Aquamarine means water of the sea according to aquamarine filter; a filter made from aquamarine to its color. → Goshenite, inclusion in aquamarine. test gems. System: Hexagonalic. aquamarine glass; light blue, or greenish-blue colored Formula: 2[Al2Be3Si6O18]. glass, regardless of physical properties, or chemical Luster: vitreous. composition. Colors: shades of blue or blue-green to light green. aquamarine imitation; imitations that are made from Streak: white, colorless. aquamarine-colored synthetic spinel, colored by cobalt Diaphaneity: transparent to semitransparent. which can be distinguished by means of a Chelsea Fracture: uneven to conchoidal. Brittle. filter. Imitations show red, while true aquamarines Cleavage: 0001 less distincts. show green. Synthetic spinel has a refractive index of SG: 2.68-2.71, seldom 2.73. 1.728. Also commonly used blue topaz, with RI: 1.61 H: 8. and 1.62. Some imitations are made from aquamarine Optics; ω:1.570-1.580, ε :1.575-1.586. blue glass but they are distinguished readily by their Birefringence: 0.0055-0.006. . single refractive index on the refractometer. Dispersion: 0.014. aquamarine imitation; to imitate colored transparent Found in Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Sri Lanka, aquamarine added cobalt oxides to an antimony glass. California (USA), and other locations. aquamarine, inclusion in; → inclusion in aquamarine.aquamarine; sometimes the term is used as a color aquamarine sapphire; a term for pale blue sapphire. designation, meaning blue to light bluish green. → aquamarine, Siam; a misleading term for heat-treated Goshenite. blue zircon.aquamarine; a misleading term for aquamarine blue aquamarine, synthetic; a misleading term for pale-blue colored synthetic spinel. → Goshenite. or greenish-blue synthetic corundum, or spinel.aquamarine absorption spectrum; aquamarine display aquamarine test filter; the colored Chelsea filter is violet at 427 and 456 nm, and green at 537 nm. Heat- used for rapid testing of aquamarines to distinguish them from synthetical material. Nearly all true aquamarines show greenish-blue under Chelsea filter. 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nm aquamarine topaz; a misleading term for greenish-blue topaz. red orange yellow green blue violet aquamarine tourmaline; a misleading term for pale blue, and greenish to pale blue tourmaline. aquamarine triplet; a genuine triplet, made from beryl 537 456 427 or aquamarine, is used to imitate emerald. It is often called emerald triplet. aquamarine absorption spectrum aquamarinfluss; a German misleading term for pale blue fluorite. aquamarinfluss; a German misleading term for pale treated aquamarine is inert. blue topaz.aquamarine, Brazilian; a misleading term for blue aquamarinschorl; a German misleading term for pale topaz. blue beryl.aquamarine chrysolite; misleading term for the aqua regia; a highly corrosive mixture of nitric and greenish-yellow variety of beryl. hydrochloric acids, in the proportion of one part nitricaquamarine colored sapphire; a misleading term for to two parts hydrochloric acid. Used as a solvent for pale blue sapphire like aquamarine. metals, including gold, and platinum, and for testingaquamarine cut; faceted in the usual cut for emerald or high karat gold. step cut; also brilliant cut, in all sizes. aque marine; another Spanish spelling for aquamarine.aquamarine emerald; a misleading commercial term aque marine; another French spelling for aquamarine.
  • aqueous – aragonite group 42aqueous; of water, watery or pertaining to water, made diamond. from, with, or by means, of water. Partly consisting of Arabij; an Arabic term for pale emerald from Arabia. water. Dissolved in water. aragon spar; aragonite.aqueous humor; the part of eye after cornea, consisting aragonite; a relatively unstable, white, yellowish, or of transparent, dilute slightly saline liquid filling the grayish calcium carbonate. Trimorphic with calcite and anterior chamber of the eye, by which light passing through pupil, the opening in the adjustable iris, and the lens reaching the aqueous humor. Eyeaqueous opal; another term for hydrophane a white- aragonite crystals yellow, brown to green variety or common opal. It aragonite twins becomes more translucent when immersed in water.Aquileia amber manufacture; a city in Italy in Roman times which become main center of decorative carving and cutting amber of bunches of fruit, animal and aragonite crystals penetration trilling of aragonite aragonite polysynthetic twin vegetable figures. aragonite crystals, trilling and polysynthetic twinningAr; a chemical symbol for the element argon.arabescato marble; a misleading term for pale-pink to vaterite. Aragonite is not a gemstone but it is the grayish, brecciated limestone, with patterns of swirling principal constituent of pearl, in concentric sheets and lines, resembling Arabic script, found in Bergamo, in coral. Synonym aragon-spar. Egyptian onyx is a Italy. misleading term. Occasionally faceted for collectors.arabesque; ornamental work, in the Arabian style used Korite. in decorative design for flat surfaces. The style uses System: orthorhombic. interlocking curves, which may be painted, inlaid or Formula: 4[CaCO3]. carved. Arabesque style can be seen in some jewelry, Luster: vitreous to resinous. especially of the Renaissance period for example in Colors: colorless, white, yellowish, gray, green, reddish, brown, pale designs of virgil solis. to deep lavender.arabesquitic; a style of decoration, using Islamic motifs, Streak: white or colorless. composed of geometrical outlines, and curved lines, Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. with flowers and fruits. Applied to the surface texture Cleavage: 010 distincts. {110} indistinct, {011} indistincts. to give luster properties, on the apparently, Fracture: uneven. Brittle. homogeneous, groundmass, such as on clocks, SG: 2.947. ornaments, intarsia, etc. H: 3-4.arabi; a term used by turquoise cutter in Iran for flat Optics; :1.530, :1.681, 1.685. stone (in Arabic: mossatah), a cut-form preferred by Birefringence: 0.155. . Arabs. Turquoise cut in Iran. Dispersion: 0.015.arabi; a Farsi or Persian term for pale colored, patched, Found in Germany, Hungary, England, Spain and the or dendritic turquoise, from Nishapur, Iran. USA. Turquoise classification in Iran. aragonite; a misleading term for bright-yellowArabian beads; roughly fashioned, coral pieces of a stalagmite, calcite from Namibia, South-West Africa. natural shape, string into beads, bored through the Korite. center and used for ornamental purposes, with aragonite group; a mineralogical classification, to turquoise. which belong aragonite, bromelite, witherite,Arabian diamond; Arabic diamond. strontianite and cerussite.Arabian luster; the original formula, an extremely thin- layered paint on-glaze, used by the Moors since the 9th century, for the decoration of pottery. pearl compass pearl compassArabian magic diamond; Arabic magic diamond.Arabic diamond; a misleading term for a colorless quartz from Saudi Arabia, which is fashioned in Thailand. Also called Arabian diamond, Quisumah cultured pearl natural pearl diamond, Quasima diamond, and Khasumi diamond.Arabic magic diamond; a misleading term for a colorless or, pale-yellow, synthetic sapphire. Used as a natural and cultured pearl in a magnetic pearl diamond simultant. Also called Arabian magic compass.magnetic field therefore pearl moves
  • 43 aragonite susceptibility – Area karagonite susceptibility in pearls; susceptibility Chinese jades mean up to Wei Dynasty. action of natural and cultured pearl in a magnetic pearl archaistic; a term used for jade production in ancient compass. Natural pearl has no turning or moving style. while cultured pearl because parallel layers of nucleus Archduke Joseph Diamond; a finely colored, tend to turn or oriented themselves in line with the elongated, cushion shaped diamond of mixed cut of magnetic field. 78.54 cts. Once belonging to the Archduke Joseph ofarandisite; an attractive rare mineral, which is used for Austria, it was sold by Sotheby’s in London in cut gems with limonite. System: amorphous ? 1961.It’s present owner is unknown. Chemical formula: 3SnSiO4.2SnO2.4H2O ? Apple Archduke Maximillian of Austria Diamond; (1459- green, with surrounding brown limonite. RI:1.70. 1519) a traditional diamond engagement ring, made for SG:4.00. H:5. Found in the Arandis Tin Mine, his fiancée, Mar of Burgundy. A copy of this ring is in Swakopmund District, South-West Africa. the Kunsthistorische Museum in Vienna.aranjados; a Mexican name for cherry or honey opal Maximilian Diamond. from Querétaro, Mexico. archer ring; a carved ring in form of an archer’s bowaraphite; a very dark basalt, containing about 50% made of jade frequently worn by Chinese instead as magnetite. kueh. Chinese ritual and symbol jades.arborescent; generally the same as dendritic. The state Archimedes principle; a law of physics stating that the of being tree-like, or branch-like, in form and apparent weight, loss of an object, or body, totally immersed in a fluid or water, is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. Archipelago Islands; a group of islands separates arborescent Greece from Aegean Sea (Turkey) in Mediterranean aggregate. Sea. After Sinkankas 1967 arciscuro; same as carbonetto. In Italian, a color grade classification for very dark red coral. Arcot Diamonds; two pear-shaped diamonds, together weighing 57.35 cts, (33.70 and 23.65 cts.). They were presented to Queen Charlotte, the consort of King appearance. Dendritic. George III of England, by the Nawab of Arcot fromarborescent agate; same as dendritic texture. In Madras, India, in 1777. In 1959, they were sold to mineralogy for mineral having a branching treelike Harry Winston, through Sotheby’s, London. Present form. Dendritic agate. owners are unknown.arborescent texture; same as dendritic agate. Arctic Ocean amber; along the shore of Arctic OceanArc Diamond; the diamond of 381 cts, found 1921 in has been found amber which is dark in color and brittle South Africa. Its present location is unknown. used as substitute for ladanum or labdanum inArchaean; obsolete term for Archaeozoic. perfumery industry and fixative. Plant of this amberArchaean era; the oldest part of the Precambrian era. was Old World Plants a Cistus genus known as rock Equivalent to the pre-Cambrian era. rose.archaeological gemology; the application of arculite; crystallites grouped in a bow-shaped aggregate. experimental procedures, especially of solution of Ardon ruby; synthetic rubies, made by the Ardon problems. Archaeological gemology is a part of Association Inc., in Houston and in Dallas, USA, which archaeological mineralogy, which studies discovery has marketed flux-grown rubies since the mid 1960s, and production of stones used in man life as ornaments under the name Chatham-Created ruby, and Kashan or personal properties. synthetic ruby.archaeology; the study of human past cultures by Area G.; an historic local name, for five alluvial deposit scientific recovery and analysis of their remained districts, located along the Namibian coast, Africa. A materials. gem-diamond bearing area, located to the north of theArchaeozoic; of or formed in the eraly pre-Cambrian mouth of the Orange River. era. Area H.; an abbreviation for Affenrücken, a gem-archaic; pertaining to an earlier period. In gemology diamond-bearing area in Namibia, Africa, located along archaeological pieces of gem, this studies discovery the north shore of Area G. and production of stones used in man life as ornaments Area K.; an abbreviation for Kerbehuk, a gem-diamond- or personal properties. bearing area in Namibia, Africa, located along thearchaic; pertaining to an earlier period. For ancient northern shore of Area G.
  • Area M – Arkansas stone 44Area M.; an abbreviation for Mittag, a gem-diamond- argilllferous; a term applied to a produced clay. bearing area in Namibia, Africa, located along the argillite; a term applied to a massive, fine-grained, slate- northern shore of the town Oranjemund. like, rock from British Columbia. Also called haidaArea U.; an abbreviation for Uubvley, a gem-diamond- slate and spelled as argylite. bearing area in Namibia, Africa, located along the argillite; a term applied to a massive hardened mudstone northern shore of Area G. without cracks.AREDOR; an acronym for Association Pour la argillous; same as argillaceous. Récherche et L’ Exploitation du Diamant et de L’ Or. argon; a colorless, odorless, monatomic, zero-valence,AREDOR Diamond; the rough diamond of 181.77 cts, noble gas element, with the symbol Ar. found in 1988 in the AREDOR in Guinea, Africa. Its argon laser; same as argon ion laser. → Laser. present location is unknown. Argyle Diamonds Mines Ltd.; the world’s largestAREDOR Mine; the alluvial diamond deposit in diamond mine in north-western Australia, founded in Guinea, Africa, near the borders of Sierra Leone and 1894. In 1986, 29.2 million carats, were carried and in Liberia. 1990, 35 million carats from Argyle.arendalite; a dark-green, massive, or crystalline epidote, Argyle Kimberlite Number 1; → AK-1 Pipe. from Arendal valley, in southern Norway Argyle Pink Library Egg; an egg shaped object, setarendalite; a French name for garnetiferous rock. with ca. 20,000 diamonds, 348 cts, rose diamonds, andareng; a Bornean term for a yellowish gravelly earth, 15 kilograms (33 pounds) of gold. Inside, it is fashioned sometimes containing diamonds. to look like a miniature library and portrait gallery. Itarenite; same as psamite. was created for the Argyle Diamonds Mines Ltd.arfvedsonite; soda hornblende. argylite; a synonym for argilliteargentan; same as German silver. argylite; an obsolete term for orthoclase.argentiferous; a term applied to a substance which argyrite; same as argentite. contains or pertaining silver. argyrose; same as argentite.argentiferous galena; galenite which contains more arid erosion; erosion or wearing away of rock due to than 1 % silver. the wind, which occurs in arid climates.argentine; a lamellar variety of calcite, with a pearly- ariolite; an acronym for a mica-cordierite-hornfels rock. white luster or essence d’orient. Arizona diamond; a local, misleading term for a varietyargentine; containing or pertaining to or resembling of quartz crystal, from Arizona, USA. silver. Arizona peridote; a variety of peridote, from Arizona,argentine plate; → German silver. USA, found in small pieces.argentite; an opaque mineral of 2[Ag2S]. Dimorphous Arizona ruby; a local, misleading term for the deep-red with acanthite. Cubic crystal. Metallic luster. Black to variety of pyrope garnet, from Navajo County, Arizona, lead-gray. Streak: lead-gray. Fracture subconchoidal. and Utah, USA. Very sectile. H:2-2.5. SG:7.2-7.4. Cleavage: (110) and Arizona spinel; a local misleading term for the deep-red (011). Found in Chile, Mexico, Bolivia, Germany, variety of pyrope garnet, from Arizona and Utah, USA. Czech Rep., England, Russia, USA and Norway. Also Arkansas Diamond; the octahedron diamond crystal of called silver glance, argyrite, argyrose, henkelite. a yellowish color weighing 17.00 cts, found in Prized by collectors. Arkansas. Now on display in the SmithsonianArgentinean Gemmological institute; → Primer Institution, Washington, D.C., USA. Instituto Gemologico Latin Americano. Arkansas Diamond; → Searcy Diamond.argentoparcylite; same as boléite. Arkansas diamond; a local, misleading term for aargillaceous; a term applied to all substances or rocks, colorless variety of quartz from Arkansas, USA. consisting of, or containing a notable proportion of clay Arkansas diamond; any diamond found in in their composition. Argillaceous is recognized by the Murfreesboro, Arkansas any of in four pipes one of peculiar odor, emitted when breathed on it, which in which is known as the Crater of Diamonds. mineralogy is known as argillaceous odor. Synonym Arkansas Diamond Co.; a corporation producing argillic, argillous, clayey, pelolithic. diamonds, from Arkansas Diamond Mines.argillaceous limestone; same as argillocalcite. Arkansas Herkimer diamond; a misleading term for aargillaceous marble; same as clay-marble. colorless quartz, from upstate New York, USA.argillic; pertaining to clay, or clay minerals. → Arkansas pearl; a fresh-water pearl, from sweet-water Argillaceous. rivers in Arkansas.argilllferous; a term applied to abounding in clay. Arkansas stone; a whitish, gray, novaculite rock used
  • 45 arkansite – artificial treatment for sharpening tools, and as abrasive powder, from streak. Twinned crystals are similar to staurolite, and in Ozark, Arkansas, USA. Used as a whetstone. the form of cross. SG:5.92-6.22. H:5½-6. Frequentlyarkansite; a brilliant, iron-black variety of brookite, used ornamentally. Also called mispickel, white pyrite, from Arkansas, USA.arkelite; the cube phase of ZrO2.Arkhangelsk; the location of several kimberlite diamond deposits, on the White Sea, in the Russian Federation, CIS. Also spelled Arkhangel or Arkhangel’sk. crystals twinsarkose; a pink or reddish or gray, coarse-grained, feldspar-rich sandstone, composed of angular to sub- angular grains, which may be either poorly or arsenopyrite crystals and twins moderately well sorted. It derived from rapid disintegrations of acidic rocks with high-grade feldspars. The rock containing quartz and more than arsenical pyrite, arsenical iron, white mundic, bronce 25% feldspar. The feldspar is easily destroyed because blanco, mispickel. chemical change or transportation. artefact; English spelling of artifacts.arkose-quartzite; same as arkosite. Artemicia dracunculus; sometime beryl is engravedarkosite; a well cemented arkose or a quartzite with a with an eagle or Artemicia dracunculus plants for notable amount of feldspars. Used as cladding stone. magical spirits.arkosite; a well cemented arkose or a quartzite without Artha-Sastra; ancient Sanskrit term for diamond. interlocking grains. Also called arkose-quartzite. Used as arthropods; trilobite. cladding stone. articulite; an obsolete term for itacolumite.arlequines; from the French word, harlequin. In artifact; English spelled of artefact Mexico: precious opal. artifacts; any articles shape or made by human such asArmenian stone; same as Lapis lazuli. work of art, especially primitive tool and weapons ofArmenian stone; an old term for azurite (copper hydro- archeological interest. English spelled artefact. carbonate). artificial coloration; artificial treatment of gemarmlet; an ornamental band, or bracelet, worn tied stones. around the upper arm, produced in various forms, of artificial coloration of beryl; artificial treatment or different elements, possibly decorated with enameling coloring of gemstones due to oiling, copper salts, and gems. Bazu band acetate of copper, doping, or improving, etc.Aroe pearl; pearls from the Aru Island, south of Dutch artificial corundum powder; a commercial term for New Guinea. They are less silvery white as Australian adamite. pearls. Also spelled Aroo pearl or Aru pearl. artificial crystal; same as synthetic crystal.Aroo pearl; Aroe pearl. artificial gems; same as artificial mineral.Arran; locality for brown quartz, from Island Arran, artificial heavy spar; blanc fixe. England. artificial ivory; any substitute for ivory.arrojadite; a dark-green phosphate of iron, manganese, artificial mineral; a mineral formed artificially etc. from Brazil. Dickinsonite. (synthetically) in the laboratory, as distinguishes it fromarrow-head; same as belemnite, thunder-stone. a natural mineral. Same as artificial stone.arrow points; pointed Indian arrowheads, were mostly artificial pearl; same as imitation pearl. made from quartz, rarely of crystalline quartz, such as artificial pearl essence; molded plastics, such as obsidian or other crystalline grained rock. perspex or polystyrene, often used in the manufacturearsenic; a chemical element, existing in three allotropic of inexpensive imitation pearls. forms; gray metallic or -arsenic, black or -arsenic, artificial resins; resins,-artificial. and yellow or -arsenic. Chemical symbol: As. artificial rock; a term applied to synthetic rock.arsenical bloom; same as pharmacolite. artificial spherulite; a term applied to syntheticarsenical iron; same as arsenopyrite. spherulite.arsenical pyrite; same as arsenopyrite. artificial stone; a stone formed artificiallyarsenopyrite; a fine, silver-white, or tin-white, to steel- (synthetically), or imitated, in the laboratory. Same as gray mineral of FeAsS. Monoclinic pseudo- artificial mineral. Imitation, synthetic. orthorhombic. Opaque. Metallic luster. Grayish-black artificial treatment of gemstones; certain gems and
  • Aru pearl - asmagarva 46 ornamental stones treated to alter the color to made inclusion has a cat’s-eye effect, and containing them more attractive, by means of heat, stain, chemical crocidolite, a greenish-blue, fibrous variety of asbestos, treatment and, the effects of exposure to radium is known as tiger’s-eye. Synonyms: asbestus, emanations. For example, diamonds artificially pile- amianthus, earth flax and mountain flax. Tiger’s- treated turn green, brown, and yellow. By treatment, the eye, cat’s-eye. neutrons are uncharged particles in a cyclotron. Yellow asbestos as an inclusion; asbestos needles can be found and brown topaz are changed to pink, and brown as inclusion in garnets as horsetail. zircons to blue, by heat treatment. asbestus; asbestos.Aru pearl; Aroe pearl. aschentrecker; the original Dutch term, for tourmaline,aruppukarans; the gold-washing caste in Madras, given to the first imported minerals to Holland, from India. Sri Lanka. Meaning ash puller. This refers to theAs; a chemical symbol for the element arsenic. capacity for attracting ashes when being heated orasah; a Myanmar (Burmese) name for third-water cooled. Also called ash drawer, spelled aschtrekker, rubies. aschentrekker. Pyroelectricity.asamm; an Arabic term used by Masudi for fourth aschentrekker; aschentrekker. grade of emerald, which means matt or dull-emerald aschistic rock; usually a dike rock, with the same with pale color and less luster. mor, bahri, and composition as the parent magma. magrebi. aschtrekker; aschentrekker.asa-yo; a Burmese term used for inferior mixed deep ASEA; an acronym for Allmana Svenska Elektriska colored corundum stones up to 6 cts. Corundum Aktiebolaget. classification in Myanmar. ash; fine gray, dusty inclusion in diamonds.asa-yo kya; a Burmese term used for corundum inferior ash; volcanic ash. than asa-yo. Corundum classification in Myanmar. ash drawer; same as aschentrecker.asbestiform; formed like, or resembling asbestos, a Ashberg Diamond; the amber to light-yellow cushion fibrous mineral. diamond of 102.50 cts, (from South Africa ?),whichasbestos; a commercial term applied to a group of once belonged to the Russian Crown. It was sold in 1959, in Stockholm, to Ashberg, a Swedish banker. In 1981, it was again sold by Christie’s in Geneva. The present location is unknown. Ashoka Diamond; the colorless, internally flawless, cushion-shaped modified brilliant-cut diamond, of 40.45 cts, from Golconda (now Hyderabad), India, named in honor of the King Ashoka Maurya, who ruled India from approximately 268-233 BC. The present owner is Harry Winston, New York, who purchased it in 1947. asbestos. After Sinkankas 1967 Ashover spar; a local term, for full, yellow fluorspar, from Ashover, Derbyshire, England. natural minerals, which can be separated into thin, long, Ashton Exploration Joint Venture; the consortium flexible, heat-resistant fibers, such as actinolite, formed in 1976, to prospect diamonds in Australia. tremolite, chrysotile, and other amphiboles. Only Ashton Mining Ltd.; the mining corporation with an interest in the Argyle Diamond Mines of Australia. ashtrays; the simplest types of ashtrays used certain sorting stones, are merely slabs of rough stones, with, unpolished top surfaces. Half-polished, completely asbestos as polished or crudely, faceted tops are variations. horsetail asmagarba; a Sanskrit term used in past in India for inclusions emerald. asmagarbhajam; a Sanskrit term used in past in India for emerald. asmagarbham; a Sanskrit term used in past in India for emerald. actinolite varieties are of gemological interest. The fine asmagarva; a Sanskrit term used in past in India for fibered asbestos found in green-gray quartz as an
  • 47 asmer - assynite defect grading of sapphire. Sapphire, defects of in Asscher Diamond Maatschappij; Royal Asscher Hindu. Diamond Company.asmer; an old Egyptian term used in past for Asscher, Joseph; the world famous Dutch diamond transparent green stone or emerald? cleaver from Amsterdam, who cleaved the Cullinanasoka tree; a Hindu term for a kind of showy tree Diamond in 1908 and the Excelsior Diamond in 1903. Saraca indica of the family Leguminosae with orange Assegai; a small alluvial diamond mine in South Africa. flower from tropical Asia, the leaf of this tree compare assembled cameos; cameos, made of two or more with a kind of spinel in Indian with the name pieces of natural stones, cemented together. sangandhike. assembled imitation cameos; cameos, made of two orasparagolite; same as asparagus stone. more pieces of imitation material, such as glass orasparagus stone; a variety of transparent yellowish plastic, which have been cemented together. green apatite, found in Murcia province, Spain. Also assembled stone; a gem, constructed of two or more called asparagolite, yellow-green apatite. pieces of material, which may genuine crystal, orasperolite; a variety of chrysocolla, containing more simulated crystal, cemented or otherwise, joined water than usual chrysocolla. together. Generally described as doublets, and triplets.asphalt; a general name for a dark-brown to black solid quartz opal bituminous substances of natural occurrence formed in oily bearing strata by wearing away, usually through quartz glass green evaporation of the volatiles, consists almost entirely of liquid hydrocarbonates. Some of them are used as an ornament stone. Asphaltum is a variety of asphalt.asphalt; a viscous dark-brown to black liquid derived quartz natural sapphire from distillation of oil. green glass synthetic sapphireasphaltite; a general term for a dark-brown to black glass colored, solid, naturally organic compounds such as albertite, anthraxolite, libolite, uintaite, gilsonite, assembled stones grahamite, imposite and wurtzite. Some of them are used as an ornament stone. Also called composite stone.asphaltum; a variety of asphalt. assimilation; incorporation of foreign material suchassay; to examination the proportion of a mineral or wall rock in magma. Partial or entirely melting may gem for composition, purity, weight and other occur at contacts which causing changes in properties of commercial interest. composition of the original magma. Such magma mayassaying; analyzing the purity of a substance, such as an lead to hybrid or contaminated rocks. Also called ore, or an alloy, by chemical analysis and other digestion, dissolution, magmatic assimilation, methods. Determination of the gold, silver or platinum magmatic dissolution, magmatic digestion. content by percentage, by a standard. assize; a term applied to a cylindrical block of stoneAsscher cut; an emerald cut with wide corners. which forming part of a column.Asscher Diamond; the colored, emerald-cut diamond of Associacào Brasileira de Gemologia; Headquarters for 12.97 cts, reported to have been cut by Asscher of this Society are located at: Caixa Postal 18154, San Paulo, S.P., Brazil. association; to link or connect for formation of groups of molecules in a chemical bond or in a gemstone. Association Españia de Gemologia; Headquarters for this Society are located at: Paseo de Gracia, 64 Ent. 02A, Barcelona, Spain. Association Française de Gemmologie; Headquarters for this Society are located at: 17 Rue Cadet, 75009, Paris 9, France. top view Asscher cut base view Association pour la Récherche et l’ Exploitation du Diamant et de l’ Or (AREDOR); an organization with intrests in the diamonds and gold of Guinea. Amsterdam, Holland. assynite; a foyaite plutonic rock consisting largely ofAsscher Diamond Company; Royal Asscher orthoclase and pyroxene, rich in sphene containing Diamond Company. augite, sodalite, nepheline and apatite among the
  • asteria - astridite 48 accessories. perpendicular to each parallel set of inclusions. Thisasteria; a precious stone, which, when cut cabochon in three cut directions with chatoyancy effect known as the correct crystallographic direction displays a four, asterism such as in rubies and sapphires. In rubies and six, or twelve-rayed star by either reflected or sapphires, the microscopic rutile inclusions are transmitted light, due to asterism. Star ruby, star responsible for these effects are arranged in two or sapphire, rose quartz, garnet are samples. Also called more intersecting bands of light, which radiate from a star stone. bright center. In the case of the 6-rayed star, it is theasteriated; like a star. A mineral or gemstone that b a b exhibits asterism. casteriated agate; same as star agate. casteriated beryl; a variety of beryl having asterism in light thin sections. Star beryl is a misnomered. Z sourceasteriated quartz; a variety of quartz, having whitish, a or colored radiations. casteriated sapphire; same as star sapphire. aasteriated stone; a stone, which exhibits a star, by either b reflected or transmitted light. Star ruby, star sapphire, forming of asterism on surface of a gemstone due to rose quartz, petrified wood-star and garnet star are conical reflection of light examples.asteriated topaz; a misleading term for asteriated, presence of fine parallel fibers or crystal inclusions or yellow corundum. Wrongly called oriental topaz. channels at 60° angles to each other. The star can beasterism; an optical phenomenon where-by starlike rays observed when the stone is cut cabochon, with the top of reflected light are observed on the surface of some of the dome perpendicular to the included structure, gems or minerals, when cut cabochon, and viewed in viewed from a certain direction using a strong, single, reflected or transmitted light, from a certain direction. reflected light source. The stars display 4-ray, 6-ray, 8- ray or 12-ray figures, which are observed in some gemstones, especially in the star ruby, and star light source sapphire. Some almandine display asterism with 6- rayed star. Pale rose or rose quartz sometimes exhibits asterism because of tiny sillimanite or other included needles, which are oriented 120º by hexagonal system. Phlogopite a brown variety of mica exhibits a 6-rayed formation of asterismus due to refraction and reflection of star (sometimes 12-rayed) in transmitted and reflected star sapphire light on oriented fine inclusion needles in a hexagonal crystal light because of oriented rutile needles. Any gemstone formation of asterismus and star sapphire that shows asterism is known as an asteria. Epiasterism and diasterism. Caused by the presence of minute, almost microscopic, asteriated stone; stone with a star effect, when cut inclusions, arranged in a regular (generally in three cabochon. Asterism. identical crystallographic directions as hexagonal) asterite; a French term for star quartz. series, parallel to the prism face, in some varieties of astite; an acronym for mica-andalusite-hornfels. A. Steyn Diamond; the diamond of 141.25 cts, found in light source 1912 on the Vaal River, Cape Province, South Africa. The present location is unknown. chatoyancy caused by Astor Sancy Diamond; Sancy Diamond. reflection of light needle inclusons Astoria diamond; a small diamond mine in the Orange Free State of South Africa. Astoria Sancy Diamond; Sancy Diamond. Astrakhan; a fine marble, from Astrakhan, the Russian Federation, CIS. astralite glass; same as aventurine glass or goldstone, which is produced artificially. asterismus astridite; an ornamental stone of dark green, chrome- gemstone referred to as silk. A cabochon cut from such rich, jadeite, intergrown with picotite, quartz, opal, and a stone exhibits a ray of light on the surface of mineral limonite from New Guinea. SG:3.35. Named after
  • 49 astrilite – atomic plane Astrid of Belgium. Emerald-green streak. H:3-3.5. SG:3.80. Cleavageastrilite; a commercial term for the artificial diamond (010) imperfect. Stalked aggregate. Formed by simulant lithium niobate. weathering of copper lodes. Found in Chile, Italy,astrology and gemstones; most of gemstones and some South West Africa and Australia. Also called rocks have been related astrological signs from ancient remolinite. times and partly today. Believingly celestial bodies Atahualpa Emerald; the emerald from the Andes were or are considered to impart their powers to certain crown, weighing 45 cts, set in the central arch beneath stones such as birthstones. A gemstone that has been the apex. Crown of the Andes. associated, by superstitions and religious tradition as Atax ypsilophorus; a minute parasite worm, which may appropriate to the time or month of one’s birth. cause irritation in a mollusk and form a blister, whenastrumite; a commercial term for gray-green Tibet introduced between the shell and mantel, or, a pearl sac stone. which produces a cyst pearl, when introduced into theastryl; a commercial term for synthetic rutile, a diamond mantle. Also, the trematode worm has the same effect. simulant. athaibouk; a Myanmar (Burmese) term applied to ¾ cts,asura; an old Sanskrit term for demon, nearly the same rubies. word in old Persian, Ahura or Ahura-Mazda, means Atharva-Veda; Veda. God. Atlantis stone; same as larimar.asymmetrical; same as not symmetrical. Meaning atlas ore; a misleading term for malachite. irregular crystal or, whiteout the proper proportion of atlas pearl; a misleading, commercial term for beads parts, such as in triclinic crystals. made from white satin spar (or atlas spar), from Alstonasymmetrical crystal; an irregular crystal or, without Moor, Cumberland, USA. the proper proportions of parts, such as triclinic crystal atlas spar; same as white satin spar. Fibrous variety of system, referred to three axes of different lengths. calcite, aragonite and gypsum, which can be, stainedasymmetrical step-cut; kind of step-cut form without various colors. Also called atlas stone. atlas stone; same as white satin spar. atmospheric pressure; the pressure per area unit exerted at the surface of the Earth. One atmosphere is top view top view equal to the pressure exerted by a 760 millimeter top view column of mercury. atom; according to atomic theory, the smallest particle of an element, which remains unchanged during all chemical reactions. The smallest particle of an element, base view base view which enters into the composition of a molecule. base view asymmetrical step-cuts. After Fischer 1989 Although partly composed of electrical units, such as electrons, protons, etc. Complete atoms are electrically any symmetry actually belonged to the fancy cuts. neutral.asymmetric class; the class of crystal, which form atomic bond; the attraction exerted between atoms and without any symmetry. ions, formed by the interaction of valence electronsasymmetric system: triclinic system. from each.which are not to right angles to each other. atomic diamonds; diamond, synthetically colored byatacamite; an emerald-green, dark-green, orthorhombic bombardment with atomic particles, or nuclear rays. mineral Cu2Cl(OH)3. Dimorphous with paratacamite. atomic distance; the distance between two atoms from center to center. atomic configuration; configuration of atoms. atomic number; the number of protons (the positively charged mass units) in the nucleus of an atom of each element. Used in the periodic classification of the elements. Atomic number is denoted by the letter Z. atomic particle; one of the fundamental components of which an atom is constituted, such as an electron, neutron or proton. atacamite crystal and twin atomic pile; former name for nuclear reactor. atomic plane; any plane formed during the growth of a Vitreous to greasy luster. Transparent to translucent.
  • atomic radius - augite 50 solid crystal atoms arranged themselves in an orderly atwe; a Burmese term used for impure and rough pattern. corundum stones. Corundum classification inatomic radius; the radius of an atom, or, the average Myanmar. Au; a chemical symbol for the element gold. (Latin: Li Be B C O F Na Aurum). atomic sizes of aubergine purple; a ceramic color containing elements which are in gemstones manganese, used for under glaze decoration. Mg Al Si P S Cl K to seen, ca. Aubrey’s miscellanies; a crystal gazing expert (1696) 1:100.000.000 who describes such a crystal must be a perfect sphere in times of actual diameter of clear crystal material. Ca Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co size. Transition Aucamp Weiveld; a small location of an alluvial elements are Ti, diamond mine in the Cap Province of South Africa. V, Cr, Mn. Fe, Auchas; a small location of an alluvial diamond mine on Ni Cu Zn Zr Au Co, Ni and Cu the Orange River in Namibia, Africa. Auckland Diamond; the cone-shaped diamond of 36 distance from the center, to the outermost electron, of a cts, from India ? Named after George Eden Auckland, neutral atom. Governor General of India from 1836-1842. Itsatomic reactor; nuclear reactor. description is identical to the Holland Diamond.atomic structure; the arrangement of atoms in a Bantam Diamond. substance, as in crystal in minerals. Crystal Auckland shell; a variety of pearl-oyster, with a green- structure. edge nacre, from Auckland, Pacific Ocean.atomic volume; the space occupied by a quantity of that audio conduction detector; conduction detector, element, as compared with the atomic weight. audio. Measured by atomic weight of an element, divided by auganite; a term applied to augite-andesite. its density. Also called specific volume. augelite;a rare, massive, transparent, colorless, white toatomic weight; the average atomic weight of an pale red, or yellow mineral. Chemical formula: element, a standard, compared with the weight of an Al2(PO4)(OH)3.3H2O. Monoclinic system. Vitreous, atom of oxygen, taken as 16.00. pearly luster. Optics; a:1.574, b:1.576, g:1.588.atom physics; a branch of physics science which Birefringence: 0.014-0.020. Å. SG:2.70-2.75. H:5. A primary devoted to the study of the structure and collectors gemstone. Found in USA, Sweden and energies of atoms and molecules and interaction of Bolivia. radiant energy with matter. Industry enhancement of Augen; a German term for eyes, referring to eye-like gemstones is caused by irradiation by atomic physics. structures, inclusions, or crystals, in minerals.atoms, impurity; same as impure atoms. Augen agate; same as Aleppo stone.atramental stone; an obsolete term for vitriol. Same as augen-gneis; a general term foe a coarse crystalline ink stone. rock, of granitic composition, containing of eye-shapedatramentum (stone); an obsolete term for vitriol. Same as ink stone.attached crystal; a crystal or mineral, attached to the its mother rock.attal; a term applied to reject rocks or accumulated waste.attraction, magnetic; also called magnetic attraction. Magnetism.attapulgite; same as palygorskite.attractiveness; having the qualities to influencing the interest, pleasure, and affection senses of the observer. feldspar, or quartz minerals, embedded in a finerattrition; reduction process by which detrital pieces of groundmass. stone are wearing down during transportation. augite; one the family of inosilicates (single-chain)attrition milling; a size reduction process, by which minerals of the pyroxene group. Cut as faceted gems pieces of diamonds placed in rotating drums, with and prized by collectors. An obsolete term for basaltine. water and pebbles, or steel balls, after a certain time System: monoclinic. they are reduced in size. Also known as ball milling. Formula: 4[(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6]. Abrasive test. Luster: vitreous to dulls.
  • 51 augites – Australian opal Colors: pale brown to dark brown, or purplish brown, greenish to auriferous deposit; gold bearing lodes, placer, and black. sediment such as sand, gravel, etc. auriferous gravel; same as alluvial gold. auriferous placer; same as alluvial gold. auriferous pyrite; a misleading term for pyrite, meaning carrying gold, probably in solid solution, no of commercial value twins auriform; shell-shaped, like the human ear. aurigerous; same as auriferous. aurora; corona. crystals Aurora Australis; north light, Aurora Borealis. Aurora Borealis; a commercial term for glass, which augite or pyroxene crystals and twins has been coated with a very thin, iridescent layer, usually of fluoride, sputtered on in a vacuum, to create Streak: none or colorless. a colorful effects. In Roman times, it was called white Diaphaneity: translucent to nearly opaque. nights. Also called Aurora Borealis stone, nature’s neon Cleavage: {110} good, {100} parting{010} distinct but variable. signs. Fracture: uneven to conchoidal. Brittle. Aurora Borealis; same as north light. SG: 3.23-3.52. Aurora Borealis stone; Rhinestone whose color is H: 5-6. produced by an extremely thin iridescent layer on its Optics; :1.671-1.735, :1.672-1.741, 1.703- 1.761. facets. Aurora Borealis. Birefringence: 0.018-0.033. or . Aurora collection; the collection of 244 colored Found in all localities. Also called basaltine. diamonds, amassed by diamond dealer Alan Bronstein,augites; a term used by Pliny some authorities believes named after the Aurora Borealis. It is on exhibit at the it mean a variety of beryl. American Museum of Natural History, New York City,Augustus the Strong; a Duke of Saxony (1670-1733), USA. who has of a large historic collection, which included auroral displays; Aurora Borealis. the Dresden Green, Dresden White, and many others, aurora red; a term described the color of yellowish- were supposedly more than 7000 old carats in weight. orange to brownish-red. Augustus the Strong started the collection. They are aurous; containing gold. Gold-bearing ore. Same as now on display in the Green Vaults (Grüne Gewölbe) auriferous. in Dresden, Germany. Australia; the island-continent, southeast of Asia withauhunga; a Maori term for pale-green variety nephrite the world’s major diamond production since 1851. between kawakawa and inanga from New Zealand. Nearly the entire production is of industrial quality. Pounamu. Australian Diamond Exploration Joint Ventura; theauralite; altered iolite. diamond exploration corporation if Australia, managedAurangzib Topaz; Tavernier reported from an Indian by Ashton Mining, Ltd. Abbreviation: ADEX. cut topaz of 157.25 Florentine carats. Belonged to Australian emerald; any light-green beryl, or dark Aurangzib, son of Shah-Jahan, India? It was seen by variety of emerald, from Emaville, New South Wales, Tavernier in 1631-1668. few of fine color have been found. Also from Poonah,auras of energy; lithotherapy. Western Australia, and other localities.aureole; a decorative, almond-shape, or halo-like shape, Australian Gemmological Association; around a sacred person or figure. Also called mandorla. Gemmological Association of Australia.aureomycin antibiotic; antibiotic aureomycin. Australian jade; a misleading term for jade-greenauresina marble; a misleading term for a variscite from Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is also monochromatic, grayish-colored fossilized marble, found in Spain. from Istria, Croatia. Australian jade; a misleading term used for jade-greenaureus; same as golden, which is used for golden beryl. chrysoprase.aureus color; same as golden color that means golden Australian jade; a misleading term used for jade-green beryl, which is in fifth place with the symbolic Leo. chalcedony. Also called Queensland-jade.auric; same as auriferous. Australian jasper; a jasper with red-speckles light grayauriferous; containing gold. Gold-bearing ore. flecked, from Australia. Synonym aurigerous. Australian opal; any opal from Australia, but usuallyauriferous aluvium; same as alluvial gold.
  • Australian pearl – automatic polishing 52 the term is restricted to only black opal. Usually, cut in the Austrian Royal House in 1743, through marriage flat, polished slabs, with beveled or perpendicular sides, and then disappeared, at the time last Emperor went instead of in cabochons. SG: 2.12. into exile. Not to be confused with Austrian YellowAustralian pearl; a commercial grade, including, a fine, Brilliant Diamond. Also called Austrian Yellow. silvery white from both; (a) the Meleagrina authigene; any mineral, formed or occurring, in the margaritifera, which is found in the waters of Australia, place found. and (b) the Meleagrina maxima, of the northwest coast authigenic minerals; minerals, formed on the spot, of Australia, which yields most of the Broome pearls. within sediments or sedimentary rocks, during or after All these pearls are much whiter and have less orient, their deposition. than the Celebes pearls, the Manila pearls and others, authigenic overgrowth; growing of a certain crystal from Australia. over the surface of another crystal of not similar Australian pearl; a geographical classification: any composition within sediments or sedimentary rocks, pearl from Australian waters, including the yellowish during or after their deposition. Distaxy, epitaxy, Shark’s Bay pearl. Lechleitner synthetic emerald.Australian ruby; a misleading term for a reddish autochrome; a color photographic glass plate for variety of garnet. photography used starch particles dyed red, green, andAustralian sapphire; an olive green, or bluish-green, blue coated with a layer of dye, which looked as a sapphire from Australia. The blue variety is usually transparency. very dark-greenish or blackish. autochthonous; formed or occurring in the place whereAustralian sapphire; a commercial term for dark-blue it is found. In situ. Allochthonous. or blackish sapphire. autogenetic inclusions; those inclusions formed fromAustralian turquoise; a misleading term for variscite, the same magma, or mother-liquor, as the enclosing from Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Also, found in stone. Also called cognate inclusion, cognate xenolith. Spain. autoclave; a thick-walled, steel vessel, usually silver-Australian zircon; a red, brown and yellowish lined built to withstand high temperatures and gemstone quality of zircon from Queensland, Australia.australite; jet-black glass, or tektite pieces, usually thermal protect layer button-shaped or lensoid, found in southern Australia silica rich sketch of a (New South Wales), Victoria and Tasmania. Tektite, solution seed silver-lined queenstownite, darwinite, billitonite. plates autoclave forAustrian Diamond; same as the Florentine Diamond. production ofAustrian emerald; cloudy to opaque, green to dark- baffle hydrothermal emerald green, or light green in color, sometimes heater source grown quartz. material After Webster 1994 plate irregularly distributed. Rarely used as gems. silver Occurrence and inclusions are similar to Russian liner emeralds. Found near Salzburg, Austria.Austrian Gemmological Association; Erste pressures, mostly used in the hydrothermal method of Österreichische Gemmologische Geselschaft. producing synthetic crystals.Austrian Imperial Crown; a gold circular crown, made autolith; an inclusion formed from the same magma or in 1602 in Prague for Rudolph II, King of Hungary and mother-liquor as the enclosing rock. Also called Bohemia. The crown is mounted with number of cognate inclusion, cognate xenolith. precious stones, including diamonds, sapphires, pearls, automatic blocking machine; a stone holding device, etc. Now on display in the Schatzkammer of the used in gem cutting for placing the table and 8 facets, Hofburg at Vienna. on a diamond of brilliant cut, four on top, four on theAustrian Yellow; Austrian Yellow Diamond. bottom. Blocking.Austrian Yellow Brilliant Diamond; the citron-yellow, automatic bruting machine; a machine for producing oval gem cut similarly in style to a rose cut. Not to be the girdle of round brilliant. A rondisting machine. confused with the famous yellow Florentine Diamond. Bruting. There are no historic records of this brilliant. automatic dop; a semi-automatic, grinding machine, Austrian Yellow Diamond. with a mechanical stone holder. Used mostly forAustrian Yellow Diamond; same as Tuscany or polishing small gemstones. Automatic blocking Florentine Diamond. the citron-yellow diamond of machine. 137.27 cts, in weight, from India, it was cut in the form automatic polishing machine; an automatic polishing of a nine-rayed briolette, passed into the possession of machine, for faceting round brilliants. Also used for
  • 53 autometamorphism - aventurine blocking, cross-work, brilliandeer, and polishing the labradorite feldspar which contains elemental copper. table. Blocking, bruting, polishing, and fashioning. The name was derived from Italian term for accident orautometamorphism; changes in the chemical change, may dropped some copper platelets in vat of composition of igneous minerals or rocks, due to falling molten glass known as goldstone glass. When the temperatures created by the action of its own volatiles, inclusions are of very thin as hematite flakes or such as the serpentinization of peridote, the spilitization goethite or both with metallic sheen known as of basalt. sunstone. Also spelled avanturine, adventurine.autometasomatism; changes occurring in a solidified Synonym: aventurine quartz. Frequently called regal. igneous rock due to residual water-rich, liquid fraction, Aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar, bloodshot from the parent magma, trapped within the recently labradorite feldspar. crystallized rock, generally, by an impermeable, chilled aventurine; a venturine feldspar (oligoclase feldspar), border. due to the inclusion of red, orange, or green, very thinautomolite; a dark, to nearly black variety of gahnite flake crystals of hematite, or goethite, or both, which (spinel). causes the specular reflection of golden or brownish-redautomorphic: synonym for idiomorphic. Euhedral. color. Also spelled avanturine, adventurine. Found inautomorphic crystal; same as euhedral crystal. Norway and Russia. Frequently called regal.autopneumatolysis; autometamorphic changes at the Aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar. autopneumatolitic station of a cooling magma to 400- aventurine feldspar; a gemstone variety of feldspar 600º C. (oligoclase, albite, andesine or adularia) characterizedautoradiograph; autoradiography. by a reddish luster, produced by fiery, goldenautoradiography; a method of scanning the radio- reflections, or fire-like flashes of color, from numerous, activity (neutron, X-ray, or gamma-ray) of a substance, thin, small but visible, disseminated mineral particles (such as flakes of hematite), oriented parallel to structurally defined planes ,and probably formed by autoradiography from quatrz exsolution. It is usually cut cabochon. Also called sunstone. Aventurine. aventurine glass; a glass mass, containing tiny, platelike, copper crystals, to produce (melted under special conditions), an imitation of the yellow and red 29 25 aventurine quartz. An alternative name for this 21 17 13 9 q° imitation is gold stone. Now made in a blue color. aventurine glazes; transparent glazes, containing thin platelike (green or gold), crystals or spangles, in a where the specimen is placed on a sheet of glassy matrix. Ferric, chromium and copper oxides are photographic, sensitive plate. The picture serves to used in these glazes, to imitate sunstone and sometimes locate the position of the radioactive element or lapis lazuli, when made of blue, opacified glass. Also composition. Radiograph. called goldstone glaze.autotrophs; photosynthesis. aventurine quartz; an opaque to translucent, green,avanturin; German spelling for aventurine. gray, reddish-brown, or golden-brown variety of quartz,Avarka; a Sanskrit term used in past in India for defect exhibiting a schiller. Contains small flaky crystals of grading of sapphire. Sapphire, defects of in Hindu. either mica, or iron-oxide impurities. Some green ofAve; each group of ten, minute beads made of gemstone or other materials, on a rosary, used for counting prayers Ave Maria. Also called a decade.aventurescence; the term used to describe the effect of internal plates, or flakes of mica, hematite, or other minerals, in aventurine, aventurine feldspar, etc.aventurin; German spelling for aventurine.aventurine; some translucent gemstone containing coarse, very thin, opaque, sparkling particles of foreign minerals which exhibits bright or colored overall copper scales in aventurine-glass glittery effect or aventurescence, from minute, crystals, platelets, flakes, or scales of other minerals such as those colored minerals are similar in appearance to aventurine quartz, aventurine feldspar, bloodshot and green jade and others to malachite. They are most
  • Avicula – axis of symmetry 54 frequently cut cabochon, and used for rings, brooches. System: triclinic. Opaque, larger pieces are carved into vases, bowls, etc. Formula: 4[Ca2(Fe,Mg,Mn)Al2B(OH,O)(Si2O7)2]. The green-colored stone, resembling malachite or jade, Streak: none. is hence sometimes misleadingly termed Chinese jade or Indian jade, and mostly carved in China. Found in Brazil, Spain, Chile, Russia, Germany, China, India, and elsewhere. Aventurine, aventurine feldspar.Avicula; a pearl-bearing genus of salt-water, bivalve’s mollusks.Aviculidae; a family of pearl-bearing, salt-water, bivalve mollusks with pearly interiors, found in warm water. Pteriidae, Malleidae. axinite crystalsaviolite; a type of mica-cordierite hornfels, from Monte Aviolo, Italy.avocado cut; a drop-cut form similar to avocado, Colors: colorless, brown, honey-yellow and violet. polished without facets used as pendant. Luster: vitreous.Avoirdupois, weight; the system of weights use in Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. English-speaking countries used other than for Fracture: uneven to conchoidal. Brittle. gemstones and precious metals, equivalent to 28.35 Cleavage: 010 distincts. grams or 141.75 cts. SG: 3.3.avory; a commercial term for a cryptocrystalline, H: 6-7. cellulose, polymer, used as an ivory imitation. Optics; : 1.677, : 1.684, : 1.687.awa; a Burmese term used for large and defect Birefringence : 0.010-0.012. may be also if contain Mg. corundum stones. Corundum classification in Dispersion : highly. Myanmar. Found in France, Brazil, Tasmania (Australia), Ottawaawabi; awabi pearl. (Canada), Pennsylvania, New York, and Californiaawabi pearl; a Japanese term for a single-shelled, (USA), and Mexico. vividly colored, green, blue, and yellow-colored axinite inclusion; in some samples there are seen abalone pearl. Found in the Haliotidae univalve salt- water mussel, off the Gulf of California, along the coasts of Florida (USA), Queensland (Australia), Korea, and Japan. This may produce iridescent, vividly- goethite colored, baroque pearls. Also called awabi. needlesaxe god; any artifact, fashioned of translucent jade, or in axe stone, in pre-Columbian jewelry, most often, used axinite as a pendant.axe stone; a synonym for nephrite axe material from New Zealand, which the natives call punamu, sometimes spelled pounamu. Also called New Zealand greenstone, Maori jade, or Maori stone. Mere, hei needles of goethite. tiki. axiolite; a variety of elongated spherulite arranged ataxes; (plural of axis) crystallographic directions through right angles to a central axis. a crystal. Lines of reference, intersecting at the center axis; crystallographic axes. of a crystal, around which a body or system is axis of a crystal; same as crystallographic axes. Axis considered to rotate. Crystallographic axis, axis of of symmetry. symmetry. axis of symmetry; an imaginary line, passing throughaxial angle; optical angle in crystallography. the center of a crystal, about, which the crystal isaxial color; same as extreme color. symmetric. The term applied to all crystal classes,axial plane; a plane of the optical axes of in optically while the 7-crystal system is based upon the axes. biaxial crystal, which includes two of the axes. Symmetry of axes are: Twice; two-fold, half-turn oraxial symmetry; same as axis of symmetry. diagonal axis. Three times; three-fold, one-third-turn or trigonal axis. Four times; four-fold, quarter-turn oraxinite; a rare, complex, borate, silicate mineral. Rarely tetragonal axis. Six times; six-fold, one-six-turn or cut as gems or carved, but prized by collectors. hexagonal axis. Also called symmetry axis, axial
  • 55 auxochromes - azurite symmetry. French term for nitrogen. c Aztec cut; a modified square cut with four rayed step + c star on the crown. 28 facets on the crown and 16 facets Isometric - - + a=b=c Orthorhombic with a circular culet on the pavilion. a+ b - a = = = 90° a b a b c Aztec Eagle Opal; same as the El Aguila Aztec Opal. c c Aztec jewelry; jewels made by the Aztec Indians in the + Hexagonal era of pre-Colombian jewelry. Common Aztec articles a3 - a1 = a2 = a3 b Monoclinic-a2 +- + a2 a b c are: gold necklaces decorated with precious stones, a c Rhombohedrala3 a2 a1 = a2 = a3 Triclinic a1 b a b c a c Tetragonal a=b c seven crystal axes a bauxochromes; a radical or group of atoms added into dye compounds to increase the coloring properties. Its presence enabled a colored organic substance to be Aztec square-cut. After Schmitz retained of matters.axon; a process of nerve fiber of a neuron that conducts gold animals, gold fish, bracelets, ear-rings, and other impulses from the nerve cell body. Eye ornamental pieces.ayan nat thwe; a Myanmar (Burmese), term, for the Aztec stone; a local term for greenish smithsonite. perfect octahedral crystal of spinel, found in Mogok. Aztec stone; a local term for green turquoise.ayr stone; a soft, fine-grained stone, used in the form of Azul Macauba marble; a misleading term for white a flat lap in polishing marble, and giving a fine surface marble, veined with a vivid blue. Found in Brazil. Blue to metalwork, especially made of brass and steel, or color is due to sodalite. other non-ferrous metals. It is a whetstone. Also called azules opal; a term applied to the pale, water opal that scotch stone, bluestone. has a few red and green flecks.ayr stone; also known as fluorite, which is found in azulinhas; Brazilian term for small, cloudy sapphires Ayrshire of Breat Britain. It has a roughly shape. found with diamonds.azabache; a term used in Spanish language for jet azulite; a translucent, pale-blue variety of smithsonite. which may be is a Farsi name (an Iranian term for Found in Greece and Arizona, USA. Azara-Padegan or Azar-Pad, where the eternal fire for azurchacedony; chalcedony, colored blue by Zoroastrian adherent was protected and also made fire chrysocolla. Used for gems. from this coal-variety, also the term means fire azure; same as lapis lazuli. protector ?). Also in different part of Spain is spelled azure blue; cobalt blue. as azebiche, acabaig. In Portuguese called azeviche. azure malachite; same as azurmalachite.azabache; a Spanish-Mexican term for jet. azure quartz; a confusing term for a blue variety ofazabache compacto; a term used in Spain for jets sale quartz, sapphire quartz, or crocidolite. Also called to tourist in Santiago for good luck charms. siderite.Azar-Pad; an old Farsi (Persian) term meaning fire azure spar; same as lazulite. protector. azurite; a semitransparent, to opaque, blue hydro-Azara-Padegan; an old Farsi (Persian) term meaning fire protector.Azhari; a term used in Nishabur turquoise mine for fine and dark color but not like Abu-Eshaghi. Turquoise classification in Nishabur, Iran.azo-dye; a term used for a large group of an organic dyes, which have –N=N– as a chromophores group. Obtained from amino compounds by diazotization and coupling. It is subdivided as monoazo, diazo, trisazo and tetrazo. azurite crystalsazorite; an altered term, sometimes used for zircon.azotic; containing nitrogen or nitrogen-bearing. A carbonate of copper. It occurs in botryoidal, or
  • azurite - azurstone 56stalagmitic masses, and is often intimately associated Birefringence : 0.110. .with malachite. Cut cabochon or as flat topped gems. Found in Russia, Chile, Congo, Mexico, South-WestBurnite is a rock, composed of a mixture of malachite, Africa, New Mexico and Arizona (USA).azurite and cuprite. Also called chessylite. The mixture azurite; a commercially misleading term for blueof azurite and malachite from the Copper World Mine smithsonite.in Barstow, Las Vegas, USA is given the name royal azurite; a misleading term for synthetic blue spinel.gem azurite. Pleochroic in blue under LWUV and azurite; a misleading term sometimes used for blueSWUV. malachite, to distinguish it from normal, or greenSystem: monoclinic. malachite.Formula: 4[Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2]. azurlite; same as azurchacedony. Chalcedony, coloredLuster: vitreous. by chrysocolla, found in Arizona.Colors: blue, dark blue to violetish-blue. azurite malachite; same as azurmalachite.Streak: blue. azurmalachite; an ornamental stone consisting ofDiaphaneity: semitransparent to opaque. Pleochroism. intergrowths of concentric bands of azurite andFracture: conchoidal. Brittle. malachite in a compact form.Cleavage: 011 perfect, {100} fairly, and {110} in trace. azuromalachite; same as azurmalachite.SG: 3.75 - 3.89. azurstone; same as lapis lazuli.H: 3 - 4.Optics; : 1.730, : 1.758, 1.836.
  • polished green foil to improve or heighten the color. Green foil is made from an alloy of fine copper 10 carats, silver 6 carats and gold one carats. Imitation,Bb foil-back, foilback. backing gemstones; same as backing. back off; a modern drilling technique, which consists of an automatic device and a double drill. Both drills are introduced from opposite ends and work towards theb; a symbol for one of the three crystallographic axes, center. When one drill reaches a certain distance from with the subscript 0, noted as b0. The letter “b” usually the other it will back off/reverse to make it possible for appears in italics. the opposite drill to continue drilling withoutb; abbreviation for a bar, a unit of pressure. collision/encountering the other drill. ; beta, symbol for phase constant. back ornament; an ornament made from a human skull,B; a chemical symbol for the element boron. by the Mixtec Indians of Mexico during the Aztec era.B; one of the Fraunhofer lines in the red area of the solar The skull was covered with a mosaic of turquoise, spectrum, its wavelength is 687.00 nm, due to lignite, shell, pyrites, etc. and worn by men. absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. bacon stone; an old term for a variety of steatite, alluding to its greasy appearance. bacon stone; a term used in Bristol, England, for calcite, colored with iron oxide. nm nm 700 600 500 400 bacor; a Russian, corundum-zirconia refractory most often used in the glass industry. Also spelled bakor. Bactria; an ancient country of SW Russia, NE of Persia. Bactria emerald; according to Theophrastus emerald Ba spectrum from Bactria, (an ancient country of SW Asia, NE of Persia) because emerald was imported from Ancient Izumrud in Scythian or Bactria to other locality of ancient world, also to Egyptian. Also spelled BactrianBa; a chemical symbol for the element barium. emerald. Emerald,-names of.Babel quartz; a variety of quartz, named for its fanciful Bactrian emerald; same as Bactria emerald. resemblance to the successive tiers of the Tower of ancient Babel. Also called Babylonian quartz. Bactria stone; according to ancient Egyptian records, a term for emerald from Bactria (an ancient country ofBabylon beryl; a variety of beryl produced in ancient SW Asia, NE of Persia). Babýlon of pale green color, but not as fine as Indian beryl. Also called Babylonian beryl. baculite; a term applied to a crystallite which appears as a dark rod.Babylonian beryl; same as Babylon beryl. bad; a term used for a gem of inferior quality or havingbaby; a slang, digger’s term for a rocking sieve used for some feature that causes blemishes. separating diamonds and gold from worthless material, invented by Babe, Jermoe L. Also called Yankee baby, Badakhshan; a district of Afghanistan. Also called baby rocker. ballas, Belagius.baby rocker; baby. Badakhshan lapis; deep, violetish-blue, to green lapis lazuli from Faizabad, the Badakhshan district,Baby Rose Diamond; Premier Rose Diamond. Afghanistan. Also from Khorg and RussianBabylonian quartz; also called Babel quartz. Badakhshan. Afghanistan lapis.bacalite; a variety of amber from Baja, California and bad back; a term applied to a stone of opal that has no Mexico. sufficiently back, which may be cracking andbacillite; a rodlike, crystallite, composed of a number of crumbling caused by over cutting of stone, rock or parallel, longulite aggregates. potch.back; in gemology, same as pavilion. baddeleyite; a naturally stable counterpart of cubicbacking; diamonds, those pale colored or inferior zirconia. The synthetic cubic zirconia is used as a quality gemstones are backed with colored foil or thin diamond imitation and marketed as djevalite, in Russia, metal leaf, to impart or improve color, brilliancy or as phainite or phainitex, and, in England, as Windsor both. Same as chatons. Also called imitation, foil-back, Gem. A fibrous variety is known as brazilite. foilback. System: monoclinic.backing beryl; foil backing of beryl with highly
  • Baden - bajoobund 58 Formula: 4[ZrO2]. It may contain some titanium, hafnium, thorium and iron. Luster: greasy to vitreous. Color: colorless, pale yellowish, green, brown red and black. Streak: white to brownish by dark crystals. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. Cleavage: {001} perfect, and {010} imperfect. Fracture: subconchoidal to uneven. Brittle. SG: 5.74-5.82. H: 6½. top view base view Optics; :2.130, :2.190, 2.200. baguette cut Birefringence: 0.070. . called baton and baguette. Dispersion: 0.060. bahamite; fine-grained, high purity, massively bedded Found in Brazil, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Italy, USA, limestone without abundant fossils from Bahamas, Austria, Russia, Canada, and Zaire (Africa). USA.Baden Solitaire Diamond; the diamond of 30 cts, bahani; a Hindu term for concealing the flaws by gem which belonged to the Austrian Royal Family, at the cutters or by setters. The word meaning improvement? time they went into exile. It was mounted in the clasp Bahia; a gem-bearing district in Brazil. of a necklace, which contained 114 pear-shaped Bahia; also, a term for diamonds from this districts. diamonds. Bahia amethyst; a local term for a variety of amethystBad Hope; a small, alluvial diamond mine in the Cape from Bahia, Brazil. Province, South Africa. Bahia emerald; a term applied to a light yellowish-bad-sandstone; a term used by Australian miners for green variety of beryl, from Bahia, Brazil. sandstone by which experienced miners due to certain Bahiahini; one of the diamond companies in the geological properties recognized little or no valuable Metropolis of Ghana, is licensed by the government of opals. The contrast term is good or good-sandstone. Ghana to buy diamonds from native miners in Ghana,Baffa diamond; a local, misleading term for a variety of Africa. quartz crystal from the island of Cyprus. bahiaite; a pyroxenite, containing amphibole,baffle; a metal plate in an optical instrument, which is orthopyroxene, olivine and a small amount of ceylonite. inserted into a wave-guide. It control, which is reduced bahias; a term sometimes used for diamonds, of inferior, the cross-sectional area when filtering waves for color grade or form from Bahia, Brazil. conversion purposes. Also called baffle plate. bahri; an Arabic term used by Masudi for second gradeBagagem; location of diamond deposit in southwest of emerald, which means sea-emerald (aquamarine Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Star of the color), with the color of young leaves which grow South, which weighed 261.24 cts, and was from upon the tip of stems of myrtle. Asamm, mor, and Bagagem. magrebi.Bagillion cut; a rectangular baguette with a brilliant-cut baht; a weight unit for precious metals, used in Thailand pavilion. equivalent to 15.29 grams.Bagos de Arroz; a Spanish-Brazilian term for a class of Baikal lapis; deep, violetish blue to green lapis lazuli long, flat and thin, rough diamonds. Literally it means from Baikal, the Russian Federation, CIS. bag of rice. Badakhshan lapis.bagshot diamond; misleading term for quartz crystal, baikalite; a dark-green variety of diopside, found near from England. the Baikal Lake, the Russian Federation, CIS.bague; French term for a ring. Baja amber; a source of fossil resin amber inbaguette; a French term for rod, or a long stick of bread. California, USA. A style of step-cutting used for small, narrow, bajadèrs; Indian term for small ribboned pearls. rectangular-shaped gemstones, principally used for Bajhur; an Indian term used for green and black color small diamonds and emeralds. stone which frequently mistaken for epidote orbaguette; a term often applied to a cushion-shaped cut, zabarjad and emerald from Egyptian. by dealers in the colored stone trade. Also spelled bajhur; a term was used in Egypt for a green stone baguette cut and called baton. mixed with black, mistakenly believed to be zaberjad orbaguette cut; a modern cut for small-trap stones set next emerald. to rectangular-shaped stones with parallel facets. Also bajoobund; a corrupt spelling of bazu band.
  • 59 bakelite – ball millingbakelite; a colorless, synthetic resin or plastic, made of Balboa Topaz; a medium-blue, irradiated, pear-shaped phenol or cresol, sometimes used in the imitation of Brazilian topaz of 4500 cts. It was cut from a rough gems and jet. It can be stained various colors. Bakelite stone of 10.715 cts. Now on display at Sa Diego is non-flammable, not dissolved in common solvents. It Museum, USA. Found in 1978. is not as hard as some other plastics, and it is marketed Bal de Feu; a commercial term for synthetically formed as an amber simultant. There are two types of bakelite; strontium titanate, which is used as a diamond (a) a condensation product of phenol (carbolic acid) and simultant. formaldehyde. RI:1.54-1.70. SG:1.25-2.00, clear types bal ironstone; same as nodular iron ore. 1.25-1.30. (b) The other is known as amino plastics. Bali; a Myanmar (Burmese), weight equal to 58.18 cts, Where urea replaces phenol in the composition it is (64 ratis). transparent and accepts dyes of various colors. RI:1.55- balias ruby; an old misleading French term for ballas 1.62. SG:1.55. H 2. It is easy to distinguish by its ruby. smell, when a hot needle is pressed against it. ball bracelet; bracelet of one or two strands of hollowBakerville; a small alluvial diamond mine, in the beads or spheres. Also used for earring designs. Lichtenburg area, Transvaal, South Africa. ball chain; a chain, made of tiny hollow metal beads orbakor; same as bacor. spheres, linked together.Bakwanga; alluvial diamond-bearing area of the ball ear-ring; ball bracelet. Lubilash River, in Zaire. Lubilash, Mbuji-Mayi. ball jasper; brown to red jasper, found in sphericalbalance; a scale or an instrument used to determine masses. specific gravity and to weigh gemstones. Primary ball jasper; jasper appearing in concentric bands of red and yellow. ball pearl; the round pearl, found in inland rivers of the USA. ballam (pearling ship); a Farsi term for pearl-fishing boat in the Persian Gulf. ballas; alternate spelling for balas ruby. ballas (diamond); the term ballas, was first applied to stones from Brazil, however diamonds of similar structure known as Cape, and African ballas, are found. a common hydrostatic balance An important, very hard, industrial variety of multicrystalline diamond. The stones are spherical function is to compare two masses. Some examples of aggregates of minute, diamond crystals, arranged more balances are in use: Westphal, Hanneman, aperiodic, or less radially. They have no well-defined cleavage diamond, chemical, etc. planes and thus, have great resistance to abrasion.balance bucket; a container used by Australian miners Found in Brazil and Africa. Spherical white, or grayish for balancing so that he is able to raise or lower diamonds, which have cleavage planes are often also himself in the shaft. Now moderately used ladders and called ballas although a more correct term for them is winches. bort. Used in industry as an abrasive and for rock drills.Balas; an old local name (Balascia) for Badakhshan Also called bort beads, spherical bort, shot ballas, shot Region, Afghanistan. boart, round bort.Balas; a local term for a red, rose-red, or sometimes an ballas (diamond); an incorrect term for a round, single- orange variety of spinel, from the Badakhshan district, crystal form diamond. Afghanistan, where the gem is found. Same as Balas ballaur; another spelling of the Farsi (Persian) term ruby. bolur for quartz.balas; a Brazilian term for parti-colored tourmaline, ballerina setting; the term is derived from the effect, from which the outer layers have been removed, to which takes place, when radially mounted baguette improve the color and clarity. diamonds surround a central stone in a setting. It has anBalas ruby; a misleading term for red, rose-red or effect of the dressing-gown, or skirt of a ballerina. sometimes an orange variety of spinel, found in Balas ball-and-stick; illustration of crystal structure. or Badakhshan (or Balascia) in northen Afghanistan. It ball lightning; a slowly moving luminous ball nearly in is to easy to distinguish from ruby, by its single a foot diameter, sometimes can be seen during a refraction and lack of dichroism. Sometimes spelled thunderstorm. Ballas or misnomered as Balas. Balas, ruby spinel, ball milling; same as attrition milling. Abrasive test. pink spinel.
  • balsam of fir – banded opal 60balsam of fir; same as Canada balsam. bandeau; a type of jeweled ornamental band, worn byballur; another spelling of the Farsi (Persian) term bolur women around the head. for beryl. banded; the appearance of a mineral or a rock havingballur; another spelling of the Farsi (Persian) term bolur alternating thin and nearly parallel bands of different for quartz. colors, perhaps of different materials. Also calledbalstone; a nodule, or large, crystalline mass, of fine, banded mineral or banded rock. unstratified limestone, containing coral in the position banded; the appearance of a potch opal in alternating of of its growth, surrounded by shale and impure, bedded tow thin and nearly parallel bands of different colors, limestone, such as the limestone of Shropshire. most frequently black and white.Baltic amber; a commercial jewelry term for succinite, banded agate; in banded agate, various colors are from the shores of all countries on the Baltic Sea, arranged in delicate, parallel, alternating bands or which contain at least 3-8% succinic acid. stripes. these may occur in various thicknesses. theseBaltic amber coast; the shores of all countries on the Baltic Sea, which contain succinite ambers. The wave’s action on the shoreline cliffs loosened amber particles and carried away to the sea and buried in the seabed.baltic red; same carmen red.baltimorite; a grayish-green, fibrous, silky, splintery antigorite (serpentine), from Maryland. Synonym: picrolite.bamboo; a cane-colored, porcelain biscuit.bamboo coral; a commercial term for coral suitable for banded agate jewelry, which is fished from the waters of Tasmania, Australia and has a similar structure to bamboo. bands readily take different artificial dyes. Sometimesbamboo pearl; a misleading term for tabasheer found in straight, but often are wavy, or zigzag, occasionally the certain species of bamboo. bands are formed in concentric circles. The bands maybamboo shoots; across the expanse of Siberia, emerald be sharply demarcated or blend imperceptibly into one forms in cracks, which have the appearance of bamboo, another. Banded agate occurs in silica-rich shoots. environments, such as in irregular cavities of rocks,bamboo ware; yellow-colored, wedgwood ware similar where they take on concentric forms. Agate, onyx, in color to bamboo. chalcedony and chalcedony onyx.banco; a Spanish term meaning sandbank. A term banded hematite-quartzite; a term used in Australia applied to the plane charge caused by a stream channel and India for iron formation. Banded quartz- in a flood plain, cut from hillsides, which the emerald hematite. mines of Colombia are located. Same as shoal bench, banded ironstone; a term applied in South Africa for sandbank. the appearance of an iron oxides and chert formationBanaganapalle conglomerate; a village of old working having alternating nearly parallel bands of brown, red diamond mines found in the conglomerate basal member and black colors. of the sedimentary. banded jasper; a term applied to a variety of jasper,band; stripes of a different color, and thus, of a different showing a banding similar to agate, frequently in composition in a rock. Banded rocks exhibit these brightly distinct colors. Also called striped jasper, patterns, usually uniformly. Occasionally ornamented. jasponyx, ribbon jasper.band; a term applied to a wedding rings. banded limestone; a term used for a parallel limestone, with frequently irregular, colored bands. Banded.band; in spectroscopy, compactly-packed, spectral lines that appear like a continuous band. Band spectrum. banded marble; a term used for a parallel marble, withband; sometime applied to bracelets. frequently irregular, colored bands. Banded.band; a term used by Australian miners for opal- banded mineral; banded. bearing sandstone stratum which containing some opal banded obsidian; a term used for obsidian, with above and below of them. frequently irregular, colored bands.band boulder; a term used by Australian miners for banded opal; a term applied to a variety of layered opal-bearing band boulder, which can be found at the opals of different colors or opal alternating with any bottom of sandstone in Queensland opal pipe. other matrix or minerals.
  • 61 banded quartz – Bannister’sbanded quartz-hematite; same as itabirite. Banded variable. An optical band spectrum arises mainly in hematite-quartzite. molecular transitions. Continuous spectrum. Also calledbanded rhodochrosite; rhodochrosite is usually banded molecular spectrum. The band spectra sometimes are as stalactitic, stalagmitic aggregate. Attractively banded called swan spectra according to spectra, which when arise from molecules. A band spectrum consists of fine lines, which are wide apart at one end and closer at the other end so that they appear to be one dense line at the head. bandstone; a term used by Australian miners for hard thin banded ferruginous siliceous material from White Cliff, Australia containing more or less opal. Also called casing, cement, cement band, concrete, steel band. band theory; a quantum-mechanical theory of the banded rhodochrosite under microscope moving or delocalizing of free electrons within in various shades of pink and white. It occurs together crystals, metals or solids that predict certain bands of with braunite and bixbyite found in Kalahari Desert, the energies of metal electrons. Bands are caused by Cape Province, South Africa. Cut cabochon, and into conversion of atomic orbitals (minimum four atoms), bead-like articles.. into molecular orbitals or bands, which is calledbanded talc; banded talc or marble frequently used in conduction bands. Band theory in metals. Thailand as the nuclei of cultured pearls. band theory in metals; electrical conductivity ofBandeirantes; a Brazilian term for the gold diggers, metals is a quantum-mechanical theory which assumed who first discovered diamonds, close to Diamantina, that the valence electrons of the atoms in a metal were Minas-Gerais. able to move electrons freely through entirely of metal,bandelette; a type of ribbon, jeweled with pearls, coral, acting as a free electron gas. Also called Drude theory, amber, etc. worn by women in their hair. who introduced this theory and later Drude-Lorenzeband gap; a term used for energy difference between theory. Band theory. two bands of electron energy in some metals. Also Banffshire; the name of a locality, which is the source called energy gap. for serpentine in England.band-gap impurity color; including blue diamond due Bangkok; good quality rubies, mostly darker in color to boron, yellow diamond, green diamond due to than Myanmar (Burmese), stones, found near Bangkok. nitrogen. Bangal amethyst; a misleading term for violetBandjermasin; a city in Borneo, Indonesia, where there corundum. Purple sapphire. are some minor diamond deposits. bangle; a hollow or solid wire bracelet.band matrix; a term used by Australian miners for Banian Diamond; the Indian diamond of 48.50 cts, opal-bearing band matrix, which occurs with band bought by Tavernier, a French traveler and jeweler who boulder opal and mixed with ironstone, found in visited in India in 17th century, it was later sold to a Queensland. Dutch Sea Captain. Banjarmasin; location of diamond deposits in the state 700nm 650 600 550 500 450 400nm of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Banjarmasin Diamond; the octahedron diamond of 70 red orange yellow green blue violet cts, from Banjarmasin, Indonesia (1836), which was taken to Holland in 1859 and cut into a 40 cts, squared brilliant. Now belongs to the Rijksmuseum in 617 576 527 505 467 Amsterdam. Bank Kha Cha sapphire mine; a sapphire gem bearing a band spectrum of almandine district in Chanthaburi province of Thailand. banks; paar (oyster beds). Bannister’s graph; a chart for determining theband spectrum; a molecular optical spectrum that composition of imitation, glass gems. Bannister’s graph appears to be a number of bands. This is because of the is based upon the relation of the constant of a given array of intensity values in the spectrum, which occurs glass, to that of silica glass. It identifies the composition over broad ranges of wavelengths of the ordering of a glass using its refractive index and, specific gravity
  • bantam - barite 62 or density. stone (size), of intermediate quality, sky-blue dendritic bantam; a term used by South African diggers for any turquoise, from Khorassan, in NE Iran, which is specific gravity divided into four categories, mostly used for inlaying 2.21 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 and incrusting jewelry, bazu band (armlets), trappings, 3.40 density and Ca-Fe- 3.50 water-pipe, etc. Another spelling is barchaneh, barkhan borsilicate glass 3.60 glass basalt glass 3.70 refractive obsidian glass 3.80 or barchane. Turquoise classification in Iran. barium 3.90 4.00 index of specific gravity glass 4.10 4.20 imitation Bardiglio marble; a blue Italian limestone obtained near 4.30 Montalto, on the southern borders of Carrara, TuscanySG: 2.07 4.40 glasses used opal glass 4.50 4.60 for also known as bleu belgé marble and bleu turquin 4.70 lead glass 4.80 4.90 gemstone. marble, a French terms which are for Bardiglio marble. 5.00 Ti-Fe- barium glass After Bannister, bareket; same as bareketh. glass Min.Mag. Vol. 22, 1929, PP. 136-154, London bareketh; a biblical term meaning lightning bolt, which 1.44 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 refractive index refers to the third stone in the breastplate of the High Priest. Generally, equivalent with the emerald or beryl, mineral that indicates the presence of diamonds found but more common possibly could refer to amazonite, a in that area. Bantams. green feldspar. Engraved with the name Levi. Also Bantam Diamond; a name of the diamond that spelled bereketh, baraketh, barket, baraket, and called Tavernier the French traveler reported having seen in carbuncle, flashing stone. 1648 in India, mounted on the dagger of Radja Barion cut; a modern style of a fancy square-shaped, Bantam. Weight unknown. It may be The Holland mixed cut. The fancy name of a diamond style designed Diamond. Auckland Diamond. and introduced in 1971 by Basil Watermeyer. It was bantams; small pebbles of banded garnet-quartz rock. They are usually associated with diamonds as they are obtained frequently when washing diamond-bearing gravel from the Vaal River, South Africa. Bantam. Banya Irang; location of an alluvial diamond deposit in the Danau Seran swamp, Indonesia. base view top view base view bapabolam; a Sanskrit term used in past for emerald beryl. Barion cut or square step-cut bar; a term used by Australian miners for solid pieces with two different pavilion of opal color, which crossed through potch. bar; a C.G.S. unit of pressure equal to 106 dynes/sqcm or 105 Pascal’s, approximately 750 mm Hg (mercury) derived from a full emerald-cut crown, and brilliant-cut or 0.987 atmosphere. pavilion, with 62 facets (culet included), which has 4 barchan; barkhaneh. half-moon facets, parallel to the girdle, and 4 smaller barranca; may be a Farsi (Persian barran-câr, barran- facets, that form a cross on the pavilion, when viewed câve) name for rain-water cut or in England chine. And through the table. It was intended to improve the the term cavidan meaning excavate, to dig. brilliance and retaining maximum weight. The term baprabalam; a Sanskrit term used in past for emerald was formed from the name Basil and that of his wife beryl. Marion. baraket; same as bareketh. barite; a soft mineral, rarely used for faceted gems, and baraketh; same as bareketh. Barbados earth; a deposit of fossil radiolarians from a b Island Barbados of West Indies. Barbara beryl; beryl from near Barbara, in the c northeastern Transvaal, South Africa. Barbara Heliodora; the topaz of 62.75 cts, named in honor of Barbara Heliodora. d Ba Barber’s Diamond: same as Koh-i-Nûr Diamond. g o Barbertonite; a dimorphous mineral with stichtite. e f s barchane dune; barkhaneh. a-d: baryte crystals with their head barchaneh; barkhaneh. forms and f: crystal structure barkhaneh; a Farsi (Persian), term meaning sandy of a little interest to collectors. Frequently, light blue or
  • 63 barite cut – Barkly west green it has phosphorescent and fluorescent effects substantial quantity of barium oxide. Used rarely in the under UV light. Also spelled barytes, barytine, barytite, manufacture of imitation stones. and called barium sulfate, heavy spar. Barite rosette. barium fluoride; the chemical composition BaF2 melts System: orthorhombic. at 1280º C. Used as a flux and as an opacifier, in Formula: 4[BaSO4]. enamel frit and spectroscopy. Luster: vitreous to resinous. barium glass; a highly refractive glass, in which the Streak: white. BaO replaces part of CaO formula in ordinary lime Colors: colorless, white, gray, reddish, pale-yellow, brown, greenish soda glass, so as to increase the specific gravity and or blue. brilliance. Diaphaneity: semitransparent. barium platino-cyanide; a paper coated with barium Cleavage: {001} perfect, {210} distinct, and {010} imperfect. platino-cyanide, which was once used in laboratory Fracture; uneven. Brittle. experiments of X-rays. SG: 4.30-4.60. barium sulfate; same as barite. H: 3-3. barium titanate; BaTiO3, this light-gray chemical Optics; :1.636, :1.637, 1.648. composition is made synthetically by the Czochralski Birefringence: 0.012. . method. Cubic, also tetragonal and hexagonal in Dispersion: 0.016. system. RI:2.40. SG:5.90. H:6-6. Sometimes cut as Found in Colorado, Missouri, South Dakota, the USA, gemstone, or used as a transducer in ultrasonic cleaning British Columbia, Ontario (Canada), the Czech instruments, or in a ferro-electric ceramics. Republic, and England. bark; the outside or skin portion of elephant tusk.barite cut; a soft mineral, rarely used as faceted gems barkan; a Chaldeic term for emerald. which is of little interest to collectors, but, brown barket; same as bareketh. stalagmitic or stalactite, varieties with a concentric barkta; a Chaldeic term for emerald. structure, are fashioned as an ornamental objects. Some barkhan; barkhaneh. massive minerals have a slight chatoyancy. barkhaneh; a Farsi (Persian) term for sky-blue dendriticbarite luminescence; white or blue-green under SWUV turquoise, from Khorassan, NE Iran. Another spelling is ray. Greenish-white, cream-white pinkish-white under barchaneh, barkhan or barchane. LWUV ray. barkhaneh; a term applied to barchane dune a concavebarite pleochroism; pleochroism is weak. Brown crystal shows yellow, straw, vein-yellow and violet. Yellow crystal: weak yellow and yellowish-brown. Green crystal: colorless, violet and weak-green.barite rose; same as barite rosette.barite rosette; a rosette-like cluster aggregate of large, tabular, sand-filled barite crystals. Usually formed in sandstone and in the desert. Frequently prized by collectors. Synonyms are barite rose, rosette, and petrified rose.barium; a silvery-white, heavy metallic element of the barchan of sand dune alkaline earth’s (II group), of the Periodic System with the symbol Ba. to leeward form. Also spelled barchan, barchaneh.barium aluminate; the gray, powdery, mass with the Barkly Breakwater Diamond; the diamond of 109.25 chemical formula 3BaO.Al2O3, is soluble in water. cts, found in 1905, at Barkly West, South Africa, during Used in the ceramics industry. the construction of a breakwater. Named after Henrybarium carbonate; same as witherite. Barkly, Governor of the Cape of Good Hope (1815-barium chromate; a heavy, yellow, crystalline powder 1898). Present whereabouts unknown. with the chemical formula BaCrO4. Used in ceramics Barkly Mine; location of small, narrow, nearly vertical, manufacturing. kimberlite fissure, in Barkly West, South Africa.barium crown glass; an optical glass, containing a Barkly West; a city in Cape Province, South Africa substantial quantity of barium oxide. where numerous alluvial diamond deposits are located.barium feldspar; the collective name for barium- Famous diamonds such as Barkly Breakwater bearing feldspars, such as celsian and hyalophane. Diamond, and the Broderick Diamond were found here.barium flint glass; an optical glass, containing a Klipdrift (Canteen Kopje).
  • Barkly west – basal cleavage 64Barkly West Group; Klipdrift (Canteen Kopje), sometimes created in animal form or shaped like other Barkly West. figures. Also, known as barrok pearl, barock pearl, orbarnach stone; a building stone, obtained from the wart pearl. Baroque fresh-water pearls are found in Lincolnshare limestone. rivers of Europe, America, and Asia. Baroque, TheBarnato; Barnett Isaacs Barnato (1852-1897). Pearl of Asia. Originally, an entertainer in the diamond field who baroque stone; the production of baroque-shaped become a diamond dealer. He founded the Barnato stones, by the tumbling process. Baroque. Mining Company Ltd. in 1873. barragtu; an Assur or Egypt term for emerald. AlsoBarnato Mining Company Ltd.; a diamond Mining spelled barraktu. Company, founded in 1873 by the brothers, Barnett barraktu; same as barragtu. Isaacs and Henry Isaacs, in Kimberly, South Africa. barrel polishing; another term for tumbling.barnesite; a trademark for a rare earth oxide, containing barrel process; a process of extracting gold or silver ca. 45-48 % CeO2. Used in glass polishing. when it is placed in a revolving barrel with mercury,barock pearl; same as baroque pearl.Baroda gem; a commercial term for a foil-backed, colorless glass, used as a diamond imitation.baroid; a term for a weighting material, made from selected barite, which is added to drilling material to increase the unit weight of mud.baroite; a term applied to a rock composed of barite or celestite.Baroness Cut; a trade term for fancy octagonal shape barrel cut chlorine, cyanide solution, or other reagent. barrel quartz; a term applied to a certain type of gold- bearing quartz, which occurs in the form of corrugated veinlets. Found in Nova Scotia, South East Canada. barrel shaped; a gemstone, which has the shape of a barrel. barrel shaped pearls; an old term for barrel-shaped pearls found in well-worn necklaces due to wear. Baroness Cut barren; a geological term meaning without fossils. gem-cut, with 65 facets. It is drived from an oval-cut. barrok pearl; same as baroque pearl.baroque; term meaning curved and exuberant in form, barry; a term used by Australian miners for those opal or irregular in shape, to distinguish from symmetrical, pertaining to bar of potch, which can be found, with cut gemstones. A pearl or tumble-polished uncut gem, the bars of precious opal. irregular in shape, such as baroque pearl, and baroque barysphere; the heavy interior core of the earth inside, stone. beneath the lithosphere. Thus include both the mantlebaroque pearl; a term applied to pearls, both natural and core, which probably consisting largely of iron. and cultured, which are irregular in form. It is formed Also called centrosphere, bathysphere, nicke-iron mass. baryte; barite. barytes; barite. barytine; barite. barytite; barite. barytocalcite; synonym for bromlite. Not to be confused with bromellite. barytocelestite; a term used for a mixture of barite and a baroque pearl celestite. Prized by collectors. basal; same as basal plane. by a pearl oyster, with some irregular-shaped intrusion. basal cleavage: a break sometimes seen, parallel to the Baroque pearls are used as pendants and brooches basal pinacoid of a crystal, this is perpendicular to its
  • 65 basal parting - basanite long axis. Also called pinacoidal cleavage.basal parting: splitting or separation of stones or rocks columnar structutre of basalt parting in enstatite on the basal pinacoid hyalobasalt. basalt hornblende; a black to brown, ferric iron variety of hornblende, found in volcanic rock basalt or other along certain definite weak basal plane such as lamellar volcanic rock. Also called oxyhornblende, basaltic twinning planes, which are not true cleavage planes but hornblende, lamprobolite, basaltine. resembling cleavage such as sphene, pyroxene, or basalt obsidian; basalt glass, sideromelane, tachylite. corundum. Also called pseudo cleavage. Same as false basalt (rock); a fine-grained, compact, dark to medium- cleavage. dark-colored, mafic (basic), commonly extrusive,basal pinacoid; basal. igneous rock, originating from lava or a minor intrusionbasal plane; a term applied to the parallel faces (locally as dikes). Composed chiefly of calcic representing the basal pinacoid of a crystal that can be plagioclase, and clinopyroxene in a glassy or fine- seen in all the crystal systems excluding the cubic grained groundmass, which was used by the Egyptians systems. A direction perpendicular to the principal axis as a gemstone. Miners use the name trap rock. Also of the prism, to its c axis such as in hexagonal {0001}. called basaltine rock. basalt (rock); a general term for fine-grained, compact, dark to medium-dark-colored, mafic (basic) rocks, originating from lava such as basalt, diabase, dolerite, basal plane and dark-colored andesine. of basalt (rock); a term, loosely used for dark colored, hexagonal fine-grained igneous rocks used for brooches or pendants. basaltese black; same basalt black. basaltes spatosus; a term may applied to emerald, such as by Cronstedt. Synonym for base. Also called basal pinacoid. basaltic; containing or resembling basalt, or pertainingbasal reef; gold-bearing reef in South Africa, in the to basalt. Also called basaltine. Orange Free State. basaltic hornblende; same as basalt hornblende.basalt; a general term for dark-colored, fine-grained, basaltin; a Spanish misnomer for pale violet beryl. mafic, extrusive igneous rock, composed chiefly of basaltin amatista; an Italian misnomer for pale violet calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene and magnetite, beryl. without or with olivine. basaltine amethyste; a French misnomer for pale violetbasalt columnar; a particular structure seen mainly in beryl. dykes commonly in basic rocks such as basalt and basaltine rock; same as basalt (rock). dolerite which consists of a close-packed series of basaltine; same as basalt hornblende. hexagonal prisms forming at right-angles to the upper basaltine; an obsolete term for augite. Basaltic. and lower surfaces. basaltine amethyste; a French term for pale violetbasalt glass; a semi-transparent to opaque, gray-brown beryl. Basaltine amethyst. to black and blue, glassy form of natural basalt, basalt ware; an unglazed, black-body variety of containing 50% silica. RI:1.58-1.65. SG:2.7-3.0. H:6. wedgwood, used for relief plaques, portraits, etc. Often Conchoidal fracture. Usually cut cabochon in various, called Egyptian black, basaltese black. dark colors. Found in Flinders River, Queensland, basanite; a fine-grained, extrusive, basalt rock, Australia. Also called tachylyte or tachylite, characterized by olivine, calcic plagioclase, augite, sideromelane, basalt obsidian, jaspoid, wichtisite,
  • basanite – bastard ashlar 66 feldspathoid, such as nephelinite, leucite, or analcite. limestone or dolomite, used as a flux. Without olivine, the rock is named as tephrite. basic igneous rock; the term is rarely used in lithology.basanite; a fine grained, black jasper or fine crystalline An igneous rock containing chiefly dark-colored quartzite from California, used to test the purity of minerals. noble metals, and alloys, by examining the streak basic igneous rock; a name applied to igneous rocks remaining on the stone. Also, called touchstone, and with less than 52% silica, free or combined. Lydian stone, lydite, in ancient times. basic igneous rock; an igneous rock containingBas-Congo-Katanga Railroad; the diamond minerals, low in silica, and rich in a metallic base, such exploration company with works washing the gravel of as amphibole, pyroxenes, biotite, and olivine. Also the Sasatchie River. called basic rock.base; same as the pavilion of a cut stone. The part of a basic lava; lava, poor in silica (SiO2), (less than 52%), cut stone, below the girdle flat. distinct from acidic lava, or intermediate lava. Basic,base; the basal plane of a crystal. lava rocks are typically dark colored. → Basic magma,base; the quality value of a pearl is called base. → Base basic igneous rock. price of pearl. basic magma; that magma-rich in iron, magnesium, andbase coat; the coating over the base of the gems. calcium. → Basic lava, basic igneous rock.base metal; opposite of a noble metal, also any of the basic price; → base price. nonprecious metals, such as zinc, copper, lead, or tin. basic rocks; an igneous rock, with less than 52% silica, Metals, to which a coating or plating is applied, such as free or combined. → Basic igneous rock. a porcelain enamel because they oxidize and corrode baskets; sieves made of brass, used in Sri Lanka for easily. Also called nonprecious metal. separating pearls of slightly different sizes. → Peddi.base mineral; mineral which occurs as dominant basket-work cut; a modified square cut form made constituent of rock such feldspar, quartz, amphibole, pyroxene, mica and olivine.base of crystal; same as crystal base or base of a crystal.base price; the price for each metal, below, which it can not fall, without putting the average producer out of business. Also called basic price. → Base price of pearl, calculation of the price of gemstones. basket-work squarebase price of pearls; in the gemstone trade, usually the price of a single pearl is computed by squaring its weight in carats or grains, and multiplying the result by a base rate, however the shape and quality of the pearls is considered the value of larger pearls increases as the square of their weight. For example: in a pearl similar to triangle diagonal fleche basket. weighing 5 grains, if the base rate, is $ 15, the result is bassanite; a white mineral composed of hydrated $ 375.00. The grains are squared, (5x5=25 grains), calcium sulfate with the formula CaSO4.½H2O, which known as the once then we multiply it by a $ 15 base = is a pseudomorph of gypsum. Also called viberite. $ 375.00. The prize of pearl is computed using the bast; a rough diamond with a frosted surface, from the monetary units of all countries. Also called base unit, Dutch term meaning tree bark, or rind. basic price. → Calculation of the price of gemstones. bastard; anything abnormal in shape, size, appearance,base-relief; same as low relief. etc.base unit; → base price of pearl. bastard; an inferior or impure mineral that contains aBasel Baptismal font; a cruciform twin of staurolite, high proportion of a substance with uncommercial used as an amulet in Basel, Switzerland. value.basic; refers to igneous rocks, with a low-free quartz bastard; a hard and massive boulder or rock. content. bastard; an unusual make, or proportion of abnormalbasic diamolite; simply constructed, diamolite or shape. diamonlite. bastard; an ore, which gives misleading assays.basic dye; an azo dye with basic constituents such bastard amber; another term for cloudy amber, where triphenylmethane dye. Used as dyes. Also called the appearance and effect caused by the inclusion of a cationic dye. vast number of minute air bubbles.basic flux; in metallurgy, same as base material, such as bastard ashlar; hard and massive stones, intended for
  • 67 bastard cut - Baumgold ashlar work. intrusive, igneous rock, frequently granite. Also spelledbastard cut; fashioned stone, which does not conform to bathylith, batholite, bathylite. Also called intrusive the recognized typical forms, or, which shows some mountain. slight departure from the pure, standard style. The term Bath stone; a soft, creamy, oolitic limestone, easily applies only to those stones that have a regular and quarried, and used for building purposes. Found in the symmetrical arrangement of facets. Should they be Great Oölite near, Bath, England. irregular or deviate from an appreciated, standard form, Bathurst (diamond); the diamond found in 1851, on the the term cap cut is used. Also called bastard cut Turon River, near Bathurst, Australia. gemstone. It means a fashioned stone, with irregular bathvillite; an opaque, fawn-brown, amorphous, very and haphazard facets. Asymmetrical step-cut. brittle, woody resin found in porous lumps in torbanite,bastard cut gemstone; same as bastard cut. a type of boghead coal, at Bathvillite, Scotland.bastard diamond; a misnomer for quartz crystal from bathylite; another spelling for batholith. England. bathylith; another spelling for batholith.bastard emerald; a misnomer for green peridot, a bathysphere; same as barysphere. tansparent variety of olivine. bati xaga; a Pomo Indian term, meaning the type ofbastard emerald; a misnomer for green colored quartz. obsidian used for arrows by the Indians of California. Itbastard emerald; a misnomer for any green stone is not as hard as dupa xaga. resembling emerald. batman; indicator minerals.Bastard Smaragd; a German misnomer for any green baton; similar to the baguette cut in diamonds, or other stone resembling emerald such as quartz, peridot. gemstones, but longer.bastard ivory; an intermediate quality of softer ivory, Battershill Diamond; the diamond of 65 cts, named for from Thailand, Asia, suitable for working. the Governor of Tanzania, in 1945. Present locationbastard jet; a misleading term for a soft variety of unknown. Canadian jet. battledore; a device used in the glass industry forbastard jet; a misleading term used by England jet sharpening the base of wine glasses. Also known as worker for French jet. palette.bastard quartz; a miner’s term for rounded boulder, of battu-uji; a Malaysian term, for touchstone. white, glassy quartz, found unassociated with other batu; a term used in Malaysian for an opaque, yellow to minerals. brown or very dark, variety of a hard semifossilbastinite; same as huréaulite. dammar resin derived from any of certain coniferousbastion agate; fortification agate. Pinaceous trees of the genus Agathis with resinousbastite; an opaque, olive-green, blackish-green, or odor. Found in south East Asian. Sometimes called brown variety of serpentine, resulting from the cat’s-eye resin. Used for varnishes, lacquers, alteration of ortho-pyroxenes, especially enstatite, and sometimes as amber imitations, or melted with amber, bronzite. It is characterized by a schiller of metallic or and often containing real or imitation insects. Become pearly luster. SG:2.5-2.7. H:3-4. n= 1.57-1.58. Found in sticky, when rubbed briskly. Copal, black dammar, the Harz in Germany. Used for carving small objects white dammar, kauri copal. and cut cabochon. Also known as schiller spar. batu kawi; a Sumatran term for a red stone, which is Enstatite. supposed to be an infallible sign of gold.ba stone; a Chinese term for precious stone, gemstone. Baumgold Brilliant Diamond; white brilliant of 55 cts,Basurehi Mine; an alluvial diamond mine, in India. which was again recut to 52 cts, from South Africa. ItsBasutoland; former name for Lesotho, Southern Africa. rough weight was 167.25 cts, Present owner unknown.Basutoland Diamond Corporation; a diamond-digging Baumgold Pear Diamonds. company that holds the exclusive mining license for Baumgold Pear Diamonds; two pear-shaped brilliants Lesotho, Southern Africa. of ca. 50 cts, each. Both were cut from the Baumgoldbatea; a Brazilian term, for the wide, shallow washing Rough Diamond, which weighed 609.25 cts, from pans used by early gold and diamond prospectors. South Africa.bathochrome; a radical, which shifts the red absorption Baumgold Rough Diamond; a bluish-colored diamond, spectrum of stuff towards a longer wavelength of the of 609.25 cts, found in 1922, at the Wesselton Mine in red end of spectrum. South Africa. The Baumgold Brothers, Inc., cut it intobathochromic; same as red shifting. Bathochrome. 14 stones. The two largest stones are pears-cut brilliantsbatholite; another spelling for batholith. of 50 cts, each. Present whereabouts are unknown.batholith; a geological term, for a large domed body of Baumgold Pear Diamonds.
  • Baumstein – beach placer 68Baumstein; a German term for mocha stone. bayerite; a dimorph of gibbsite of Al(OH)3, used tobauxite; off-white, grayish, brown, yellow, or reddish- produce imitation turquoise together with copper brown rock, composed of aluminum hydroxides. phosphate. It is sold as neolite. Al2O3.2H2O. The principal ore for aluminum and bayldonite; a mineral with an aggregate of mammilary alumina. Colorless corundum, synthetic rubies, and concentric, fibers with the chemical formula of sapphires are composed from powdered alumina. 4[(Pb,Cu)3(AsO4)2(OH)2]. Monoclinic crystal. Grass- Original spelling is beauxite. Alundum, laterite. green, black-green, and greenish. Pale green streak.Bavarian cat’s-eye; a variety of quartz, with actinolite Resinous luster. Subconchoidal fracture. Optics; inclusions, which, when cut en cabochon, resembles a :1.95, :1.97, 1.99. Birefringence: 0.040. . cat’s-eye. Found in Hof and other locations in Bavaria, Dispersion: ? SG:4.35. H:4. Found in Namibia (Africa), which produces only a few stones of fine quality. Other Uzbekistan (the Russian Federation, CIS), and qualities are incorrectly sold as Hungarian cat’s-eye. Cornwall (England). Cut as gemstone. Quartz cat’s-eye from Bodental, in the Harz mountains, bay salt; a kind of commercial solar salt obtained by Germany, is sometimes sold as Bavarian cat’s-eye. evaporating seawater in shallow bays, lagoons, pits,Bavarian Imperial Treasury; famous Bavarian basins or ponds by the heat of the sun. Residenz Museum in Munich, Germany, in which Bazaruto; genuine pearls, fished off the Bazaruto many gemstones and precious objects from members Island, near Zanzibar, Africa. of ruling Wittelsbacher family are on display. bazu band; an Iranian or Farsi term for upper armBaveno twin law; an unusual twin crystal can be seen ornaments (armlets), made of gold or other noble metals, decorated with enameling and gems, and worn around the upper arm. Also corruptly spelled bajoobund. Bazu Band Emerald; an Indian upper arm ornament (armlet) made of three engraved Columbian emeralds, set with diamonds. Bazu Diamond; the Indian diamond of 104 cts, obtained Baveno twins of feldspar by Tavernier, and sold to a Dutch merchant, who had it cut into smaller pieces. bazzite; a transparent, azure-blue, hexagonal mineral: it is the scandium-containing part, or analogue of beryl, in feldspar consists of two individuals with the twin Be3(Sc,Al)2Si6O18. SG:2.77-2.82. H:6½. Optics: plane and composition surface are (021). :1.627 and :1.607. Birefringence: 0.027. . Foundb-axis; one of the crystallographic axes, used as a in Italy, Russia, Kazakhstan, Switzerland and Austria. reference in crystal description. The axis is oriented BCK; same as Bécéka. Société Minière du Bécéka. horizontally, right-to-left. In an orthorhombic or bdellium; a biblical term for an unknown substance, triclinic crystal, it is usually the macro-axis. In a mentioned in Genesis probably a mineral: „and the gold monoclinic crystal, it is the orthoaxis, with the of that land is good; bdellium and the onyx stone . . . subscription 0 as b0. Also called b-direction. (II. 12)“. Variously ascribed by different authorities to b-axis; the lateral axis in a monoclinic crystal system, be pearl, a red stone, opal, a resin, or no stone at all, but which has two fold symmetry and/or is perpendicular to manna. the mirror plane of symmetry. Also called orthoaxis. b-direction; same as b axis.bayadère; a style of twisted seed pearls necklace made Be; a chemical symbol for the element beryllium. of several strings usually are colored. beach mining; the extraction and concentration of beachbayadère; a French term for a style twisted seed pearls placer ore, or, heavy minerals such as zircon, monazite, assembled of numerous strings of seed pearls, which rutile, ilmenite, and gold. Also called foreshore mining, are twisted together. The strands may be of contrasting inshore mining, sea mining. color pearls and designed in a rope-like fashion. beach ore; the extraction and concentration of heavy orebayat; a local name for a brown, ferruginous variety of or minerals, on a beach, by the selective action of the jasper, from Cuba. Also spelled bayate. surf. Bearing useful minerals such as diamond andbayate; same as bayat. gold.bayerite; a dimorph of gibbsite of Al(OH)3, used in the beach placer; the placer deposit on a beach put there by flux-melting process of synthetic corundum and selective action. Bearing useful minerals such as sapphire. diamond and gold.
  • 69 beach rock – Beck linebeach rock; a friable to well-cemented sedimentary very fine hair-like fractures or lines on or within the rock made of calcareous skeletal debris mainly girdle. The lines are fuzzy, the diamond without the consisting of sands and/or pebbles, which is cemented normal, smooth and waxy polish. Also called fuzzy together by calcium carbonate. girdle, feathered girdle, fringed girdle.bead cut; a globular, double-rose cut. bearing; a thin, metal groove, in which a gemstone isbeading; same as bead setting. supported.beading board; a table on which the women threading beaten gold; same as leaf gold. the beads of jet or other stone. beaten metal; same as leaf metal such as copper.bead men; who worked only in making beads from jet. beaten silver; same as leaf silver.beads; small globules of precious stone, glass, wood or beat the dirt out; an informal term used by Australian metal, with or without facets, but always with a hole miners for some who dig carelessly with risking to drilled through the center. The form of beads varies damage opals. Who is without experience to dig. from cylindrical, to polyhedral, oblate, or, irregular. Nowadays this term refers to process of digging. Beads are made from gold, silver, other metals, glass, Beauharnais Brooch; a brooch of a gold and silver porcelain, wood, coral, bone, jet, amber, and other setting, with diamonds and rubies. It was once owned organic or inorganic substances. Used as personal by Empress Josephine, first wife of Napoleon. Later it adornment, ornamental objects or talismans, ear-rings, becomes the property of Prince Eugène de Beauharnais, necklaces, bracelets, brooches, rosaries, etc. the Viceroy of Italy.beads; in the blowpipe analysis of minerals, a glassy Beaumont Diamond; the diamond of 273 cts, in the drop of flux material, such as a borax bead, used as a rough, found near Windsorton, South Africa. Present solvent for color testing various metals. owner unknown.beads; beads made of hollow metals are made into Beau Sancy (Diamond); → Little Sancy Diamond. necklaces or bracelets. beauty; beauty an extensible term because the beauty isbeads; a referring term for the central part of a pearl. in the eye of the beholder. To one beholder, beautybeads; the best material for creating a nucleus in may be in the color, to others, it may be transparency, cultured pearls is a mother-of-pearl bead, which is not brilliancy, luster, cut-form or fire. The beauty of most foreign to the animal. It is inserted in the shell of a gemstones are a combination of two or more mussel, which coats it with nacre, to produce a cultured characteristic features. For example diamond it rests in pearl. Also known as the bead nuclei for pearl. clarity, colorless, fire, hardness, etc. Turquoise restsbead nuclei for pearl; → beads. primarily in color.bead setting; a style of setting gemstones, or diamonds beauxite; → bauxite. consisting of a row of beads, which are pressed into Bebit; an Egyptian term for country of grottoes where metal. turquoise mined from 5300 B.C. Now is named asbeam; an optical effect of scattered light, from an Wady Maghareh with meaning Valley of Caverns. internal reflection, caused by particles of matter in the beccarite; alpha zircon, from Sri Lanka. Olive-green path of the light, making a visible beam. color. RI: 1.93-1.98, SG: 4.7.beam balance; same as Westphal balance. A balance, in Bécéka; → Société Miniére du Bécéka. which the weight of the heavy liquid and gemstone béche de mer; same as sea cucumber. contributes to the balance of the moments of a beam Bechuanaland; former name of Botswana. about a central fulcrum. Becker amber; a misleading term for stantienite, jet orbeard; same as bearded girdle. retinite having very high oxygen content. Also calledbearded girdle; a series of imperfections, caused by the black amber of Whitby. beckerite; an opaque or cloudy, dark brown, soft fossil resin, of retinite, with a very high oxygen content, (23%), occurring with amber. Found in Baltic Area. Among miners known as brown resin. beckite; an ancient term, but an incorrect, spelling of beekite. Beck line; a method of determining the refractive index bearded girdle of minerals in a thin section, in which a narrow, bright line of light can be seen under a microscope, at the junction of two minerals of different refractive indices. too-rapid polishing on diamond girdle, which produces → Beck line method, Wild method, immersion method.
  • Beck line method – belcher setting 70Beck line method; in microscopy, a method of testing habit to satin spar. beef blood ruby; a term used in England for a blood-red ruby, darker than pigeon’s blood, from Myanmar. beekite; a variety of chalcedony chert, often pseudo- morphous after coral skeletons of red color, shells, or other fossils. A silicified coral. beekite; a white, opaque, concretion form of calcite, commonly found in small rings on the surface of fossil n grain > n liquid n grain = n liquid n grain < n liquid shell, coral, and sponge, as a replacement for organic Becks line in three different grains to same liquid matter. Found in Aden, Asia. Misleadingly spelled backite. beer-bottle; same as carbon amber. the relative refraction indices. A bright line separates beer-bottle; a not recommended term for amber- substances of different refractive indices. A faceted, colored potch opal. transparent stone is immersed in a liquid of a known, beer-bottle glass; a term used for brown-colored glass by adding sulfur compounds such as sulfide or sulfates (iron sulfides Fe2+ and Fe3+), with charcoal and other n grain < liquid n grain = liquid n grain > liquid organic compounds. Also is called carbon amber glass. beetle; same as septartium. Becks lines in beetle articles; variously colored enameled, gold-coated raise tube sink tube three different metal beads, in the form of a beetle, made in China. figure and Beck-line figure and Beck-line grains to beetle stone; an old term for turtle stone. Coprolitic focusing same liquid nodules, which, when broken open, give a fanciful focusing figure and Beck-line resemblance to a fossil beetle. beggar beads; quartz, agate, jasper, carnelian, moss agate, and chalcedony beads, from India, used to make necklaces of graduated or combined shapes, sizes and colors. refractive index and viewed through the microscope. bei; a Chinese term for cup made of jade. The faceted edges of the stone travels from light to Beilby layer; a vitreous, amorphous or a thin flowing dark, when focusing down, from the liquid into the layer of ultramicroscopic depth, which is produced by gem, hence the refractive index of the stone is higher recrystallization during the polishing of some than that of the liquid, and inverted. Mainly suitable for gemstones, other than diamond. There are 4 types of small fragments. Beck line, Wild method Beilby layers: (a) a layer which is rapidly recrystallized,Beck test; a method of refractive index determination. like its underlying material, such as quartz or Beck line method. corundum, (b) some are only abrasion layers, where theBecquerel ray; a term used before the terms alpha, beta, melting point of the crystal is too high, for example as and gamma rays were introduced, for the particles in a diamond, (c) where the molten layer remains emitted during radioactive decay. amorphous as on certain surfaces requiring a lengthybed; layered detrital or sedimentary material as a heating time, such as kyanite, (d) where the layer stratified series, which is known as stratum. remains amorphous on all surfaces, such as on spinel orbedded chert; layered chert. zircon.bedding cleavage: cleavage that is parallel to the Beilstein; a German term for Nephrite (axe stone). bedding. Beiragahr; Wairagah working.Bedford limestone; a commercial term for spergenite, bekko ware; a yellow-brown, spattered Japanese from a Mississippian limestone quarried in Bedford. pottery. It resembles tortoise shell. Sold for building purposes. Also called Indiana Belagius; another spelling for Badakhshan, Afghanistan. limestone. belbaite; a term used for hypothetical tourmalinebediasite; a brownish to black, jet-like tektite, from molecules of elbaite with a prefix b. Texas. Named after the Bidai (Bedias) Indians of the belcher setting; a type of setting used for stones in Trinity River Valley, USA. Tektite. finger rings, in which the stones have been secured bybedrock; rock of relatively great thickness, under prongs or claws that are cut into the shank. These do deposits of gravels, silt, sand, soil, etc. not extend above the shank.beef; a name used to describe fibrous calcite, similar in
  • 71 belemnites - Benedictinebelemnites; any extinct member of cephalopod fossils, texture in glassy, igneous rocks or obsidian, (natural being cigar-shape or cylindrical, which are used to set glass), when examined under microscope. Acicular crystallite, has rounded ends, and is known as globulite, and those, which are bead-like strings, are called as margarites. blemnite mannobelus belonite; same as aikinite. belt; a broad strip encircling or girdling something. belt of synthetic diamond pressure; a modern device dactyloteutis megateuthis p assaloteuthis different blemnites in jewelry, unpolished or polished. Also called thunder- stone, arrow-head, finger-stone, arrow-point.belemnite marl; gray, calcareous clays, with plentiful belemnites, in England. Plenus marl.Belgian black marble; same as black marble. pressure belt of synthetic diamondBelgian Congo; former name for Zaire.Belgian Diamant Nijverheid; an organization of for producing synthetic diamond and in mineral diamond manufactures in Belgium. industry. Synthetic diamond.Belgian Gemmological Society; Société Belge de belt sander; an electrical portable, abrasive belt for Gemmologie. sanding. sand-paper is carried in a conveyor belt-likeBelgian rouge-et-gris; rouge-et-gris, Belgian. manner over two rotary rollers.belgite; same as willemite. bemenite; an incorrect name for danburite.Belgavia Mine; a small diamond pipe deposit, in bemenite; a grayish-yellow, to grayish-brown Kimberly, South Africa. manganese silicate mineral.Bella, La: a hyacinth of 416 cts, which was purchased in bemiscite; a salmon-colored feldspar, from Bemis, 1687 by Leopold I, from the Hungarian royal family. It Tennessee, USA. is mounted to form the breast of a gold Imperial double bench; any horizontal, wide, stepped terrace along eagle in the crown. Now on displaying in the which material is worked in an open pit. Schatzkammer, of the Hofburg, Vienna, Austria. bench; any long, narrow, horizontal surface used forBelleck porcelain; a very thin porcelain from Belleck, solid work. Ireland, which is decorated with a pearly, luster enamel, bench digging; same as bench placer. laid over the glaze, suggesting the interior of shells. bench mining; one system of working in open pit andbell metal; any high tin-bronze alloy, with 20% tin and underground mining. Same as open bench mining. 80% copper, used as a lap and polishing item with bench placer; gemstones-, diamonds-, gold- or other rouge, etc. ore-bearing, terrace gravels, which are mined at, orbell pearl; another term for a drop-shaped pearl. near, the surface. Also called bench digging, terraceBellsbank; important kimberlite diamond mine mining, terrace placer. Alluvial terrace-mining. consisting of two fissures: Bobbejaan and Bellsbank, bench shears; a heavy device used for cutting metals near Barkly West, Cape Province, South Africa. and splitting minerals, rocks and stones.belly; the central part of a pear-shaped, or marquise bench terrace; more or less, an embankment of earth, diamond, when viewed from above. with a flat top, between steep risers, graded down into abelly; enrichment of an ore deposit. Also called bulge. hillside.belly shield; blond shell. bending phenomenon; electron diffraction, neutronbeloeilite; a granular plutonic rock containing a high diffraction. proportion of sodalite, and less potassium feldspar. Benedictine Abbey Emerald; a emerald green fluoritebelomorite; a commercial term for a variety of of 12.90kg was given to Benedictine Abbey at moonstone, from the White Sea, North Russia. Reichenau, Switzerland by Charlemagne 742-814.belonite; an aggregate of small rod-shaped, or William Cox saw the stone suppose that it is a green elongated, globulite crystallites, which appear as the fluorite, not emerald. Also called Charlemagne
  • Benedito - berakta 72 Emerald. Also called Reichenau Abby Emerald. Birefringence: 0.047. .Benedito Valadares Diamonds I, II, III; the diamond Dispersion: 0.039-0.046. of 108.25 cts, from the Corrego Coro River, Minas- Found only in San Benito County, California, USA. Gerais, Brazil, found in 1940. It was purchased by the bentonite inclusions; sometimes can be seen confused Birnbaum Brothers, who fashioned it into 3 emerald short natrolite needles. cuts, weighing 30, 20, and 8 cts. Also called bent crystal; a typical feature can be seen in some Governador Valadares Diamond. crystal such as elbaite tourmaline from San DiegoBengal amethyst; a misleading term for purple sapphire, from Bengal.benitier; Tridacna gigas linné. enlarged bentbenitoite; a rare pale blue to deep-blue, or colorless, gem mineral. Strongly dichroic, in blue and white. Blue Ba bent tourmaline which is bent but not twisted. In which c-axis and sometimes healed fracture are present, material of benitoite structure and crystals healed fracture is fibrous tourmaline or may be quartz fibers. This part of bent and fractured crystals is so- luminescence, only under SW light. In color, it called in line within their host. resembles sapphire, but it is easily distinguished bentonite; a general term applied to montmorillonite clay because of its inferior hardness and higher dispersion. minerals derived from volcanic ash. Also called amargosite, taylorite (obsolete). bentonite; same as Retinite. benzene; a colorless, aromatic, volatile, flammable liquid of hydrocarbon C6H6. Used chiefly as a solvent for heavy liquids of organic origin, and in organic confused natrolite synthesis. RI:1.50. SG:0.88. Soluble in water, ether, needles in benitoite, and acetone. Care should be taken as it is highly flammable and a carcinogenic liquid. benzenoid cycle; the last group of polyene is based on benzenoid cycle system, the structure is similar to benzene ring with three double bonds between six carbons. Crystal violet and phenolphthalein are sample Bluish fluorescence under short-wave ultraviolet light. for these colorants are used as dye malachite green. Strong pleochroism. Rarely cut as faceted gems because benzin; another spelling for benzine. the crystals flaw badly. Prized by collectors. Also called benzine; a colorless, clear, highly flammable, volatile, sky stone. organic liquid mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons with a System: hexagonalic. peculiar pungent odor, which derived from petroleum. Formula: 2[BaTi(Si3O9)]. Used as immersion liquid and solvent. Also called Luster: vitreous. petroleum benzine, petroleum ether, and spelled benzin. Streak: colorless. benzol; a commercial term for a chemical form of Colors: blue, pale blue, purple, pink, white, colorless. benzene, (80% benzene, 20% toluene and xylene). Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. benzopyrone; coumarin. Cleavage: {1011} indistincts. benzyl benzoate; a commercial term for the colorless, Fracture: conchoidal to uneven. Brittle. oily, organic liquid, C6H5CH2OOCC6H6, used to SG: 3.64-3.68. distinguish amber from plastic imitations. SG:1.17. H: 6-6. Insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Optics; : 1.757, : 1.804. Distinctly different dichroic colors. berakta; a Chaldeic term for emerald.
  • 73 berala – Berquenberala; an old Greek term for emerald. Beryl,-names of.berall; an old Greek term for emerald. berillo occhio di gatto; an Italian term forcat’s-eyeBerbice River; an alluvial diamond deposit in Guyana, beryl. Beryl,-names of. South America. berillo rosa; an Italian term for morganite or rose beryl.Berchem, Ludwig van; Berquem, Louis de. Beryl,-names of.bereket; bareketh. berillos; an old German term for beryl. Beryl,-namesberesofite; synonym of crocoite. of.berel; an old Ethiopian term for beryl. Beryl,-names berillus; an old Latin term for beryl. Beryl,-names of. of. berilo; Portuguese and Spanish spelling for beryl. Alsoberg crystal; another term for rock crystal. called berilio. Beryl,-names of.Berghem, Ludwig van; Berquem, Louis de. berilo; a misnomer for green apatite. Beryl,-namesBerglen diamond; the brown diamond of 416.25 cts, of. found 1924 in Transvaal, South Africa. Present location berilo amarillo; a Spanish name for golden beryl. unknown. Beryl,-names of.bericle; an old French term for beryl, which may derive berilo alterado; a Spanish term for pseudo emerald. from besicles. Beryl,-names of. Beryl,-names of.bericle; an old French term for eyeglass. Beryl,- berilo ojo de gato; a Spanish name for cat’s-eye beryl. names of. Beryl,-names of.berigem; a commercial term for chrysolite-colored, berilo rosado; a Spanish term for morganite or rose synthetic spinel. A copyrighted gem. beryl. Beryl,-names of.beril azul; same as kyanite. berilo verdemar; a Spanish name for aquamarine.beril de oro; a Spanish term for golden beryl. Beryl,-names of.beril de Saxe; a French misnomer for apatite from berkeyite; a blue, transparent gem quality variety of Saxony, Germany. lazulite, from Brazil.beril feuillete; a French term for beryl. Beryl,-names Berlin blue; another term for Prussian blue. of. berlinite; a transparent to translucent, colorless to rose-berilio; the Italian spelling for beryl, or another spelling colored mineral, with the formula AlPO4. It has an for berilo. Beryl,-names of. isomorphous structure with quartz, nearly the sameberilio; a Portuguese spelling for beryl, or another interference figure, and it exhibits left- and right- spelling for berilo. Beryl,-names of. handed effects like quartz. Tetragonalic system.berilio amarelo; a Portuguese term for golden beryl. Vitreous luster. Conchoidal fracture. Optics; :1.5235, Beryl,-names of. :1.529. Birefringence: 0.007. . SG:2.64. H:6-7.berilio olho de gato; a Portuguese term for cat’s-eye Found in Sweden. Cut cabochon and as beads. beryl. Synthetic berlinite is made.berill; an old term used for beryl. Beryl,-names of. Berman balance; a sensitive, torsion-spring balance,berille; an old German term used for beryl. Beryl,- used for rapidly and accurately determining the specific names of. gravity of stones weighing less than one-third cts.berille; a German term used today for eyeglass. bernat; a synonym for bernite. Beryl,-names of. bernite; an amber imitation, made of plastic, whichberillia; a white, powdery, refractory material, with a contains plant and insect inclusions. It has a similar melting point of about 2.570º C. Formula: BeO. Used refractive index to amber. RI:1.50, and a higher specific in preparation of beryllium, and in ceramics. Also gravity than amber, SG:1.23. Also called bernat. called bromelite, beryllium oxide. Bernstein; a German name for amber.berillo; an Italian term for beryl. Beryl,-names of. Bernsteinstechen; same as amber poking.berillo aureo; an Italian term for golden beryl. Berquem, Louise de; Berquen,-Louis de. Beryl,-names of. Berquen, Louis de; the diamond cutter from Belgiumberillo azzuro; an Italian term for aquamarine or blue who was thought to have lived in the middle of the 15th beryl. Beryl,-names of. century. It is said he improved the surface reflections ofberillo bocade fogo; a Portuguese and Spanish name diamonds by increasing the number of facets, or that he meaning fire-mouth beryl, a yellowish-red variety of also discovered how to polishing diamonds using beryl, from Santa Maria do Suassui, Minas Gerais, diamond powder. It is now known that he predated that Brazil. era. Also spelled Berquen, Louis de; Berghem, Ludwigberillo giallo; an Italian term for yellow beryl. van; Berchem, Louise de, van Bercken, Lodewyk. Not
  • Berquen – beryl glass 74 to be confused with Berquen,- Robert de. Found in Brazil, Egypt, the Ural, South Africa,Berquen, Louis de; Berquen,-Louis de. Namibia, India, Pakistan, Malagasy (Madagascar),Berquen, Robert de; a French jeweler who wrote Marvels of Western and Eastern India, in 1661. Not to be confused with Berquen,-Louis de.Bertrand lens; the lens, used in a polarizing microscope, for correcting the focal plane position of the optical axis, which can be put in or taken out, and applied, when viewing interference figures using convergent, polarized light.Bertrand refractometer; the first, direct-reading refractometer for gems, which was designed by left: beryl crystal structure, four crystal forms and head form of a beryl crystal scale dense hemisphere Zimbabwe, Zambia, the USA and Sri Lanka. beryl; a misleading term for variety of yellow sard and deep brown carnelian sometimes carved and engraved lens into intaglios. Beryl,-names of. g em sto beryl absorption spectrum; for green beryl or emerald at n e 683-680, 662, 646, 637, 630-594, 477 and 472 nm. For Bertrand-refractometer aquamarine at 427, 456 and weak at 537 nm. For red Beryl at 425, 480, and 560-580 nm. For maxixe beryl at 695, 654, 628, 550 and 581 nm. Bertrand in 1885. Refractometer, Herbert Smith beryl carving; carved beryl. refractometer, Tully refractometer, Rayner refracto- beryl cat’s-eye; beryl, with parallel inclusions, which meter, Erb & Gray refractometer, Duplex refractometer. cause a cat’s-eye effects.beruj; an Indian term for a light colored variety of beryl channel structural; tube or tabular-shapes emerald. Beryl,-names of. occurred when Si-O rings in a silicate structure such asberula; a Syriac term for beryl. Beryl,-names of. beryl aligned over each other, by which producedberulo; a Syriac term for beryl. Beryl,-names of.beryl; a transparent to semitransparent, cyclo-silicate Al 3 Al 4 mineral species. Varieties of beryl are emerald, aquamarine, heliodor or golden beryl, bixbite, goshenite, maxixe, and morganite. Rare spelling: Si6O18 berylline. Sometimes showing chatoyancy and exhibiting star effects. It is dichroic. Usually step cut, or cut as ovals, hearts and brilliants. Beryl,-names of, lattice vibration. Al 4 Al 3 Si6O18 System: hexagonalic. crystal structure of beryl Formula: 2[Be3Al2(Si6O18)]. Luster: vitreous. openings are in form of channels parallel to c-axis and Streak: colorless. may occupied with ions. These can be seen in figure Colors: blue, pale blue, grass-green (emerald), sea-green below. Also called channels in cells. (aquamarine), blue, violet, yellow (heliodor or golden beryl), pink beryl cut; aquamarine cut, emerald cut. (morganite), colorless (goshenite). béryl de Barbara; a French commercial term for beryl Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. Barbara mine, South Africa. Cleavage: {0001} less distincts. beryl doublet; doublet, beryl. Fracture: conchoidal to uneven. Brittle. beryl first order prism; first order prism of beryl. SG: 2.67 - 2.79. Average: 2.73. beryl glass; a fused beryl, which, thereby, loses its H: 7 . crystalline structure, and takes on the character of glass. Optics; : 1.566-1.602, : 1.562-1.599. Colored by various coloring agents as chrome, which Birefringence: 0.005-0.009. Stone from Zambia 0.010. . gives emerald glass its color, cobalt for blue glass or didymium oxide for pink glass. RI:1.50-1.52. SG:2.41- Dispersion: 0.014.
  • 75 beryl, inclusion – beryl names 2.49. H:6-6 softer than emerald. Used sometimes for cut as faceted gems but prized by collectors. In the green and blue imitation gems, but readily trade, sometimes mistakenly called synthetic topaz. distinguishable. Also called fused emerald, fused beryl, System: monoclinic. Pseudo-orthorhombic. scientific emerald. Beryllium glass. Formula: 12[NaBe(PO4)].beryl, inclusion in; inclusion in beryl. Luster: vitreous, pearly on perfect cleavage.beryl, inclusion in star; inclusion in beryl. Streak: uncolored.béryl jaune; a French term for yellow beryl. Beryl,- Colors: colorless, white, pale yellow. names of. Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent.berylite; a commercial misnomer for rose-colored, Cleavage: {001} perfect, and {101} indistincts. synthetic spinel. A copyrighted name. Fracture: conchoidal. Brittle.berylite; a term used for a variety of beryl. Beryl,- S.G: 2.84. names of. H: 5-6.beryll; a German misnomer for apatite or carnelian. Optics; : 1.551, : 1.558. 1.561. Beryl,-names of. Birefringence: 0.010. .Beryllcarneol; a German misnomer for carnelian. Dispersion: 0.010. Beryl,-names of. Found in Finland, Zimbabwe, Stoneham, New Jerseyberyllia; glucinum. regions, Oxford C., and Maine, USA.beryllfluss; a German misnomer for fluorite. beryllos; an old German term for beryl. Beryl,-namesberylline; beryl. Beryl,-names of. of. Beryl,-names of.beryllion; a Coptic term for beryl. Beryl,-names of. beryllosodalite; a synonym for tugtupite.beryllkristall; a German misnomer for quartz crystal. Berylloschorl; a German misnomer for dark to blackberyllium; a steely, uncorrodible, white metallic beryl. Beryl,-names of. element, in the group II of the Periodic System, with beryl luminescence; under Chelsea-filter mostly the chemical symbol Be. Used as an alloy. emeralds show a red color, also seen in syntheticberyllium; a term frequently used for beryl mineral. emeralds. Under SWUV some emerald exhibits green Beryl,-names of. and rarely red color, while synthetic emeralds seenberyllium; glucinum. partially red. Sometimes morganite exhibits weak lilacberyllium detector; same as berylmeter. luminescence.beryllium diadochus; a term sometimes used for Beryll, unecht; a German term for fluorite or quartz aquamarine. Beryl,-names of. crystal. It means untrue beryl.beryllium glass; a colored green glass, with chrome beryllus; twelfth stone at Jewish High Priest oxide, and a blue colored glass with cobalt. Either Breastplate. Breastplate. consists of the same chemical composition as natural beryllus; an old Latin term for beryl. Beryl,-names beryl or glass generally, but not in the crystalline form. of. Beryl glass. beryllus chitim; a Latin term for chrysolite. Beryl,-beryllium gold; an alloy of beryllium and gold, names of. containing 0.5-5 % beryllium, which hardens the gold. beryllus hexagonus; a term rarely used for beryl,beryllium minerals; the gemstones emerald, because of its crystal form. Beryl,-names of. aquamarine, and chrysoberyl, are natural minerals of beryllus misnicus an old Latin term for beryl. Beryl,- beryllium silicate, and oxide. names of.beryllium omphax; a term seldom used for aquamarine. beryllus oleginus an old Latin term for oil-colored Beryl,-names of. beryl. Beryl,-names of.beryllium oxide; glucinum berylmeter; a popular term for a portable field detectorberyllium petalite; an included synthetic mineral, which used to detect and analyze ores containing beryllium, occurs during the process of creating synthetic emeralds which works with the isotope antimonu-124 as the with chemical formula Be.Al2O3.8SiO2. gamma radiation source. Also called berylliumberyllium quick test; field test of beryl. detector.beryllium scorillods; a term seldom used for beryl, names of; beryl in Sanskrit is called vaidurya aquamarine. Beryl,-names of. also for pearl, in Pali veluriya for beryl and pearl. In Assyrian or Syriac belura, brulo, burallu, in Chaldeicberylloid; some crystal of other chemical comopsition burla or birla, in Iranian bulur, bolur, balur, ballur for has similar crystal form to common beryl "dihexagonal beryl and crystal, also term besady is seen in Iranian pyramid". terminology for beryl. In Aramaic billurin. In Greekberyllonite; a very rare transparent gem mineral. Rarely
  • beryloscope - betafite 76 berala, berall, beryllos, and in Latin beryllus. Believed beta diamond; the polymorph of diamond that is stable the Greek term is derived from Syriac name belura. In at 1500 K. A pseudocubic crystal. -diamond. Hebrew belur and belura. In Ethiopic berel. Later from beta index ( ); in crystallography the intermediate index term, berill or beryl with the meaning shining derived in a biaxialy mineral or gemstone. the term brilliance. Because of transparency of beryl, beta mineral; one of two, or more, closely related also, the name eyeglass derived from it such ad in minerals, termed alpha for low temperature, and beta German Brille in French bericle for eyeglass, window for high temperature, which can specify a particular panes or as eye-loupe which was derived from it. physical structure as such a polymorphousberyloscope; an instrument containing colored glass modification. That unstable modification displayed at dichromatic filters. Using it genuine emerald and some high or intermediate temperature is between those of other true gems appear reddish to violetish, while glass alpha and gamma, such as beta cristobalite or written - imitations and some natural gems, (such as Brazil cristobalite. emerald), appear green. Acting similarly to the Chelsea beta particle; an elementary particle, as an electron or color filter. Same as emerald glass. Walton filter. positron, emitted from an atomic nucleus duringbéryl pierreux; a French term for common beryl. radioactive decay, which is physically identical to a fastberyl pleochroism; aquamarine: blue to colorless. moving electron. It may be either negatively or Emerald: bluish-green, bluish-yellow to green. Red positively charged. If the beta particle is positively beryl: orange-red and purplish-red. Morganite: dark charged, it is called a positron. If beta particle is bluish-purple to pale pink. Heliodor: brownish-yellow negatively charged, it is called negatron. Less used to rose-yellow. synonym: beta ray. Used to irradiate diamond stonesberyl quick test on the field; quinalizarin. but, due to absorption, only the surface color isbéryl rose; a French term for morganite or rose beryl. changed.beryl schorlacé; a term frequently used for beryl. beta quartz; the polymorph of quartz that is stableberyl schorlacé; a misleading term for pycnite a between 573° C and 870° C. The most common massive columnar, light pink variety of topaz. examples are bipyramidal quartz crystals. This crystalberyl schorliforme; a term frequently used for beryl. has a vertical axis of six-fold symmetry and sixberyl schorliforme; a misleading term for pycnite a horizontal axes of two-fold symmetry. It has a lower massive columnar, light pink variety of topaz. refractive index and birefringence than alpha quartz.beryl surface growths features; some feature on the Found as phenocrysts, in quartz porphyries, granite beryl crystal faces as etch figures are shallow raised pegmatite, and graphic granite. Also called high quartz areas with the name hillocks. It cane be seen when and spelled -quartz. looked by magnification and side lighting. Spiral or Screw dislocations, strongly corroded growth on the prism faces are seen. In some transparent greenish-blue aquamarine crystals from Spitzkopje, South Africa, growth accessories such as hillock on the terminal can be seen.beryl triplet; a name for a triplet, made from two portions of green, bluish or colorless beryl, with an adhesive, (cement), layer of a green colored substance between them. Sometimes incorrectly called an emerald high-quartz or beta- triplet. Aquamarine triplet. quartz or ß -quartzbesad; same as bosad.besady: Keferstein, C. 1849 believed it is a Persian beta rays; a term applied to a stream of beta particles. name for beryl? The term besady may be a corrupt term beta wollastonite; same as pseudowollastonite. of bosady a term derived from bosad for coral, which beta zircon; in mineralogy an obsolete term for any here means coral-colored material or beryl. In some zircon, with properties between high zircon (alpha) and Farsi literature, the term bosad is spelled as ‘‘besad’’. low (gamma) zircons. In heat processes used to changebest cleavage: a grading term for a diamond block, or the color of zircons, the properties of beta zircon are cleavage, of good quality, color, and shape. converted into those of alpha zircon. Also calledbeta ( ); in crystallography, the intermediate index in intermediate zircon. Zircon, alpha zircon, gamma biaxialy mineral, or gemstone. Also called the beta zircon. index. betafite; a brownish, uranium-rich variety of pyrochlor from Betafo in Malagasy. Also called hatchettolite,
  • 77 betel nut - bi ellsworthite, blomstrandite. bezel; more specifically, the sloping kite-shaped facetsbetel nut jade; a Chinese term for jade with the or main facets between the girdle and the table, or only particular color of betel nut.Bethersden marble; same as shelly marble. A blue-gray to reddish-brown marble, consisting of silicified shells of freshwater snails (paludina carinifera). The marble is known as paludina limestone, or Purbeck limestone. The fossil shells in Bethersden marble are of a larger species of snail.betrothal ring; usually, a solitaire, diamond finger ring, bezel facets on brillinat cut a standard finger ring given as a token of betrothal by a man to his fiancé. Also called engagement ring.bevel; one inclined surface that meets another, at an angle, other than a right angle. Also called cant. a small part, (the so-called setting edge), of the slopingbevel; to cut a bevel on. surface just above the girdle. All lozenge-shaped facetsbevel; an angle to be cut or made by a bevel. having their apex touching the girdle. The French namebevel; slant or inclination of a bevel. is chaton.bevel cut; any style of cutting a gemstone having a very bezel; in a brilliant-cut stone the bezel is a table facet large table and a pavilion. It may be step cut, brilliant and the 32 surrounding facets. Also spelled bazil, bezeel, bezil, bizel. bezel-angle gauge; diamond-angle gauge. side view bezel facets; or top main facets. The term applies to four top view of the eight large, four-sided facets surrounding the table on the crown of a round brilliant-cut stone. In Scandinavian, they are known upper main facets. The upper points join the table and the lower points (apex) side view join the girdle. An alternative name is templet. If the stone is a cushion-shaped brilliant, four of these bezel top view facets are called corner facets. In the round brilliant portriat-cut, bevel-cut or thin-cut cut, the 8 bezel or quadrilateral facets on the crown cut or cut in any other style. Mostly used for opaque have two names four are quoins and the other four are stones, and often with intaglios. Bevel cut shapes called templets. Also called kite facets and top main include: round, square, cushion, rectangular, oblong, facets. oval, pendeloque, navette, heart, diamond, horseshoe, bezel-main facets; same as top-main, or bezel facet. shield, pentagon, lasque and hexagon shapes. Used bezil; same as bezel. predominantly for less valuable gems. When facets bezoars; a Persian or Farsi term, spelling: pâd-zahr, below the girdle are identical with facets above the literally counter-poison. girdle, it is called a double bevel cut. Also called bezoar stone; a solid concretionary secretion found in portrait stone, lasque diamond, table cut and biseau the stomach of certain animals, especially ruminants, cutting. believed to have curative powers, particularly againstbewijs; a Dutch term for natural, used by cutters. poisoning. Also was used gems, minerals, rocks orbexoid; a commercial term for synthetic cellulose, other materials as anti-poison such as beryl, emerald, acetate, a thermo-plastic, used for imitating amber, talk, turquoise, etc. turquoise, ivory, tortoise shell, etc. RI:1.47-1.50. bhasma; an Indian term for ash, which used as therapy SG:1.27-1.37. H:1 rising to 2.00. Commercial terms when first calcined (burning) and take it with other used for other cellulose acetate plastics: celanse, suitable medicine together. celatoid, cellmomd, erinofoil, isoflex, lumarith, bho-kyeit; a Burmese term used for the third class ruby plastacele, rhodoid, tenite, ulitex, and widolite. with dark hot pink termed as bho-kyeit. CorundumBeyla; a district in Guinea, from which diamonds are classification in Myanmar. mined. Kerouane, Guinea. Bi; a chemical symbol for the element bismuth.bezeel; same as bezel. Bi; in some books used for birefringence.bezel; that part of a brilliant-cut gem above the girdle. bi; a Chinese term for a circular disc made of jade usedbezel; another term for crown. in the worship of the god of the heaven.
  • bianco – binary system 78bianco; an Italian classification, for white coral of gem biconvex lens; a term applied to a lens, which is convex quality, valued in Orient. on both surfaces. Also called double-convex lens.biaxial; the term describes a crystal having two optical bicycle tire cut; a misleading, slang industry term for optical axis the thick girdle a of brilliant-cut diamond. (OA) z orthorhombic (OA) olivine n n triclinic feldspar interference figure of monoclinic biaxial crystal gypsum n a three axial ellipsoid of an biaxial crystal with three different refractive indices, n , n and n and three different biaxial crystal systems axes, and three main indices of refraction, belonging to bicycle tire cut the orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic systems. Also written biaxsal. Opposite of uniaxial. Also called bidalotite; same as anthophyllite. biaxial crystal. Birefringence, biaxial stone. bieberite; a rose-red to flesh-red mineral with thebiaxial crystal; same as biaxial stone. formula CoSO4.7H2O, occurring in crusts andbiaxial stone; stone having three main indices of stalactites. Also called cobalt vitriol, red vitriol. refraction and two optical axes or directions, in which big; an informal term used by Australian miners for a each direction is singly refractive. Biaxial. rich strike of opal but not necessarily in large stones.biaxsal; biaxial. Big Five; the five, big, diamond bearing mines in Southbieberite; same as cobalt vitriol. Africa: Bultfontein diamond mine, De Beers diamondBiblical gemstones; nearly 62 gemstones are mentioned mine, Dutoitspan diamond mine, Kimberley diamond in the bible, although sometimes by a terms different mine, and Wesselton diamond mine. from those by which they are known by today. Big Hole; the most recent name for the open pit at the Breastplate of the Jewish High Priest Kimberley Mine, South Africa.Biblical lapidaries; allegedly first book about precious Big Rose Diamond; same as Premier Rose Diamond. stones of bible written about 4th century by Epiphanius Biggs jasper; a silicified volcanic ash or jasper, from Bishop of Constantia in Cyprus (310?-402 A.D.), who Bigg’s Columbia, USA. noted Breastplate stones Also Albertus Magnus big toe; an informal term used by Australian miners for described the Breastplate stones, and Wright, R.V. and a drive in which a digger who digs far as possible but Chadbourne, R.L written the book Crystals, Gems and without success. Most frequently called long toe. Minerals on the Bible, 1970. bijouterie; a French term, for jewelry, esteemed for theBIBOA; an acronym for: Féderation Internationale des delicacy of its workmanship, rather than for the value Associations de I’industrie, de L’artistant et Du of the materials. Commerce des Diamants, Perls et Pierres Précieuses, bijouterie; a collection of such jewelry. de Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orfevrerie et Argenterie 1 bike; same as boke. Noordeinde, Den Haag, Holland. bikitaite; a hydrous-spodumene, with the formula:bicarbonates; the acidic salt of carbonic acid H2CO3. A 2[LiAlSi2O6.H2O]. salt containing metal and the carbonic acid. billitonite; a button-shaped, natural, jet-like glass,Bic’c’hava; an Indian term used for an emerald or beryl (tektite), or moldavite, from Belitung Island (formerly fragment, which is inseparably joined may leads to Billiton Island), in Indonesian, near Sumatra. baleful diverse diseases. Emerald colors and Tektite. superstitious in Indian. Bill’s Pearl; same as Abernethy Pearl.Bicker-Carteen Diamond; the white diamond of 56 cts, billurin; an Aramaic term for beryl, which may means believed to have once been bought in 1958 by Aga transparent, quartz crystal-like, or similar to beryl. Khan. Present owner unknown. Bimsstein; a German spelling of pumice.bicolor tourmaline; a tourmaline crystal composed of binary; consisting of two elements or components. two colors, such as green and red, etc. Tourmaline. Binary system.bicong; a Chinese term for a disc with tube made of jade binary system: a chemical system, containing two used as a present from feudal prices to an emperor. components, such as Al2O3.SiO2, or alloys formed by
  • 79 binarite - biotite two metals. Or olivine formed by two minerals, organisms, resulting from catalytic chemical reactions 1890 of decay or from oxidation of certain chemical melt S compositions in the substance. Also called chemi- 1700 liq uid luminescence. For example in fire-flies, glow-worms, me lt + deep-sea fish, and some fungi. of mix 1500 so olo -c vin ryst biomineralization; hard fragments of organic animals lid e al s and seaweeds due to physical, chemical and biological 1300 olivine mix-crystal 1205 forsterite fayalite 0 10 30 50 70 90 100 forsterite Mg2(SiO4) mol % fayalite Fe2(SiO4) binar phase diagrams of olivine radiolaria hexacontium cidaris cordioblastus forsterite and fayalite.binarite; marcasite.Bingara; a diamond deposit area in the state of New South Wales, Australia. collyrites mesoblastus conulusBin Hai Mine; the large kimberlite diamond mine near biocrystals or biominerals Fu Xian, Liaoning Province, China. Reported to have produced the Fenggu No.1 diamond of 60.60 cts. processes formed carbonate minerals, biomineralizationbinghamite; a chatoyant quartz, from Minnesota, USA. can forced by chemical substances such as collagen, Its goethite fibers inclusions are fine and its chatoyancy conchiolin, chitin, etc. Carbonate rock and greater than most quartz. Also called chatoyant quartz spongiform. with goethite inclusions. bion; other spelling of byon.biochrome; any naturally obtained color from plants or biotite; a dark, brown, greenish-black to black colored animals. Biological coloration, schemochrome. mica. Varieties of biotite mica are annite, or hydroxyl-binocular head loupe; same as head magnifier. annite iron-rich forms such as lepidomelane,binocular microscope; a compound-microscope fitted with an optical instrument for use with both eyes, consisting of two, small telescopes joined together and mounted on the microscope. A stereo, binocular microscope presents a separate picture to each eye where there are two objectives mounted, each is coupled to its eye piece.bioclastic rock; a rock, consisting of fragments or calcareous remains of organisms, such as some marbles, which contain fossils of shells. biotite scales in peridot biotite in emerald from Zambiabioclastic rock; a rock consisting of fragments of pre- biotite scales in peridot and emerald existing rock, which was formed by the action of living manganiferous, such as alurgite. Found as inclusion in organisms. several gemstones, such as emerald, zircon, garnets,biocrystallization; biomineralization. etc. Also called black mica.biogenesis; formation by the action of organisms, such System: monoclinic. as coral, pearl, coal, etc. Formula: 2[K(Mg,Fe)3(Al,Fe)Si3O10(OH,F)2]. Luster: splendent, submetallic, also vitreous, often pearly.biolite; a group of minerals or rocks, formed by biologic Colors: black, dark shade of brown, reddish brown, green rarely action or organic material. Also called biolite mineral. white. Biogenesis. Streak: uncolored.biolite mineral; biolite. Diaphaneity: transparent to nearly opaque.biolith; a rock formed by biologic action. Biogenesis. Cleavage: {001} highly perfect, {110} perfect, and {010} imperfect.biological coloration; four major categories of Fracture: flexible laminae to brittle. coloration found in biological system: pigments, SG: 2.70-3.40. scattering, interference and diffraction. Biological H: 2-3. colors are divided into two grade, biochromes, and Optics; : 1.565-1.625, = 1.605-1.696. schemochromes or structural colors. Birefringence: 0.140. .bioluminescence; the emission of visible light by living
  • biotite as - birefringence 80 Found: widespread. bird’s-eye quartz; a colored jasper, containing smallbiotite as inclusions; in some gemstones may can be spherulite particles usually of colorless quartz found scales or small crystals such as in peridot or in resembling a bird’s-eye. Zambia emerald. bird’s-eyes; term applied by American fishermen toBIPC; an acronym of: Bureau d’Information des Perls pearls, which have slight imperfections on a top quality de Culture, Paris. surface.bipyramid; same as dipyramid. In crystallography, a Bird of Paradise; the precious Australian opal, closed crystal form of double-ended pyramids so that purchased by the late J. Pierpont Morgan for the Morgan Collection. bird of paradise agate; fine, translucent, plume agate, (chalcedony), from Mexico. bird-wing pearl; fresh-water, or, salt-water baroque pearl, which is wing-shaped. bireflectance; some crystals are able to split a ray of ordinary light into tow beams of unequal velocities, other than those of the isometric crystal system. The difference between the greatest and least indices of bipyramidal crystlas refraction of a crystal is positive or negative. Birefringence, single refraction, double refraction. appear as mirror images across the plane of symmetry. Also called reflection pleochroism. Each pyramid is built of triangular faces, 3, 4, 6, 8, 0r birefraction; same as birefringence. 12 in numbers. birefringence; the ability of crystals to split a beam ofbipyramidal crystal; bipyramid. ordinary light, into two beams of unequal velocities,bipyramid etch marks on beryl; etching effect on the both ends of bipyramid hexagonal of morganite beryl plane polarized x z from Brazil exhibit orientated trumpet feature with the incident beams c-axis. Trumpet etching marks on beryl. white lightbiquartz plate; a type of compensator in a polarizing microscope, used to accurately detect the position of z extinction of a crystal or mineral. Two pieces of quartz, x y x y one right-handed and one left-handed, are cut incident calcite crystal calcite crystal topaz crystal perpendicular to their axis and are cemented side by white light side and used as a Nicol prism, to study polarized light. birefringence in mineralsbird’s brain; a Chinese term for opaque, dark yellow amber. In Chinese called Chio-Naio.bird’s-eye; a spot, tube, or irregular patch of sparry which vibrate in two planes, at right angles to each calcite, commonly found in limestone and some other, known as orthogonal polarization. This property dolomites. Also called calcite eye. occurs in anisotropic crystals at different velocities inbird’s-eye limestone; a very fine-grained limestone, different directions. Uniaxial minerals have one containing speckles or pipes of crystalline calcite. Also direction, where double refraction does not occur, but called dismicrite. biaxial crystals have two directions. The differencebird’s-eye marble; a marble, in which the beauty of the between the greatest and the least indices of refraction markings have the appearance of a bird’s-eye, caused in a biaxial, crystal (for example in calcite, where two by crinoids or sea-lily fossils. Varieties are Hopton images can be seen), is expressed by numbers such as marble, Derbyshire fossil marble, Belgium marble. 0.006 for danburite: :1.630 and 1.636. Synthetic Bird’s-eye marble in Belgium is known as petite granite rutile has the highest birefringence 2.87. In some gems marble, because of the granularity of the stone and its in which birefringence is strong, when viewed through resemblance to granite. the table, a doubling of the of the pavilion facets arebird’s-eye pearl; pearls from fresh-water mussels with visible to the naked eye. Also called double refraction, dark, eye-like rings. birefraction. Biaxial, double refraction.bird’s-eye porphyry; a fine-grained igneous porphyric birefringence blink; a term used for optical properties rock, having small phenocrysts of quartz, which of massive rhodochrosite may show a spot resemble a bird’s-eye. birefringence blink from 1.60 to upward of the refractometer. This effect may be seen in coral.
  • 81 birefringence filter - Bismarckbirefringence filter; a filter is made from crystal plates relation with birth month and twelve apostles or twelve of a birefringence substance such as quartz. zodiacal signs is unclear but due to Kunz whobirmite; same as burmite. mentioned that the origin of the use of stone wrote forBirim River Valley; an alluvial diamond deposits in first time by Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian (1st Ghana (Gold Coast), Africa. century A.D.) and later by St. Jerome in the early of 5thBirne; a German term for boule or pear-shaped. century. Both authorities proclaim the association withBirmingham Diamond; the octahedron, yellow tradition as appropriate between time or month of birth diamond of 4.25 cts, found in 1900, near Birmingham, and twelve stones. Alabama, USA. Now in the American Museum of Biruni’s specific-gravity balance; a historical balance Natural History, New York City. was developed from Iranian scientist about 973 toBiron hydrothermal synthetic emerald; an early 1050, a technique for determining specific gravity of hydrothermal technique used to color synthetic stones by means of metal oxides of vanadium. Now they are colored by both vanadium and chromium, and chlorine. Optics; :1.567-1.571, :1.577-1.578. Birefringence: 0.007-0.008. SG:2.67-2.70. The same method used by Emerald Pool Mining Company in Australia, where stones contain gold fragments, phenakite crystals, needle-like structures, two phase inclusions, etc. Synthetic pink beryl is made by the same method, when Ti+3 are added. Synthetic emerald. Birunis balance, after Khazenisbirthstone; a gemstone that has been associated, by mizan-al hakama. Redraw from author superstitions and religious tradition as appropriate to irregular shaped gemstones according to exploiting the time or month of one’s birth. The modern list as Archimedes’ principle. Biruni reported precise specific issued: gravity of 15 gemstones, 8 metals, and 6 liquids. The balance drowns after Al-Khazini’s, mizan-al hakama, table 1: birthstones Tehran, 1968. MONTH COLOR STONE biscuit; an unglazed, ceramic ware that has been fired in a biscuit oven. Also spelled bisque. January dark red garnet biscuit; a term used by Australian miners for a brittle February purple amethyst crumbly band biscuit like of colored stone, lies March pale blue aquamarine, bloodstone immediately under the sandstone. Also called biscuit April White diamond, quartz band. May pale green emerald, chrysoprase biscuit band; same as biscuit. June cream pearl, moonstone biseau cutting; another term for bevel cut. July red ruby, carnelian or onyx bisectrix; in a biaxial crystal, the line that bisects the August pale green peridote, sardonyx angle, formed between the optic axes. September deep blue sapphire, lapis lazuli Bishfota; an Indian term means avoid to wear an October various opal, tourmaline emerald with yellow spots, which will bring death. November yellow topaz or, citrine Emerald colors and superstitious in Indian. December sky-blue turquoise or zircon bishop’s head; when an octahedral crystal of diamond is being saw, usually it is divided across the natural girdle. It is to be noted major changes have been made The result is two brilliant-cut stones, with the name replacing alexandrite is given as a stone for June, lapis- „bishop’s head“. lazuli with zircon for December, and moonstone with bishop’s ring; a modification of a gold finger ring worn pearl, for June. There are also birthstones for days, by a bishop during the celebrations, set with an hours, signs of the zodiac, and seasons. Also called unfaceted or unengraved stone, usually a sapphire or an natal-stone. amethyst. Also called episcopal ring.birthstone alternate; in association with tradition as bishop’s stone; another term for amethyst. appropriate to the time or month of birth exist different Bismarck Sapphire; the dark blue sapphire of 98.60 cts, stones from different authorities which are in constant from Sri Lanka, set in a pendant. It was presented by change as they are in especial books issued. Mona Bismarck to the Smithsonian Institution,birthstones origin; the begin of the use of the stones in Washington, D.C., USA.
  • bismuth – black alexandrite 82bismuth; a white, brittle, metallic element in group V of side and hinged along one edge, controlled by adductor the Periodic System. It has a reddish tinge and the symbol Bi. Used in alloys and solder.bismuth germanates; an orange, synthetic stone from less important. Crystal system: cubic. Chemical mussel-shell mussel-shell back view front view top view inside view hinge mussel composition: Bi4Ge3O12 or Bi12GeO20. RI:2.07. SG:7.12. H:4½.bismuth silicate; a colorless, brown to orange synthetic stone from less important. Crystal system: cubic. outside brachiopode inside bivalve mussel cyrtina Chemical composition: Bi12SiO20. RI 2.00. bivalve mussels, brachiopods and oystersbismutotantalite; a massive mineral, (Bi,Sb)(Ta,Nb)O4. Orthorhombic crystal. Adamantine to submetallic luster. Brown to black. Streak: yellow to black. Optics; muscles, such as oyster, clam, and mussel. Bivalve. :2.387, :2.402. 2.427. Birefringence: 0.040. . Biwa pearl; a variety of non-nucleated, cultured, fresh- SG:8.84. H:5. Found in Uganda, and Brazil. Sometimes water pearl, grown at Biwa-Ko (ko means lake), cut as gems. Honshu, Japan, which is the largest fresh-water lake inbisphenoidal crystal; a crystal form that consists of four Japan and the center of its fresh-water pearl-farming industry. Such pearls are grown by the insertion of a fragment of mantle from a fresh-water mussel into the host. The non-nucleated product is typically brown to salmon colored, and rarely white, oval or baroque in shape, has an attractive luster, and is about 3 x 6 millimeters in size. Most of those that are bright white in color are bleached. The host is the fresh-water mussels Hyriopsis schlegeli, which in Japanese, are bisphnoidal crystals called ike-chogai, or Cristaria plicata. SG:2.67-2.70. Non-nucleated cultured pearls. bixbite; a misleading term rarely used for a manganese- rich, gooseberry-red, gem-variety of beryl, from faces triangular shape; those at right-angles to one Thomas Mountain, Utah, USA. another are a chisel-like. bixbyite; a manganese mineral of 16[(Mn,Fe)2O3],bisque; same as biscuit. which occurs together with braunite and variously-bit-crown metal; same as diamond matrix. colored rhodochrosite, found in the Kalahari Desert,bitellos; in Brazilian a term used for large diamonds. Cape Province, South Africa.bit matrix; same as diamond matrix. bixie; a Chinese term for carved mythical beast similarBitner templates; known in the jewelry trade a to unicorn made of jade used as amulet to ward off evil template, made by Bitner. Templates. influence.bitter spar; a pure, crystalline variety of dolomite. bizel; same as bezel.bitumen; a term used for a nonmineralized substance bizen; a Japanese term for a hard, unglazed pottery. such as coal, lignite, etc., which occurring naturally as bizet; in gem cutting, the part of a brilliant between the solid or semi-solid of hydrocarbons in black or dark table and girdle, occupying one-third of its depth and color with a peculiar pitch odor. Also, a group name having 32 facets. for waxes, asphalts and related substances. B-jade; a commercial acronym for bleached jade. Alsobituminous gypsum; a gypsum which is high in called grade B-jade. hydrocarbons matter or asphalt. Bk; a chemical symbol for the element berkelium.bituminous limestone; a limestone, which is naturally Blaauwboschkuil; a minor alluvial diamond mine in impregnated with asphalt. Transvaal Province, South Africa.bivalent; divalent. black; a term used by Australian miners for a dark colorbivalve; a mollusk, having two equal or subequal shells opal such as black, dark-blue, dark opal. that open and shut, such as oyster, mussel, and clam. black; a term used by Australian miners frequently for Also called pelecypod. Bivalve mollusk. potch in which black opal is found.bivalve mollusk; a mollusk having two equal or black alexandrite; a misleading term for a type of subequal valves, that are slightly hollow on the inner synthetic sapphire, with a pseudo-pleochroism effects.
  • 83 black amber – black glassblack amber; a misleading term for stantienite, jet or SG:1.37. H:2-3. Source: northern coast of Australia, retinite having very high oxygen content. Also called Malaysia, Red Sea, Bermuda, Hawaii and the black amber of Whitby. Mediterranean. It is also wrongly called King’s coralblack amber; a term for black amber mixed with white and akabar. Known as Antipathes spiralis. Blue a variety of osseous having organic material as coral, akori. inclusions because decayed botanical particles of black cultured pearl; a misleading term for artificially carbonized wood appeared black. Sometimes black stained cultured pearl. Dyed pearl, pearl carbonized wood is as black specks in amber to seen. staining.black amber; a misleading term for an artificially dyed black dammar; an opaque, black or very dark resin black fossil resin or amber. from the Philippines. Often it is included with copals.black amber of Whitby; a misleading term used for jet Also called damar hitam. Dammar. or retinite from Whitby, England. Also called Becker black diamond; a very dark, gray to black, blue, green, amber, stantienite, black amber. or brown gem-quality diamond, the color of which isblack and gold marble; a dark-gray to black, siliceous due to microscopic, black inclusions. Also called dolomitic limestone, which is traversed by golden- framesite. yellow veins, from Port Veneer, Isle of Palmeria, Italy. black diamond; a synonym for carbonado, a form ofblack and white amber; black amber. industrial grade diamond.black and white onyx; onyx with alternating white and black diamond; a misnomer for a dense, black variety black stripes. The black (or colored) bands are of hematite. sometimes artificially colored. Many cameos or black diamond; a misleading term for anthracite that intaglios are cut from this stone. takes a polish, like metal.black andradite garnet; same as melanite, a variety of black diamond; a synonym for coal. andradite. Also called black garnet, and black andradite Black Diamond of Bahia; the black diamond of 350 cts, garnet. from Bahia, Brazil. Present location unknown.black beryl; a variety of beryl from Mozambique and black-dyed opal; a type of Australian opal, which has Malagasy probably contain numerous inclusions and been stained black, to enhance the play of color. In this due to manganese as impurities. process, the stone is impregnated with a sugar solutionblack blende; same as pitchblende. or glucose, and then, it is treated with sulfuric acid,black-centered stone; same as dark-centered. which produces a black background, due to theblack chalcedony; another term for black onyx. carbonization of sugar; this is known as carbonizing.black chalk; a bluish-black, chalky clay, shale, or slate Opal dyeing, black opal. containing carbon. black-edged shell; a variety of green nacre shell nearlyblack chert; carbonaceous chert occurring in South as large as the Australian pearl-oyster, scattered around Africa. the southern Pacific Ocean.black chert; a term used in England for flint. black Egypt ware; fine-grained, dark-colored basalt,black clam pearls; black pearl. from Egypt.black coal; same as anthracite. black enamel; an enamel similar to black glass which isblack coral; a coral, consisting mainly of conchiolin of harder than jet. Used as jet imitation. a black to dark-brown color. Horny to dull luster. It is blackened culet; a culet that has a spot of black paint or was blackened by pitch, a practice of some earlier cutters. blackened opal; an inferior quality opal, with small specks of color, such as pinfire opal, that have been blackened by treatment, with black plastic or sugar- sulfuric acid. Also called black-treated opal. black fellow’s buttons; small, rounded pieces of glass, black coral of meteoritic origin (extra-terrestrial tektite). Found in Australia. Also called black men’s buttons. black garnet; same as melanite, a variety of andradite. black glass; ordinary glass, containing manganese or ferric oxides. used in beads, bracelets, art objects, etc. and highly black glass; black glass can produce by adding regarded by the natives of the East Indian Islands. transitional element colorants as cobalt and nickel.
  • black gold – black pearl 84 Used as jet imitation. found in Australia and Tasmania, thought to be ofblack gold; a placer gold, coated with a dark-brown or probable volcanic or meteoric origin. Also called black black film, oxide of manganese. fellow’s buttons.black gold; maldonite, a bismuth-gold mineral. black mica; same as biotite.black granite; a commercial term for granite (or black moonstone; a misnomer for colorless, transparent, diabase, diorite or gabbro), that, when polished, is dark labradorite feldspar, which is a dark color because of gray to black. needlelike inclusions, and has a bluish play, and toblack hematite; a misnomer for romanechite, because some degree a cat’s-eye effect, when cut cabochon. It this mineral contains no iron. exhibits wavy luminescence under UV light, and isBlack Hill Beryl; a giant size beryl of 60 tons in light green under X-rays. Found in Malagasy, Africa. weight, quarried from Ingersoll quarry, Black Hill, blackmorite; a reddish-yellow variety of opal, from USA. Mount Blackmore, Montana, USA.black iron oxide; same as magnetite. Turnbulls blue. black ocher; same as wad.black jack; black-jack. black onyx; the popular, but incorrect term for blackblack-jack; a popular term for dark-colored sphalerite, colored agate, or chalcedony, which is usually or zinc blende. Also spelled blackjack. Also written artificially colored. The stone is impregnated in a sugar black jack. (C12H22O11), or glucose solution, then treated withblack jade; a misnomer for olive green nephrite, from sulfuric acid, which removes the water from the sugar Crooks Mountain, Wyoming, USA. and produce a black colored stone. Often called blackBlack Jade River; a jade source in Khotan, eastern chalcedony. Used as a jet imitation. Turkistan with the name Kara-Kash (Black Stone). black opal; a rare variety of iridescent, precious opal ofblack jasper; another term for basanite. dark-gray, rarely, black or some other very, dark color,black-lipped shell; a variety of pearl-oyster Pinctada almost opaque. Its internal reflections are usually red or margaritifera, which is somewhat black at the lip of the green when displayed against a dark bodycolor. Black shell. Found near the Australian coast and in the opal consists of small, iridescent, opal spheres, which Persian Gulf. Fished for mother-of-pearl, which is causes a play of color, due to diffraction of light. True known as Bombay shell. black opals are found only at Rainbow Ridge field, inblack lamp; a type of ultraviolet lamp, which produces Nevada, USA. Fine Australian blue opal, with flame- a large spread of UV light. colored flashes, is also typically found in Lightningblack lava glass; a massive, jet black, natural obsidian Ridge. Imitations, made from inferior opals are glass occurring at Mt. Helca, Iceland and Yellowstone impregnated with sugar solution or glucose that is National Park, USA and elsewhere. treated with sulfuric acid, which produces a blackblack lead; a commercial term for graphite. background, due to the carbonization of sugar. This isblack light; a portable instrument that produces known as carbonizing. Australian opal, white opal. ultraviolet light. black opal cut; cut cabochon, rarely carved, faceted or engraved.black light; a miner’s and prospector’s term for ultraviolet light, used to detect fluorescent minerals. black opal doublets; oval or rounded cabochons, withblack magnetic rouge; a polishing and grinding thin layer of opal on top, from Australia. material, consisting of 99% magnetite (Fe3O4). Black Orloff Diamond; the black, cushion-shapedblack malachite; an incorrect name for chalcedony, diamond of 67.50 cts, from India. It weighed 195 cts, with the inclusions of black manganese mineral, rough. Named after the Russian Princess Nadia Vyegin- (psilomelane), arranged in bands. Also called crown of Orloff. Also known as the Eye of the Brahman silver, or psilomelane chalcedony. Diamond, it was privately sold in 1997. Also spelled Black Orlov Diamond.black manganese; same as pyrolusite, psilomelane, and Black Orlov Diamond; same as Black Orloff Diamond. hausmannite.black marble; black marble, often veined with white black pearl; a commercial term for grayish, brownish, marble, mostly obtained from Namur, Belgium, and bluish-green, or greenish black pearls found in the Gulf known as noir Belgé or Belgian black marble. Tournai of Mexico and certain Pacific Islands. The cause of the marble one is variation. color is not clear but thought to be due to the nature of the water, in which the mollusks live. RI:1.53-1.69.black marble; same as Porto marble. SG:2.61-2.69. Usually, black pearls are artificiallyblack matrix; a kind of turquoise with black patches of colored, by polishing spheres of hematite. Black clam matrix found in Nevada, USA. pearls are not nacreous.black men’s buttons; small rounded, pieces of glass,
  • 85 black pearl – bleached jadeiteblack pearl; a misleading term for polished, hematite black turquoise; a misnomer for jet. spheres, similar to black pearl, but they have greater black turquoise of Whitby, the; a misleading term used hardness and specific gravity and, a red streak on for jet or retinite from Whitby, England. unglazed porcelain. black treated opal; same as blackened opal.Black Prince Ruby; a misleading term for the famous, black whale; same as sperm whale. Sperm-whale large, red spinel estimated to be 170 cts, which is set in ivory. the front of the British Imperial State Crown, once bladed aggregate; blade aggregate. thought to be a ruby. The stone has never been cut, blade aggregate; a mineralogical term, used for a polished it is of irregular shape, its weight is mineral in the form of an aggregate of flattened, unrecorded, and is 5 cm long. Sometimes called Balas Ruby.black sand; an alluvial or beach sand, of heavy, dark minerals or rocks, of ilmenite, megnebite or other dark heavy minerals, associated sometimes with gold, cassiterite and platinum.black sapphire; black or very dark color blue, brown, purple and green varieties of sapphire.black seed pearl; very small pieces of blackish, or dark- colored pearl, from the Pinna mollusc.black shorl; another term for black tourmaline. bladed aggregate of stilbite. After Sinkankas 1967black silver; a synonym for stephanite. bladelike, or elongated crystals such as stilbite.black spinel; a variety of spinel found in Monte Somma, blanc de chine; a brilliant white glaze, over a fine white, Vesuvius, Italy and in Thailand, where locally it is porcelain body. know as nin. The attractive, dark greenish, black spinel blanc fixe; a synthetic white powder, of barium sulfate, from Sri Lanka is called ceylonite or pleonaste. used in the paint industry, as a pigment extender andblack spot; a small spot of black color which can be for polishing. Also called permanent white, terra seen on the culet or foil of the of most 18th century ponderosa, artificial heavy spar. glass stones, when viewed through the table. This Blanche of Anjou Emerald Crown; a crown belonged caused by a pitch-like paint. This also can be seen on to the wife of King James II of Spain (late 13th and some diamonds and other gemstones from the 18th early 14th centuries), set with numerous of emerald. century. blast; same as eruption.Black Star of Africa Diamond; the black colored blastic growth; a dynamothermal metamorphism diamond of 202 cts, after cutting. Found in Zaire, process, formed by recrystallization from previously Africa. It is believed to be the largest colored diamond in the world. Present owner unknown. Was exhibited in 1971 in Tokyo, Japan.Black Star of Queensland (Sapphire); the asteriated sapphire of 1,165 cts, in the rough found in 1948 in blastic growth Anakie, Queensland, Australia. Cut as an oval-shape, it of beryl crystal still weighs 733 cts, and has a fine star. The Kazanjian in a pematite, After Grigorev 1975 Foundation of Pasadena, California, to the Smithsonian Institute, presented Washington, D.C., USA, where it is on display this stone, together with those of Presidents Lincoln, Washington, Eisenhower and Jefferson, as a gift to the American people in 1957. Washington Sapphire, Eisenhower Sapphire, Jefferson Sapphire, existing minerals, which are elongated perpendicular to Lincoln Sapphire. the direction of greatest pressure such as new berylblackamoor; the head or bust of a young male or female mineral. black African, cut as cameo or as an ornament, set in a blastocyst; nuclear forming of an embryo in a mussel. pendant, brooch, or worn as hat-pin or used as a seal. blauw grond; same as blue ground. Usually made of black onyx or black-dyed chalcedony. bleached; a mineral or sand, which has become pale,black tin; same as cassiterite. due to bleaching by nature.black tourmaline; another term for shorl. bleached jadeite; in order to remove a brown color, a
  • bleached pearl - blinking 86 stone is put in hydrochloric acid, or impregnated with blemish symbols of external symmetry; imperfections opticon and paraffin wax, or other polymers can appear. Commercially it is termed as B jade, or, grade B jade. Abraded culet Scratchbleached pearl; a dark-colored pearl of unattractive Pinpoints Rough culet Girdle fringes appearance, (due to dark conchiolin), which has been Naturals Percussion lightened by placing it in a warm, weak solution of Cavity mark EF: extra facet hydrogen peroxide. Generally, sunlight has a bleaching Nick effect of pearls. Over-bleached pearl. Included crystal Polishing linesbleaching gemstone; a mineral, which has become pale, due to natural bleaching. blemishes on facet diagram or poltting symbolsbleaching gemstone; bleaching of brown tiger-eye to pale brown by chemical treatment, and then it possibly recoloring to a desired hue. on the surface of a fashioned diamond depending on thebleaching gemstone; when skin oils darken turquoise it crown crown pavilion girdle can be restored by bleaching. circular shape tarncated main facet eccentric culet knife edged thinbleaching gemstone; ivory, which has absorbed oil can tilted table tarncated main facet be restored by bleaching, like turquoise. short main facet mediumbleaching gemstone; same as bleached pearl. eccentric table short main facet thick