www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThis book is brought to you by The LSL Education Network headquarteredin Nikolaev Ukraine.Ad...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netContentsContentsBirthdays & Anniversaries 4New Years Day 7Martin Luther King Day 11Selected ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netA birthday girl blows out the candles on herbirthday cake.Anniversary celebrations are those...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netcream is usually served with the cake.Children often open their presents afterthe cake and i...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netA couple celebrates their 50th weddinganniversary.The traditional listincludes:1 year – pape...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netJANUARY 1The air in Times Square, New York City, is filledwith confetti on New Year’s Eve.In...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThe tradition of counting down thelast minute or final seconds of the year isa highlight of ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netAccording to the regulations, the elaborate floats in the Rose Bowl parade must be covered o...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netGlossarycelebrate(ing): v. to observe (recognize)a holiday or other special day withceremoni...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHIRD MONDAY IN JANUARY(The following is an excerpt from the speech entitled “I Have a Dream...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netDr. Martin Luther King speaks to a crowd ofpeople during the March on Washingtonon August 23...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netRosa Parks is fingerprinted by the Montgomery,after refusing to give up her seat for a white...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netyear a record number of black voterswent to the polls.Dr. King at a news conferenceon August...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netpeople across the country celebrated thefirst official Martin Luther King Day, theonly feder...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN BLACK HISTORYJoseph RaineyGovernmentOriginally born a slave, Joseph Raineybecame politica...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTodd DuncanMusicIn 1945, Todd Duncan became the firstAfrican-American singer in the New York...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netFEBRUARYBlack history month is one of themost widely-celebrated of federalmonths. It was ori...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netJANUARY/FEBRUARY – LUNAR YEARColorful banners announce an exhibition offoods for the celebra...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netcrackers. Long ago people lit bamboostalks, which crackled and sparked toscare away spirits ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netanimal. The animal for the year ishonored and featured on posters andmany other items during...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHIRD MONDAY IN FEBRUARYMt. Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota features the colossal...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netadvertisers began calling the day“Presidents’ Day.” Now, printedcalendars and date books ind...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netand was put in command of a troop ofsoldiers who fought against the French inthe French and ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netConvention, a meeting of representativesfrom each state to draft a constitution forthe new n...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netProclamation. Lincoln became a virtualsymbol of the American dream where-byan ordinary perso...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netnew arena, that of politics and law. In1834 he was elected into the Illinois StateLegislatur...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netLincoln is best known for his Emancipation Proclamation, issued January 1, 1863,that changed...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHE GETTYSBURG ADDRESSNOVEMBER 19, 1863Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought fo...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netPresidents’Day celebrates the birthdays ofGeorge Washington (February 22)and Abraham Lincoln...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netreenactment(s): n. performance ofhistorical eventsmilestone(s): n. significant event inhisto...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMARCH-AUGUSTA member of the Plains Cree tribe works on hiscostume of eagle feathers at the G...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIndian tribal dresses incorporate elaboratebeadwork.The regalia worn by dancers aremeticulou...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThe spirit of the powwow is acontinuum in Indian life. It isn’t justfor a few days in March....
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN WOMENS HISTORYJeanette RankinGovernmentIn 1916, Jeannette Rankin was the firstwoman elect...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netAmelia EarhartMusicIn 1914, Mary Davenport-Engberg becamethe first woman to conduct a sympho...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMARCHWomen’s history month is one of theoutcomes of a countrywide movement inSonoma County, ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN HISTORYDalip Singh SaundGovernmentRepresenting California in 1956,...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netCalvin ChinAir and SpaceIn 1932, Katherine Sui Fun Cheung becamethe first licensed Asian-Ame...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMAYMuch like Black History Month andWomen’s History Month, Asian PacificAmerican Heritage Mo...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netLAST MONDAY IN MAYFlowers and wreaths are placed on graves inmemory of loved ones who have d...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netdesignated for the purpose ofstrewing with flowers, or otherwisedecorating the graves of com...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netPresident Richard Nixon declaredMemorial Day a national holiday, to beobserved on the last M...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netchurchyard: n. the ground around achurch, often used as a graveyardprescribe(d): v. to give ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMAY AND JUNEThis reading includes a description ofthe two most celebrated family days:Mother...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netand all mothers, with a special Mother’sDay service. Anna Jarvis began writingto members of ...
www.larisaschooloflanguage.netstory claims that the president of theChicago Lions’ Club, Harry Meek,celebrated the first F...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukrain...
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American Holidays and Celebrations is an informative eBook It was created for anyone that wants to learn all about American history and how many people celebrate. Most major holidays are in this book. It has been written in English for everyone to enjoy. It also contains a glossary with key words for each article. Every page is full of well written information and history about American and many other cultures as well. This American Holidays and Celebrations e-Book is perfect for anyone who wants to learn more about Americas traditions and Celebrations. Great information and photos about all major holidays and more. It includes information, dates and more about New Years, Martin Luther King and more!

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American Holidays and Celebrations with Photos, Dates, Information, History from Larisa School of Language Nikolaev Ukraine Free PDF Download

  1. 1. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThis book is brought to you by The LSL Education Network headquarteredin Nikolaev Ukraine.Additional copies and other learning resources can be downloaded athttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThis book is presented to all individuals eager to gain knowledge aroundthe world. This book was originally created by The U.S Department of State andThe Bureau of International Information Programs. The Bureau of InternationalInformation Programs of the U.S. Department of State publishes eJournal USA.Each journal examines a major issue facing the United States and the internationalcommunity, and informs international readers about U.S. society, values, thought,and institutions.Additional copies of this book may be found at;Larisa School of Language LLC63/3 Shevchenko Nikolaev Ukraine 54001Skype: LarisaschooloflanguageCorporate 380-512-71-71-96Школа Английского Языка «Лариса»Украина, 54001, г. Николаев, ул. Шевченко, 63 (угол Советской), 2й этажТел: (0512) 71-71-96, (097) 820-23-94http://www.larisaschooloflanguage.netContact Larisa@larisaschooloflanguage.comAdditional resources can be found using the following links.Larisa Online Language Storehttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/language_Downloads.htmlSkype Online Englishhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.htmlFree English Test!http://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Testing_English.htmlFlashCards listhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/All_FlashCards_List.htmlFree Larisa Newsletterhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Newsletter.html2
  2. 2. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netContentsContentsBirthdays & Anniversaries 4New Years Day 7Martin Luther King Day 11Selected First In Black History 16Black History Month 18Chinese New Year 19Presidents Day 22Native American Powwows 32Selected First In Womens History 35Womens History Month - 37 37Selected First In Asian Pacific American History 38Asian Pacific American Month 40Memorial Day 41Mothers Day & Fathers Day 45Graduation 49Flag Day 52Juneteenth 57Independence Day 60Labor Day 67Selected First In Hispanic History 71Hispanic Heritage Month 73Columbus Day 74Halloween 78Thanksgiving Day 82Veterans Day 88Christmas Day 923
  3. 3. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netA birthday girl blows out the candles on herbirthday cake.Anniversary celebrations are thosethat commemorate a particular date orpast event. This might be an historicalevent, such as the first walk on the Moon;a military event, such as the beginning orending of a war; a national event, such asthe birth of a nation or the signing of aconstitution; or a more personal event,such as the opening of a new business orthe receipt of an award. Usually when werefer to anniversaries we are referring toa yearly event, but people may alsochoose to celebrate monthly orbiannually. A large celebration might beheld on a centennial anniversary. Ananniversary celebration ranges from asmall personal event such as a dinner fortwo people, to a large city-wide eventsuch as a parade or fireworks.Anniversary celebrations might beaccompanied by balloons, flowers,special meals, or presents. In this reading,we discuss two common celebrations:birthdays and wedding anniversaries.BirthdaysBirthdays are celebrated in a varietyof ways in the United States.A birthday is considered a special dayfor the birthday person, so the person willoften get special treatment from friendsand family.Children are usually very excitedabout their birthdays. At a very early age,children know when their birthdays areand how old they are. Parents often host aparty on their children’s birthdays. Theywill invite school friends, neighbors, orfamily members. It is expected that thepeople who are invited to a child’sbirthday party will bring a present for thebirthday child, unless they are told not to.The birthday party will undoubtedlyfeature a birthday cake topped withlighted candles, one candle for each year.As the cake is brought to the table,everyone sings “Happy Birthday.” Whenthe cake is set before the birthday boyor birthday girl, he or she is supposed tomake a wish (without telling anyonewhat it is) and blow out the candles. If allthe candles go out with one breath, thenthe wish is supposed to come true. Ice4Free LSL English Grammar E-Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Free_English_Grammar_Book.html
  4. 4. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netcream is usually served with the cake.Children often open their presents afterthe cake and ice cream are served.Children’s birthday parties often include birthdayhats and noisemakers for everyone.Adults also celebrate their birthdays,though not as regularly as children. Ifsomeone wants to celebrate his/ her ownbirthday, he or she may plan a party andinvite friends or family. It is more likelythat an adult will have a party if thebirthday is a “big” one, such as for an agethat ends in 0 or 5. Another “big” one isthe age of 21 when a person is consideredto be an adult. Sometimes adults get giftsat a birthday party, but not always. Andwhile it is customary to say “HappyBirthday,” it is not usually appropriate toask an adult how old he or she is. Atwork, colleagues may celebrate abirthday by giving a group card, flowers,cake, or by taking the person out tolunch. Colleagues will often wish theperson a happy birthday. However not allwork places celebrate birthdays, and, infact, many adults don’t want to celebratetheir birthdays. Some people don’t likethe reminder that they are continuallygetting older; others just don’t like beingthe center of attention.Singing “Happy Birthday to You”when cake, flowers, or presents are givenis a long-standing tradition. The song waswritten by two American sisters in 1893,and has been translated into severallanguages around the world.Wedding AnniversariesWedding anniversaries occur on thesame day of the year the wed-ding tookplace. Married couples have manydifferent ways of celebrating, but it iscommon for them to give each otherflowers or small gifts, or enjoy a specialdinner together. Sometimes couples plana trip for themselves to celebrate thisspecial day. On a couple’s first weddinganniversary, it is customary for them toeat the top tier of their wedding cake thatthey had saved and frozen just for thisday.Many wedding anniversarycelebrations are quiet events that includejust the married couple, but sometimes,especially if the couple has been marrieda long time, they will plan a party thatincludes their children, grandchildren,and possibly siblings, nieces, andnephews. At some large weddinganniversary celebrations, such as a 50thanniversary, a granddaughter or otherrelative might wear the bride’s weddingdress. Sometimes the couple decides torenew their wedding vows in front oftheir progeny.Traditionally, specific materials areassociated with particular anniversaryyears. Usually, the longer the period oftime, the more precious or durable is thematerial that is associated with it.Sometimes the couple – or their families– use the list for gift suggestions.5Free LSL 101 Grammar Worksheetshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Grammar_Workbookpdf.html
  5. 5. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netA couple celebrates their 50th weddinganniversary.The traditional listincludes:1 year – paper anniversary5 years – wood anniversary10 years – tin or aluminum anniver-sary20 years – china (porcelain) anni-versary25 years – silver anniversary50 years – gold anniversary75 years – diamond anniversaryGlossarycommemorate: v. to hold aceremony or observation to remembersomeone or a group or event or actionbiannual(ly): adv. occurring twice ayear, also called “semi-annual.”Something that occurs every two years isbiennial.centennial: n. occuring once in ahundred yearsfireworks: n. a display of explosivedevices as part of a celebrationtopped: adj. placed on topbirthday boy or girl: adj+n. a termcommonly used to refer to a child on theday of his or her birthcustomary: adj. commonly practicedor used as a matter of course; usualtier: n. a layervow: n. a solemn promise orcommitment to a prescribed role,typically to marriageprogeny: n. a child or descendentdurable: adj. able to resist wear ordecay well; lasting6Free LSL English Grammar Book of Phraseshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/PDF_1000_Phrase_Book.html
  6. 6. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netJANUARY 1The air in Times Square, New York City, is filledwith confetti on New Year’s Eve.In the United States, people begincelebrating the new year on December31, New Year’s Eve. Many people haveparties, and sometimes masqueradeballs, where guests dress up in costumeand cover their faces with masks to hidetheir identity. According to an oldtradition, guests unmask, or remove theirmasks, at midnight.Many people enjoy the tradition ofwatching the New Year’s festivities inTimes Square in the heart of New YorkCity. This celebration is telecast live onnews channels across the nation.Traditionally, at one minute beforemidnight, a lighted ball begins to dropslowly from the top of a pole that isattached to a building. As the ball drops,all the people in Times Square – andmany television viewers as well – countdown the final minute of the year. At thestroke of midnight, the ball reaches thebottom of the pole, and a huge “HappyNew Year” sign lights up. Then TimesSquare is filled with cheers andnoisemakers. Confetti is dropped fromwindows above, and revelers hug, kiss,and wish each other a “Happy NewYear!”For the Times Square New Year’s Eve celebrationin the year 2000, the ball had 168 crystal lightbulbs, was 6 feet (2 meters) in diameter, andweighed 1070 pounds (486 kilos).7Free LSL English Grammar Book of Slanghttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Slang_PDF_eBook_LSL.html
  7. 7. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThe tradition of counting down thelast minute or final seconds of the year isa highlight of New Year’s Eve, not onlyin Times Square, but at parties and get-togethers throughout the nation. Theexcitement grows as party-goers watchthe clock and count 10! 9! 8! 7! 6!...andshout “Happy New Year!!” at exactlymid- night, heralding in the new year.Some towns and cities host a “FirstNight” celebration, a large communitystreet party featuring food, music, andother entertainment. First Night partiesprovide a safe and, often, alcohol-freeenvironment for people of all ages tosocialize, celebrate, and “ring in theNew Year” together.At New Year’s Eve parties, peopleoften sing a traditional Scottish song,“Auld Lang Syne,” just after the clockstrikes midnight and the cheers of“Happy New Year” subside. Auld LangSyne was written in the 18th century bythe Scottish poet Robert Burns, and maybe based on an earlier poem by anotherScottish poet. The expression “auld langsyne” means “the old days gone by.”New Year’s DayOn January first, Americans mayrelax at home or visit friends, relatives,and neighbors. New Year’s Day get-togethers are often informal, butgenerally there is plenty to eat and drinkas loved ones and friends wish each otherthe best for the year ahead.Many families and friends watchtelevision together enjoying theTournament of Roses Parade, whichprecedes the Rose Bowl football game –both held in Pasadena, California.The parade was started in 1890, whenProfessor Charles F. Holder suggested tothe Pasadena Valley Hunt Club that theysponsor a parade to showcase the winterbeauty and sunshine of the area. Theparade was to be “an artistic celebrationof the ripening of the oranges” at thebeginning of the year. The first paradeconsisted of decorated, horse-drawncarriages. Motorized floats were added afew years later, and prizes were given forthe most beautiful floats.The event grew, and in 1895 theTournament of Roses Association wasformed to oversee the festivities. Soon,athletic competitions became part of theday’s events, along with an ostrich race,and once, a race between a camel and anelephant, in which the elephant won!To enhance the event and increasepublic interest, a collegiate football gamewas added in 1902, with StanfordUniversity playing against the Universityof Michigan. Today, the New Year’s DayRose Bowl game, featuring the two topcollege football teams in the nation is, formany Americans, the highlight of NewYear’s Day.From year to year, the parade offloats grew longer, and now theprocession takes over 2 1/2 hours totravel the 5 1/2-mile parade route throughthe streets of Pasadena, California. Theflower decorations also grew moreelaborate. Today the floats include high-tech animation, and every inch of thefloat must be covered with flowers orother natural plant material.8Free English Test!http://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Testing_English.html
  8. 8. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netAccording to the regulations, the elaborate floats in the Rose Bowl parade must be covered only in flowersand other natural materials.The theme of the Tournament ofRoses varies from year to year, and theparade now includes thousands ofparticipants in marching bands, onhorseback, and on the floats. Cityofficials and celebrities ride in the carspulling the floats, and a celebrity ischosen to be the grand marshal. Thequeen of the tournament, along with hercourt, rides on a special float, which isalways the most elaborate, being madefrom more than 250,000 flowers. Prizesare still given for the best, most beautifulfloats.Thousands of spectators line theparade route, arriving early in themorning or camping out overnight inorder to secure the best spot for viewingthe parade, which begins at 8 a.m.Spectators and participants alike enjoythe pageantry associated with theoccasion. Preparation for next year’sTournament of Roses begins on January2.Watching football games and paradesis not the only tradition on New Year’sDay. Americans, like people in manycountries, also promise to betterthemselves in the new year. SomeAmericans even write down their NewYear’s resolutions – promises tothemselves for improvement in thecoming year.9Free LSL English Grammar Speaking Drill Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Drill_Book_PDF.html
  9. 9. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netGlossarycelebrate(ing): v. to observe (recognize)a holiday or other special day withceremonies, festivities, respect, orrejoicingmasquerade ball: n. a dance or socialgathering of people who are wearingmasks or coverings over their eyes orface so as not to be recognizedfestivity (ies): n. a joyous celebration orpartylive: adj. not prerecorded; broadcastduring the actual performancestroke of midnight: n. 12:00 a.m.exactly; when the clock shows or chimes12:00 a.m.confetti: n. small bits of colored paperthrown into the air to mark a celebrationreveler(s) : n. a person who is celebratingat a party or other festivityget-together(s): n. an informal party ormeetingparty-goer(s): n. a person who attends apartyherald (ing): v. to welcome or announce,often with ceremony, respect, orcelebrationstreet party: n. phrase, a celebration heldin the street(s) by a neighborhood orcommunityalcohol-free: adj. an event in which noalcoholic beverages are sold or allowedring in the new year: v. an expressionthat means to celebrate and welcome thenew yeartournament: n. a contest involving anumber of competitorsparade: n. a public procession or displayof people, animals, and/or things movingin a single lineRose Bowl: n. phrase. a specialtournament or final championshipcompetition held each year in Pasadena,California between competing Americanuniversity football (American style)teamssponsor: v. to provide financial orofficial supportshowcase: v. to display prominently inorder to show the positive featuresfloat(s): n. a platform carrying a display,usually pulled by a vehicle in paradesoversee: v. to direct, supervise, ormanageenhance: v. to make greater, morebeautiful, or to increase in valuecollegiate: adj. referring to college oruniversityelaborate: adj. complex, detailed, carriedout with carecelebrity(ies): n. a well-known orfamous personspectator(s): n. a person who watches anevent but does not actively participatecamp(ing) out: v. to wait in line a verylong time, even overnight, for an event orto buy a ticket; people bring sleepingbags, food, drinks, extra clothes, music,books, etc., to keep them comfortablewhile they wait in linepageantry: n. formal parades and playsrelated to an event10Skype Online Englishhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.html
  10. 10. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHIRD MONDAY IN JANUARY(The following is an excerpt from the speech entitled “I Have a Dream,” delivered by Dr.Martin Luther King, Jr. on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on August 23, 1963.)l say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment Istill have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:“We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.”I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sonsof former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state sweltering with theheat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not bejudged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character...I have a dream today.I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama... will be transformed into a situation wherelittle black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls andwalk together as sisters and brothers.I have a dream today.I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall bemade low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, andthe glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the South with. With this faith we will beable to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able totransform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With thisfaith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, tostand up for freedom together knowing that we will be free one day.This will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning “Mycountry ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of thepilgrim’s pride from every mountainside, let freedom ring.”And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from theprodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York.Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania!Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado!Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California!But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia!Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee!Let freedom ring from every hill and mole-hill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, letfreedom ring.When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from everystate and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s children, black men andwhite men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in thewords of that old Negro spiritual, “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty, we are free atlast!”11IELTS Test Preparationhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/IELTS_Test_Preparation_Plus.html
  11. 11. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netDr. Martin Luther King speaks to a crowd ofpeople during the March on Washingtonon August 23, 1963.Martin Luther King Day honors thelife and legacy of one of the visionaryleaders of the Civil Rights Movementand recipient of the 1964 Nobel Prize forPeace.At a young age Martin Luther King,Jr. showed strong promise, skipping the9th and 12th grades and enteringMorehouse College at the age of 15. Hisbeliefs in equality and brotherly lovedeveloped early as he listened to thesermons of his father and grandfather,both ministers.In late 1955, Martin Luther King, Jr.received his doctorate degree intheology, and moved to Montgomery,Alabama, with his wife, Coretta ScottKing, to preach at a Baptist church.There, as in many southern states, hewitnessed the indignities suffered byAfrican Americans as a result of racism,discrimination, and unjust laws. Onelaw required all black passengers to ridein the back of public buses and to give uptheir seats to white passengers when thefront of the bus was full. Dr. King knewthat this law violated the rights of everyAfrican-American.On December 1, 1955, a courageousblack passenger, Rosa Parks, was arrestedand jailed for refusing to give up her seatto a white man. In response to the arrest,black leaders organized a boycott of thepublic buses in the city of Montgomery.Dr. King was asked to lead the protest.Thousands of people, black and white,refused to ride the bus; instead theyformed carpools and they walked. Dr.King urged people to demonstratepeacefully and not resort to violence.Nonetheless, the demonstrators and theirsupporters were constantly threatenedand attacked by those who did not wantthe system of inequality to change. Manyof the demonstrators were arrested andjailed. Dr. King’s home was bombed, butfortunately, his wife and children werenot injured.Despite the violence, the boycottcontinued, and the bus company sufferedgreat financial loss. Finally after 381days the boycott of the Montgomery bussystem was successful. The SupremeCourt declared the state of Alabama’ssegregation law unconstitutional. RosaParks, the woman whose small act ofprotest inspired the bus boycott, was laternamed the “Mother of the Civil RightsMovement.”12Speaking Practice Prohttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Speaking_Practice_Pro.html
  12. 12. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netRosa Parks is fingerprinted by the Montgomery,after refusing to give up her seat for a whitepassenger on the bus.The segregation of buses was justone of the many forms of injustice toAfrican Americans. Schools were alsosegregated throughout the south, andblack citizens were denied equal housing,equal pay, job opportunities, and fairvoting rights. Service in many hotels andrestaurants was also denied.The bus boycott brought inter-national attention to these inequities andto the leadership of Dr. King. Thecontinuing struggle for justice ultimatelyled to the Civil Rights Movement. Dr.King was at the forefront of thismovement, and became seen worldwideas a symbol and voice for the cause ofAfrican Americans.In 1957, Dr. King and other ministersfounded the Southern Christian Leader-ship Conference to advance the non-violent struggle against racism. In theyears that followed, Dr. King led manynon-violent demonstrations. He hadstudied the teachings of Mahatma Gandhiand believed strongly in the power ofnon-violent protest. Some black leadersand other citizens vehemently disagreedwith this philosophy. But King continuedto remind his followers that their fightwould be victorious if they did not resortto bloodshed. During the tumultuousyears of the Civil Rights Movement, Dr.King was jailed many times. From a jailin Birmingham, Alabama, he wrote thefamous words, “Injustice any- where is athreat to justice everywhere.”One of the key events of the CivilRights Movement was the March onWashington on August 23, 1963. A crowdof more than 250,000 people gathered inWashington, D.C. and, led by Dr. Kingthey marched to the Capitol Building tosupport the passing of laws thatguaranteed equal civil rights to everyAmerican citizen. On the steps of theLincoln Memo rial that day, Dr. Kingdelivered one of his most powerful andeloquent speeches, entitled “I Have aDream.” The March on Washington wasone of the largest gatherings of peoplethat the nation’s capital had everseen...and no violence occurred. Thefollowing year, in 1964, Dr. King wasawarded the Nobel Peace Prize forleading non-violent demonstrations.That same year the Civil Rights Actof 1964 was passed, calling for equalopportunity in employment andeducation. Martin Luther King, Jr. andthousands of others now knew that theyhad not struggled in vain. Yet there wasstill much work ahead to ensure that newlaws were enforced, and other inequitiesabolished.In the years that followed, Dr. Kinghelped champion many legislativereforms, including the Voting Rights Actof 1965, which guaranteed black citizensthe right to safely register and vote. That13Free English Clubhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Free_Russian_Club.html
  13. 13. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netyear a record number of black voterswent to the polls.Dr. King at a news conferenceon August 16, 1965.On April 4, 1968, Martin LutherKing, Jr. was assassinated whilesupporting a workers’ strike in Memphis,Tennessee. He was just 39 years old. Allpeople who had worked so hard for peaceand civil rights were shocked and angry.The world grieved the loss of this greatman of peace. Martin Luther King’sdeath did not slow the Civil RightsMovement. In 1969 Coretta Scott Kingfounded the Martin Luther King, Jr.Center for Non-violent Social Change.She passed away in January of 2006,after working throughout her life to keepher husband’s dream alive. Today peoplecontinue to work for social justice.The Making of a HolidayThroughout the 1980s, controversysurrounded the idea of a Martin LutherKing Day. Dr. King’s widow, CorettaScott King, along with congressionalleaders and citizens had petitioned thePresident to make January 15, MartinLuther King Jr.’s birthday, a legalholiday.Coretta Scott King, widow of Dr. Martin LutherKing, Jr. speaks at a news conference in 1985.Many states were already observingthe day. However, some people did notwant to have any holiday recognizing Dr.King. Others wanted the holiday on theday he was assassinated. Finally, in1986, President Ronald Reagan declaredthe third Monday in January a federalholiday in honor of Dr. Martin LutherKing, Jr. On Monday, January 20, 1986,14English Course Informationhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Lessons_Information.html
  14. 14. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netpeople across the country celebrated thefirst official Martin Luther King Day, theonly federal holiday to commemorate anAfrican-American.Now, every year, there are quietmemorial services, as well as elaborateceremonies and public forums to honorDr. King and his dream, and to discussissues of social justice. Schools at alllevels offer courses, curricula, and eventsto teach about racism, equality, andpeace. Religious leaders give specialsermons extolling Dr. King’s lifelongwork for peace. Radio and televisionbroadcasts feature songs, speeches, andspecial programs that tell the history ofthe Civil Rights Movement and givehighlights of Dr. King’s life and times.Glossaryrecipient: n. person who receives a gift,award, or honordoctorate: n. the highest academicdegreetheology: n. study of religionwitness(ed): v. to observe a situation oreventindignity(ies): n. acts of disrespect andhumiliationracism: n. hatred and prejudice based onracial or ethnic backgrounddiscrimination: n. unfair treatmentbecause of race, color, age, etc.violate(d): v. to act against a right, law,or contractboycott: n. act of protest by refusing touse a product or serviceresort: v. to turn to an extreme actionunconstitutional: adj. not legalaccording to the Constitution of theUnited StatesCivil Rights Movement: n. politicalactivities during the 1950s and ‘60s toend discrimination and unfair lawssegregation: n. separation by race, color,age, or other characteristicfound(ed): v. to establish; to set up; tostartvehemently: adv. strongly, with angerbloodshed: n. violence resulting in injuryor deathtumultuous: adj. turbulent; troubledin vain: adv. phrase. without the hopedfor resultenforce(d): v. to make people obey lawsor rulesabolish(ed): v. to end or terminate by lawor decreereform(s): n. official or legal changespoll(s): n. voting placeassassinate(d): v. to kill; to murdersomeone in a planned waystrike: v. to refuse to work in order tomake demands on an employergrieve(d): v. to feel deep sorrow orsadness as when someone diescontroversy: n. dispute; debatepetition(ed): v. to request by means of aformal documentforum(s): n. place or meeting for openexchange of ideasextol(ling): v. to praise15Grammar Reviewhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Grammar_Review.html
  15. 15. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN BLACK HISTORYJoseph RaineyGovernmentOriginally born a slave, Joseph Raineybecame politically active after the Civil War,working tirelessly for civil rights. In 1870 hebecame the first black U.S. Representative,eventually serving five terms as therepresentative for South Carolina.Science and MedicineIn 1940, Charles Drew invented the bloodbank, the method for collecting and storinglarge amounts of blood plasma for later use. In1941 Drew also became the director of the firstAmerican Red Cross Blood Bank.Literature and PublishingIn 1773, Phillis Wheatley published herbook Poems on Various Subject, Religious andMoral. She is considered the founder ofAfrican-American literature.FilmIn 1919, Oscar Micheaux wrote, directed,and produced the film The Homesteader.Between 1919 and 1948, Micheaux producedand directed more that 45 films, and was one ofthe few independent filmmakers to have such along and successful career outside ofHollywood.Phyllis Wheately16Free Trial Lessonhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.html
  16. 16. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTodd DuncanMusicIn 1945, Todd Duncan became the firstAfrican-American singer in the New York CityOpera. He later went on to create the role ofPorgy in Gershwin’s famous musical Porgy andBess.Air and SpaceRobert H. Lawrence became the first blackastronaut in 1967, but died in a plane crashbefore his first trip into space. In 1983, GuionBluford became the first black astronaut totravel into space.MilitarySergeant William H. Carney received theCongressional Medal of Honor for braveryduring the Civil War. During the battle at FortWagner, South Carolina, in 1863, Carney tookover the position of flag-bearer from a woundedsoldier, safely delivering the flag through thebattle. His deed is depicted on the Saint-Gaudens Monument in Boston, Massachusetts.SportsJackie Robinson became the first blackmajor league baseball player in 1947, when hejoined New York’s Brooklyn Dodgers. In 1962,Robinson also became the first AfricanAmerican to be elected to the Baseball Hall ofFame.William Carney17Audio Grammarhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Alphabet_Audio.html
  17. 17. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netFEBRUARYBlack history month is one of themost widely-celebrated of federalmonths. It was originally established in1926 as Negro History Week by notedAfrican-American author and HarvardUniversity scholar, Dr. Carter G.Woodson. Dr. Woodson’s hope was thatthis special observance would remind allAmericans of their ethnic roots, and thatthe commemoration would increasemutual respect. In 1976 the celebrationwas expanded to include the entiremonth, and it became known as BlackHistory Month, also called AfricanAmerican History Month. The month ofFebruary was chosen since it contains thebirthdays of Abraham Lincoln andFrederick Douglas. Lincoln is honoredbecause of the EmancipationProclamation that freed the slaves, andDouglas is honored as one of the mostinfluential moral leaders, orators, andauthors of American history.One aim of Black History Month is toexpose the harmful effects of racialprejudice; another is to recognizesignificant contributions made by peoplewith African heritage, including artists,musicians, scientists, political figures,educators, and athletes. During February,cities, communities, and educationalestablishments feature speakers andcommunity events, often focusing on theCivil Rights Movement. In classrooms,the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King iscommonly a part of the curriculum.Dr. King focused his energy onorganizing peaceful protest demon-strations and marches, mostly in theAmerican southern states. He led thegreat march on Washington, D.C. in1963 where he gave his famous “I HaveA Dream” speech. Dr. King advocated anon-violent approach to social changefollowing the philosophy of MohandasGandhi. Another community activistwhose life is often a part of schoolcurricula is Rosa Parks. In 1955, RosaParks refused to surrender her seat onthe bus to a white passenger. By forcingthe police to remove her, and then arrestand imprison her, she brought nationalattention to the civil rights movement.This incident later became a test case forrepealing segregation laws.Glossarynoted: adj. importantroot(s): n. originmutual: adj. two or more people feelingthe same thing or doing the same thing toeach otherorator(s): n. a person who gives skillfulor effective public speechesexpose: v. to uncover; to allow to be seenfeature: v. to include as a special itemactivist: n. a person who actively worksfor a political party or for politicalchangesurrender: v. to give uprepeal(ing): v. to make a law no longerhave any legal force18Free Larisa Newsletterhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Newsletter.html
  18. 18. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netJANUARY/FEBRUARY – LUNAR YEARColorful banners announce an exhibition offoods for the celebration of the New Year.Gung Hay Fat Choy! This is theChinese greeting for the New Year; itmeans, “Wishing you luck andprosperity.” The New Year is one of themost important and festive Chineseholidays. In the United States, wheremore than 2.5 million people of Chinesedescent live, Chinese New Year’scelebrations provide an importantconnection to Chinese culture andheritage. Chinese immigrants brought thetraditions with them when they came toAmerica to work in gold mining campsand on the railroads in the mid-1800s.The Chinese New Year falls in lateJanuary or early February according tothe Chinese lunar calendar, andtraditionally lasts fifteen days endingwith the full moon.“May all your wishes come true” is the messageon this red money envelope.For the New Year, people decoratetheir homes with colorful pictures offlowers and fruits, and hang red papersquares or scrolls on which gold Chinesecharacters represent luck, happiness,prosperity, or health. Red is the color forChinese New Year as it represents goodluck. It also symbolizes fire, which issaid to drive away bad luck and evilspirits, particularly the legendarymonster, “nian.” People wear red for theNew Year, write poems and wishes on redpaper, and give red envelopes, called“laisee” packets, filled with “luckymoney” to children and young adults.Red firecrackers are also an essential partof Chinese New Year. From ancient timesto the present, Chinese people havewelcomed in the New Year and chasedaway the evil spirits by setting off fire-19Writing Skills Programhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Writing_Skills_Program.html
  19. 19. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netcrackers. Long ago people lit bamboostalks, which crackled and sparked toscare away spirits that could bring badluck to the year.On the night before the New Year,families and friends come together for aspecial meal, which includes Chinesefoods that represent happiness, health,and luck.On the final night of celebration isthe Feast of the Lantern, or “Yuen Sui.”The lanterns are beautifully painted withanimals, flowers and birds, or legendaryscenes. Traditionally, the glowinglanterns were carried in a procession andhung in the temples. The Feast of the Lantern includes a dragon dance, which isperformed by a huge, long dragon madeof paper, silk, bamboo, or rat tan. Thedragon is carried by many people as itdances through the streets chasing a red“sun-ball,” or a white “pearl-ball,” heldaloft by a parade participant. In theUnited States, the Feast of the Lantern isgenerally part of a larger parade thatoften occurs on the weekend closest tothe New Year.Today, Chinatowns in Americancities with large Chinese populations,such as New York and San Francisco,hold elaborate and lively New Year’scelebrations that attract hundreds ofthousands of participants and spectators.In San Francisco, Chinese New Yearis one of the largest Asian cultural eventsoutside of Asia. Huge crowds gather inthe streets of Chinatown to watch thefestive and noisy parade, which includesdecorated floats, musicians playingdrums and gongs, lion dancers with paperlion heads on sticks, marching bands,Chinese acrobats, martial arts groups, andmany firecrackers. At the end of theparade is a special Golden Dragon thatwas made by dragon masters in Foshan,China. The Golden Dragon is resplendentin gold and silver, fur, silk, paper, andrainbow-colored pompoms. It stretchesover 200 feet long and requires 100people to carry it. The dragon sways backand forth, twists and turns, jumps anddances amid the sparks and noise of over500,000 firecrackers!A Chinese New Year’s celebration is not completewithout a dragon weaving down the street.An important aspect of Chinese NewYear is the animal connected with thatyear. For example, the New Year may becalled, “The Year of the Horse” or “TheYear of the Dog.” The Chinese lunarcalendar, created in 2600 BC, has a 12-year cycle, and each year is associatedwith one of 12 animals on the Chinesecalendar. The animals are the rat, ox,tiger, hare, dragon, snake, horse, sheep,monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. It is saidthat when Buddha asked all the animalsto meet him on the New Year, thesetwelve animals came, and he named ayear for each one. People born in thatyear are said to embody thecharacteristics, both good and bad, of its20Stories With Audiohttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Short_Stories_Audio.html
  20. 20. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netanimal. The animal for the year ishonored and featured on posters andmany other items during New Year’scelebrations.Glossaryprosperity: n. wealth; abundancefestive: adj. lively; fundescent: n. family origin or lineheritage: n. one’s family, cultural, ornational back- groundlunar: adj. of or related to the moonscroll(s): n. long rolled paper containingwriting or pictureslegendary: adj. myths or stories told longagofirecracker(s): n. a small explosive setoff to make noise and a flash of lightancient: adj. from the past, beforewritten recordscrackle(d): v. to make a popping noise,often because of fire or flamespark(ed): v. to produce a flash of lightdue to heat, fire, or electricityscare away: v. to chase or frighten away;causing someone or an animal to runaway because of fear or surpriselantern: n. container from which light isemitted by a candle insideglowing: adj. bright, shining from aninner lightprocession: n. long moving line ofpeople, in a parade or ceremonydragon: n. a mythical animal depicted asa long snakelike creature with four clawsaloft: adv. above one’s head; highparade: n. a public procession or displayof people, animals and/or formationmoving in a single lineelaborate: adj. very detailed andbeautifulspectator(s): n. person who watches anevent or performancefloat(s): n. a platform carrying an exhibitusually pulled by a motorized vehicle(sometimes by animals or people) in aparadegong(s): n. metal disc which produces adeep musical toneresplendent: adj. spectacular and richlydecoratedfur: n. hair of an animalpompom(s): n. colored ball made of yarnor clothamid: adv. among; together withaspect: n. part; characteristicembody: v. to represent or contain fullycharacteristic(s): n. quality; trait; aspectfeature(d): v. to show prominently; topresent21FlashCards listhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/All_FlashCards_List.html
  21. 21. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHIRD MONDAY IN FEBRUARYMt. Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota features the colossal portraits of four presidents carvedfrom granite: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln.This unit combines two birthdays:George Washington’s and AbrahamLincoln’s. The federal holiday is formallycalled “Washington’s Birthday” and iscelebrated on the third Monday inFebruary. However, we have titled thisunit “Presidents’ Day” since a commonpractice is to celebrate the birthdays ofboth presidents on this day. Some people,in fact, think the day celebrates all theAmerican presidents. The birthday ofGeorge Washington has been a legalfederal holiday since 1885, and wasoriginally celebrated on February 22.There was no federal holiday forAbraham Lincoln, but many individualstates celebrated Lincoln’s birthday onFebruary 12. In some states, bothFebruary 12 and February 22 weredeclared holidays to commemorate thetwo presidents. In 1968 Congress passedthe Uniform Holidays Act that fixedMonday as the official day to observelegal federal holidays, includingWashington’s Birthday. At this time,since many people assumed that the newdate was meant to combine the twopresidents’ birthdays, media sources and22Free LSL English Grammar E-Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Free_English_Grammar_Book.html
  22. 22. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netadvertisers began calling the day“Presidents’ Day.” Now, printedcalendars and date books indicate the dayas “Presidents’ Day,” and retail storeshold huge “Presidents’ Day Sales.”The White House has been the official home ofAmerican presidents since the year 1800.Despite the confusion surroundingthe holiday, the third Monday in Februaryis the day on which Americans are re-minded of the influence of both GeorgeWashington and Abraham Lincoln on thegrowth and history of the nation. As alegal holiday, federal and many state andlocal government offices are closed. Thetwo following sections discuss the livesand legacies of George Washington, thefirst president of the United States, andAbraham Lincoln, the sixteenth presidentof the United States.George Washington’sBirthdayGeorge Washington, the firstpresident of the United States ofAmerica, is often referred to as the“Father of Our Country.” Born February22, 1732, in Virginia, he grew to be anatural leader – instrumental in winningAmerican independence from Britain inthe Revolutionary War and creating aunited nation out of a conglomeration ofstruggling colonies and territories. As aboy, George helped manage his parents’plantation in Ferry Farm, Virginia. Heobserved the plantation’s black slaves atwork, and learned about planting andcrops. George attended school for only 7or 8years, and was especially interestedin math. His father wanted to send him toEngland for more education, but whenGeorge was elev en, his father died, andGeorge was unable to continue hisstudies.His interest in military life beganearly. At fourteen he longed to join theBritish Royal Navy, but his mother wouldnot give him permission. He then becameinterested in surveying, a profession inwhich he could apply his math skills andexplore the frontier as he mapped outnew settlements. Over the next fiveyears he became a master surveyor,laying the plans for many new towns andfarms. By 1750 he had also acquired over1,000 acres of land for himself.Shortly after his twentieth birthday,Washington began serving in the army ofKing George III of England, who ruledover the thirteen colonies and much ofthe surrounding territories. By twenty-two Washington was a lieutenant colonel23Free LSL 101 Grammar Worksheetshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Grammar_Workbookpdf.html
  23. 23. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netand was put in command of a troop ofsoldiers who fought against the French inthe French and Indian War.While serving under the King,Washington grew resentful of the unfairtreatment of colonial soldiers andofficers, who received lower pay andpoorer supplies and training than regularBritish troops. When the King loweredthe ranks of all colonial officers,Washington resigned in anger. Later herejoined to learn military tactics from arenowned general.At the end of the French and IndianWar, Washington returned to Virginia andspent many years as a farmer,businessman, and Virginia legislator. In1759 he married Martha DandridgeCustis, a widow with two children.George Washington, as Commander in Chief ofthe Continental Army in 1775. led theinexperienced troops against the British forces.By the late 1760s, many colonistsbegan to want their freedom, and to liveunder their own rule, notunder the rule of a faraway king and aBritish militia. They felt that the taxes,laws, and punishments that the Kingimposed on them were unfair. In 1773, alocal rebellion against high taxes, calledthe Boston Tea Party, helped to spark theAmerican Revolution. In this rebellion,colonists raided British ships in BostonHarbor and tossed the cargo of tea intothe water. When the British closedBoston Harbor as punishment,Washington spoke out vehemently.In 1774, Washington attended thefirst Continental Congress where he andother representatives approved a tradeboycott of all British goods. Britaintightened its control over the colonies,and in 1775 the Revolutionary Warbegan. Washington was electedCommander in Chief of the ContinentalArmy. On July 4, 1776, the ContinentalCongress signed the Declaration ofIndependence, claiming America’sfreedom from British rule, but it wouldbe seven more years before thatindependence was won.Washington led the inexperiencedtroops of the Continental Army againstthe British forces during the harsh yearsof war, until the colonists prevailed andwon their independence in 1783. Historybooks recount the hardships of freezingwinters, lack of food, discouragement,and desertions during those years of war.They describe Washington’s strongleadership and determination that wereinstrumental in the eventual victory.In 1786, Washington was electedpresident of the Constitutional24Free LSL English Grammar Book of Phraseshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/PDF_1000_Phrase_Book.html
  24. 24. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netConvention, a meeting of representativesfrom each state to draft a constitution forthe new nation. Laws written into theConstitution called for a President, andGeorge Washington was considered thenatural choice. He was elected, andthough Washington was reluctant, heagreed to serve his country as the firstPresident of the United States. On April30, 1789, at the age of 57, Washingtonwas sworn into office. He moved fromMount Vernon in Virginia to New YorkCity, then the capital of the United States.The trip took a week by horse andcarriage. All along the way, peoplewaited eagerly to glimpse theRevolutionary War general and their firstPresident.Washington accepted two terms aspresident, but turned down a third termwishing only to retire to his beautifulfamily home, Mount Vernon. By the timeWashington left office, there were 16states in the Union, and the U.S. Capitolbuilding was being constructed in thenewly established District of Columbia.During his later years, Washingtonremained active in politics, and he diedon December 14, 1799. His memory isevident in the multitude of places in theUnited States that bear his name,including the United States Capitol,Washington, D.C.While Washington was alive, legendsgrew up about him. One legend says thathe was so strong, that he could throw asilver dollar across the Potomac River.Some Americans argue that this could bea true story, because parts of the PotomacRiver, they say, were extremely narrow afew hundred years ago! Another storytells of a time when George Washingtonwas young, and his father gave him ahatchet. Presumably, George tried to cutdown a cherry tree with it. His fathernoticed the cuts on the tree, and asked hisson how they got there. “I cannot tell alie,” George confessed. “I did it with myhatchet.” This story has never beenproven, but Americans pass it down totheir children as a lesson in honesty.George Washington came to representhonesty, and cherry pies have become afavorite food associated with his birthdayholiday.Americans began celebratingWashington’s birthday from the time ofthe Revolutionary War. They weregrateful for a strong leader who hadproven that democracy was a feasibleway to govern the growing country.Today, some communities observe theholiday by staging pageants andreenactments of important milestones inWashington’s life. Also, the holiday hastaken on a commercial side. Manyshopping malls and stores run Presidents’Day sales to attract shoppers who havethe day off from work or school.Abraham Lincoln’sBirthdayOf all the presidents in the history ofthe United States, Abraham Lincoln isprobably the one that Americansremember with deepest affection. Hischild- hood experiences set the course forhis character and motivation later in life.He brought a new level of honesty andintegrity to the White House, living up tohis nickname, “Honest Abe.” Most of all,he is associated with the final abolitionof slavery, with his Emancipation25Free LSL English Grammar Book of Slanghttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Slang_PDF_eBook_LSL.html
  25. 25. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netProclamation. Lincoln became a virtualsymbol of the American dream where-byan ordinary person from humblebeginnings could reach the pinnacle ofsociety as president of the country.Abraham Lincoln was born onFebruary 12, 1809, in Kentucky, andspent the first seven years of his lifethere. Abe’s family, like many on thefrontier, lived in a log cabin, and Abe’sfather worked hard as a farmer andcarpenter to support his family. Abe andhis sister were often occupied withhousehold chores, but when they werefree they attended a log schoolhouse.Young Abraham Lincoln became skilled at splitting logs, often used for houses, fences,and heating.In 1816, the family left Kentucky forIndiana, a state in the Midwest. TheUnited States at this time was still young,and the Midwest was a wild frontier.Indiana offered new opportunities anddiffered from Kentucky in many ways.One important difference for Abe’s fatherwas that Indiana was a state that did notallow slavery. Abe’s father was opposedto slavery, and instilled the same beliefsin his children.Abe and his family settled in a forest,in Spencer County, Indiana. Neighborswere few and far away. Eventually, Abe’sfather cleared enough land to build a logcabin. He and Abe cleared the woods forfarmland, and Abe became so skilled atsplitting logs that neighbors settling intothe territory paid him to split their logs.Drawings and other depictions of Lincolnas a young man often show him splittinglogs in a wooded setting.During his life, Abe had less than oneyear of formal schooling. This lack ofeducation only made him hungry formore knowledge. His mother, NancyHanks Lincoln, influenced him in hisquest for learning. Although she wasuneducated and could not read or write,she encouraged her children to study bythemselves. Later, after his mother diedand his father remarried, Abe’s step-mother was also instrumental inencouraging him to read. Abe would eventravel to neighboring farms and countiesto borrow books. Legend claims that hewas often found reading next to a pile oflogs that he should have been splitting.Even as a boy Lincoln showed skillas a speaker. He noticed that peopleloved to listen to stories, and he begantelling tall tales in the general storewhere people often gathered.In 1830 the family moved again, thistime to Illinois. Lincoln began working ina store in the capital of Spring-field. Hispowers of speech soon helped him enter a26Free English Test!http://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Testing_English.html
  26. 26. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netnew arena, that of politics and law. In1834 he was elected into the Illinois StateLegislature, and began studying tobecome a lawyer. There were few lawschools in those days, so Lincoln studiedlaw from books that he borrowed from anattorney. He received his license topractice law in 1836. In 1839, he met hisfuture wife Mary Todd. After a longcourtship, they married in November1842, and eventually had four boys.Lincoln practiced law all across thestate, traveling far on horseback and bybuggy to different counties. He becamewell known during this time for hisability to argue a strong convincing caseand for his honesty. These experienceseventually led him down the road tobecome the sixteenth president of theUnited States.In 1847 he was elected into Congress,but his criticism of then President Polkmade him unpopular, and he did not runfor a second term.He returned to his law practice, butcontinued to present his views publicly.He was vehemently against slavery andtook stands on other controversialissues.Within a few years, slavery hadbecome a stronger issue and more peoplewere willing to abolish it. Lincoln joinedthe Republicans, a new political partythat was opposed to slavery. TheRepublicans nominated him for the U.S.Senate in 1858, and in his acceptancespeech, he stated:A house divided against itselfcannot stand...This government cannot endure,permanently half-slave and half-free... I do not expect the Union to bedissolved. I do not expect the houseto fall – but I do expect it will ceaseto be divided.Abraham Lincoln’s oratoricalpowers brought him to the attention ofthe nation. He challenged his opponent,the Democratic nominee, to a series ofdebates in which he argued the moral evilof slavery. With the simple language thathe used to communicate with people allhis life, he defeated his opponent in thedebates, but lost the election.However, the debates had madeLincoln a national figure, and in 1860, hewas nominated by the Republican Partyas its candidate for the Presidency of theUnited States. Lincoln won the electionwith a majority of the electoral votes –all from the north. But with this election,the country began the process of“dividing against itself.” South Carolina,a strong slave state, had already secededfrom the Union. Other slave statesfollowed to form the Confederate Statesof America. The North and South weredivided, and the Civil War began. Thewar was not only about the abolition ofslavery, but also the right of individualstates to make their own laws on otherkey issues.As the nation was approaching thethird year of the war, on January 1, 1863,Abraham Lincoln issued theEmancipation Proclamation, which statedthat all persons who had been slaveswithin the southern states were free.Though this Proclamation was limited inthat it only applied to states that hadseceded from the Union, it transformedthe focus of the war. From then on, themarch from the North was equated withan expansion of freedom.27Free LSL English Grammar Speaking Drill Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Drill_Book_PDF.html
  27. 27. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netLincoln is best known for his Emancipation Proclamation, issued January 1, 1863,that changed the character of the Civil War.28Skype Online Englishhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.html
  28. 28. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netTHE GETTYSBURG ADDRESSNOVEMBER 19, 1863Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation,conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civil war testing whether that nation or any nation soconceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. Wehave come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting place for those who here gavetheir lives that that nation may live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate – we can not hallow –this ground. The brave men living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far aboveour poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we sayhere but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living rather to be dedicated hereto the unfinished work, which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It israther for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that from thesehonored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last fullmeasure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain –that this nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of thepeople, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.The Battle of Gettysburg inPennsylvania in 1863 was one of thebloodiest of the Civil War, and the largestbattle ever fought on American soil. OnNovember 19, 1863, a ceremony washeld to dedicate the Gettysburgbattlefield as a national monument. Atthat ceremony Lincoln delivered whatwas to become one of the finest speechesin American history, the GettysburgAddress. After Lincoln’s short speechthere was a polite, but reserved applause.The main speaker of the day was EdwardEverett, ex-governor of Massachusetts,who delivered a two-hour oration. As thetwo speakers returned to Washingtontogether, Lincoln expresseddisappointment in his own presentation.“I was a flat failure,” he said of hisspeech. “I ought to have prepared it withmore care.” But Everett reassured him,saying, “I would be glad if...I came nearto the central idea of the occasion in twohours as you did in two minutes.”On April 9, 1865, the Southsurrendered, and the Civil War ended.The Union army soldiers spread the wordof the war’s end and of Lincoln’sEmancipation Proclamation. The difficulttask of national reconstruction andreconciliation lay ahead, but Lincolnwould not be the person to lead thecountry through this difficult period. OnApril 14, Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln wereattending a play at Ford’s Theater inWashington, D.C. An actor, John WilkesBooth, who disagreed with Lincoln’spolitical opinions, stepped into thepresidential box and shot the President.Lincoln died the following morning.Quotation from Lincoln“...As I would not be a slave, so Iwould not be a master. This expressesmy idea of democracy. Whateverdiffers from this, to the extent of thedifference, is no democracy.”Letter, August 185829IELTS Test Preparationhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/IELTS_Test_Preparation_Plus.html
  29. 29. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netPresidents’Day celebrates the birthdays ofGeorge Washington (February 22)and Abraham Lincoln (February 12).Glossary(George Washington’s Birthday)federal: adj. of or relating to the nationalgovernment, for example, a federalholiday is a holiday declared by thenational governmentlegacy(ies): n. the good works that aperson or group did that survive longafter the person or group has leftinstrumental: adj. influential; veryimportant conglomeration: n. a mixtureor collection of dissimilar thingscolony(ies): n. a group of people living ina new territory with strong ties or links totheir parent country; the link is usually atthe level of the governmentterritory(ies): n. a geographic area orsubdivision of land that is under thejurisdiction or rule of a government, butis not a full part of that government’scountry, e.g., Puerto Rico is a territory ofthe U.S.plantation: n. a farm or estate on whichcrops such as tobacco or sugar arecultivated by resident laborerssurveying: n. a field of work thatinvolves measuring and mapping landfrontier: n. wilderness; unsettled, openlandssettlement(s): n. a village or town wherepeople have established a newcommunityrank(s): n. position or level within themilitary, e.g. general; captain; sergeantresign(ed): v. to quit a job or positiontactic(s): n. strategy; planned methodrenown(ed): adj. well-known; famouswidow: n. a woman whose husband hasdiedimpose(d): v. to place on, such as a ruleor lawrebellion: n. opposition to authority;revolutionspark: v. to cause to set in motion;suddenlyraid(ed): v. to attack suddenly andwithout warningvehement(ly): adv. strongly, with angerboycott: n. a refusal to buy or use certaingoods or services as an action of protestprevail(ed): v. to triumph; to bevictoriousdesertion(s): n. abandonment; leaving aresponsibility, often without warning orpermissionreluctant: adj. not willing; hesitantswear into: v. phrase. to take an oathbefore beginning an official position; beinauguratedglimpse: v. to see brieflyUnion: n. refers to the United Statesmultitude: n. a large number of; manyhatchet: n. a tool to cut woodpresumably: adv. assumption or beliefthat something is true confess(ed): v. totell or admit wrong doingfeasible: adj. possible; workable;practicalpageant(s): n. parades and plays for aspecial event30Speaking Practice Prohttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Speaking_Practice_Pro.html
  30. 30. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netreenactment(s): n. performance ofhistorical eventsmilestone(s): n. significant event inhistory or a person’s lifeGlossary(Abraham Lincoln’s Birthday)affection: n. fondness; a deep, warm,good feelingmotivation: n. incentive; something thatpushes you toward a goalintegrity: n. correct morals and behaviorabolition: n. an ending or termination of,by lawEmancipation Proclamation: n. thegovernment document that officiallyproclaimed or stated American slaves tobe freevirtual: adj. truepinnacle: n. highest pointchore(s): n. regular or daily work,usually in a household or on a farmlog schoolhouse: n. phrase. a one-roomschool made of wooden logs (cut andcleaned tree trunks)instill(ed): v. to give an idea or principleby example or teachingsplit(ting) logs: v. phrase. to divide a logor length of tree trunk lengthwisequest: n. a searchinstrumental: adj. influential; veryimportantlegend: n. a popular myth or story aboutsomeone or some event in the past; notverifiabletall tale(s): n. a story that is untrue orexaggeratedlegislature: n. an organized body of thegovernment with the authority to makelawscourtship: n. the act of dating, or actionsto attract a mate for marriage or unioncriticism: n. the act of making acomment (written or oral) of evaluation,usually negativevehemently: adv. strongly, with angercontroversial: adj. causing disagreementabolish: v. to end, stop, finishissue(s): n. a topic or matter of discussiondissolve(d): v. to break apartoratorical: adj. speaking; having to dowith public speakingnominee: n. a person who has beenproposed for officeelectoral vote(s): n. votes from theElectoral College which elects thePresident and Vice President of the U.S.Each state appoints as many electors as ithas senators and representatives inCongress; the District of Columbia hasthree votes. Though pledged to vote fortheir state’s winners, electors are notconstitutionally obliged 2) to do so. Acandidate must win more than 50% of thevotes to win the election. (from theonline Encyclopedia Britannica:http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9363529)secede(d): v. to withdraw from anorganization or group oration: n. speechreconstruction: n. rebuildingreconciliation: n. forgiveness; settling aproblem31Free English Clubhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Free_Russian_Club.html
  31. 31. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMARCH-AUGUSTA member of the Plains Cree tribe works on hiscostume of eagle feathers at the Gathering ofNations powwow in Albuquerque, New Mexicoon April 25, 1998. This annual event featuresmore than 700 tribes from the United States andCanada .A powwow is a large social gatheringof native american tribes and individuals.Every year, hundreds of powwows occuron Native American reservations and inother locations across the nation fromMarch through August. Powwows arelively occasions that include tribal danceand dance competitions, drumming,singing, Indian foods, art, crafts,educational events, presentations, and insome areas, a rodeo. Despite the festiveatmosphere, powwows are also spiritualoccasions that involve rituals, blessings,and respectful protocol. These are timesfor Native Americans to strengthen tiesof culture, community and tradition, andto celebrate heritage and history.The word “pow-wow” comes from anAlgonquin Indian word “pau-wau” or“pauau,” which referred to tribalspiritual leaders and their religious andhealing ceremonies. The ceremoniesusually included dancing and rituals,which were sometimes seen by earlyEuropean settlers and explorers. Becausethey did not understand Indian culture orceremonies, they thought a “pow-wow,”– their mispronunciation of the Indianword – was any tribal gathering or event.Eventually the Anglicized word be camecommonly used, even among NativeAmericans. Now, the word “powwow”and the event itself have come to signifyand embody the spirit and continuity ofNative American cultures and people.Two of the most essential features ofa powwow are traditional dancing anddrumming. At the start of a powwow, aDance Arbor is set up and blessed in aritual way. After this, the Dance Arbor isconsidered sacred space, and may beentered only by designated individualsfor dancing and other special ceremony.Dancers, wearing elaborate regalia,perform traditional dances, or participatein dance competitions, vying for tophonors and prize money.32English Course Informationhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Lessons_Information.html
  32. 32. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIndian tribal dresses incorporate elaboratebeadwork.The regalia worn by dancers aremeticulously made, and may take yearsto complete. The designs and elementsused may represent the dancer’s tribalaffiliation, or combine features of othertribes. The outfit often includes valuablefamily heirlooms and sacred items suchas feathers, for which there are specificrules and protocol. Some of the dancerswear bells on their wrists and ankles,which add a jingling rhythm to thedance. Others, with fancy shawls, looklike delicate flying birds as they raisetheir arms to the beat of the drums. Grassdancers wear outfits of brightly-coloredyarn or fabric representing meadowgrass.The dancers are accompanied by agroup of five to ten singers, collectivelycalled “a drum.” They sit around a largedrum, which they beat in unison as theysing. Some singers may also standbehind. Traditionally all singers anddrummers were male, but today manywomen sing and drum, and some groupsare all female. Many of the songs do nothave words, but consist entirely ofsyllables, called “vocables,” whichconvey the deep feeling and meaning ofthe song. Songs are sung four times insuccession, as the number four is sacredto Indian culture and represents the fourdirections. The drumming and singing arethe core of the powwow, providing arhythmic pulse to the event.Traditional dancing and drumming are essentialto a powwow. Above, drummers lead out thedancers in the 32nd annual Pow Wow March onMarch 24, 2006 in Denver, Colorado.Until the 20th century, non-Indiansusually did not participate in powwows.But today, powwows are public eventsand open to all, providing an opportunityfor Native Americans to share theirculture and traditions. Non-Indians canenjoy the festivities, try new foods suchas “Indian fry bread,” purchase beautifulhandmade goods like jewelry of silverand turquoise, finely crafted drums andflutes, pottery, painted gourds, andtraditional clothing. They can participatein some events and dances such as theRound Dance or Blanket Dance. Andthey can learn about the rich heritageand present day lives of America’s firstinhabitants.33Grammar Reviewhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Grammar_Review.html
  33. 33. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netThe spirit of the powwow is acontinuum in Indian life. It isn’t justfor a few days in March. We live thisspirit on a daily basis. It is why wehave survived for so long. At onetime we were a forgotten people, butI think we are getting stronger. Fromthe powwow we gain strength asIndian people, individually andcollectively, to go on into the [next]century. – Linday Yardley TaosPueblo IndianChildren as well as adults often don costumes forpowwows. Here, a 9-year-old boy dances whiledressed in traditional garb in Upper SiouxAgency State Park near Granite Falls, Minnesotaon August 7, 2004 .Glossaryreservation(s): n. a tract or parcel of landset aside for the use of a group or groupssuch as the Native American tribeslively: adj. active, fun, festiverodeo: n. a public performance and/orcompetition featuring such activities ashorse riding, bull riding, and calf ropingspiritual: adj. relating to or affecting thespirit, often in a deeply religious senseritual(s): n. symbolic gestures to showrespect, thanks, prayer, or blessingprotocol: n. a set of customs andregulationsheritage: n. family, cultural, or ethnicbackground or linehealing: n. an action or activity meant torestore to healthAnglicize(d): adj. made more English-like in spelling, pronunciation, custom, ormannerembody: v. to represent or contain fullyarbor: n. archway or other overheadstructuresacred: adj. holy; highly respected,usually in a religious sensedesignate(d): v. appointed; chosen for aspecific purpose or taskelaborate: adj. beautifully decorated;complex in detailregalia: n. special clothing or outfit wornfor ceremonial purposesvie(-ying): v. to try for or compete formeticulously: adv. in a very careful anddetailed manneraffiliation: n. association; connectionheirloom: n. cherished family treasure,such as jewelry, that is passed down fromgeneration to generationjingle(-ing): adj. like the sound of a bellshawl(s): n. long piece of cloth used forcovering one’s shouldersyarn: n. thread made of natural orsynthetic fiberscollectively: adv. together as a groupunison: n. having one voice or sound insuccession: prep. phrase. one afteranother; repeatedlycore: n. center; central part pulse: n. beat;heartbeatturquoise: n. semi-precious stone of paleor dark green- blue, often used in NativeAmerican jewelrygourd(s): n. vegetable related to thepumpkin that is dried, hollowed, andsometimes decoratedinhabitant(s): n. person who lives in aspecific area34Free Trial Lessonhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.html
  34. 34. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN WOMENS HISTORYJeanette RankinGovernmentIn 1916, Jeannette Rankin was the firstwoman elected to the U.S. House ofRepresentatives. She served another term from1941 to 1943. A lifelong pacifist, Rankin votedagainst going to war with Germany in 1917(World War I), and was the only representativeto vote against the U.S. entering World War II.Science and medicineAfter being the first woman admitted to theMassachusetts Institute of Technology, EllenSwallow Richards also became the firstprofessional chemist in the US after hergraduation in 1873.Literature and PublishingEdith Wharton became the first woman towin a Pulitzer Prize for fiction in 1921 for hernovel The Age of Innocence. Wharton did notbegin her writing career until she was almost 40years old, and through her career published over40 books.FilmIn 1896, Alice Guy Blache became the firstAmerican female film director with the releaseof her film The Cabbage Fairy. During hercareer she directed over 300 short films.Ellen Richards35Audio Grammarhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Alphabet_Audio.html
  35. 35. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netAmelia EarhartMusicIn 1914, Mary Davenport-Engberg becamethe first woman to conduct a symphonyorchestra in the United States.Air and SpaceIn 1932, Amelia Earhart became the firstwoman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.She flew from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, toIreland in about 15 hours. In 1937 Earhartattempted to fly around the world, but her planedisappeared. No one knows what happened toher.MilitaryIn 1993, Sheila Widnall was appointedSecretary of the Air Force, becoming the firstwoman to hold this high-level position for anybranch of the U.S. military.SportsIn 1967, Althea Gibson became the firstwoman (and African American) to win thetennis singles title at Wimbledon. During hercareer, Gibson won ten straight national blackwomen’s singles championships, and, in 1971,she was inducted into the National Lawn TennisHall of Fame.Althea Gibson36Free Larisa Newsletterhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Newsletter.html
  36. 36. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMARCHWomen’s history month is one of theoutcomes of a countrywide movement inSonoma County, California, in the 1970sthat brought a focus on women intoschool curricula as well as into thegeneral public’s consciousness. In 1978,the Educational Task Force of theSonoma County (California) Commissionon the Status of Women initiated a“Women’s History Week.” The week ofMarch 8 was chosen since March 8 isInternational Women’s Day. As word ofthe movement spread, State Departmentsof Education across the U.S. initiatedsimilar changes to their curricula, andencouraged celebrations of women’shistory as a means of achieving equity inclassrooms. In 1987 the NationalWomen’s History Project petitioned theUnited States Congress to recognize thewhole month of March as NationalWomen’s History Month. Since then,every year the House of Representativesand the United States Senate approve thedesignation.March is celebrated with specialprograms and activities in schools,workplaces, and communities. Besidesrecognizing women’s achievements insuch areas as science, math, politics, arts,and athletics, a common topic in schoolcurricula is the women’s suffragemovement in the United States. Before1920, women did not have the right tovote under the constitution. In the decadebetween 1910 and 1920, womenorganized and were involved in politicaldemonstrations and marches across theUnited States. Though the vote wasbrought to the congress several times, itfailed to pass. Finally in 1919, after yearsof picketing, petitioning, and protesting,the vote passed, resulting in the passageof the Nineteenth Amendment to theU.S. Constitution on August 26, 1920. InNovember 1920, women voted for thefirst time in a national election.Glossaryoutcome(s): n. a result or the effect of anactionconsciousness: n. knowledge orawarenessinitiate(d): v. to beginequity: n. justice or fairnessdesignation: n. something chosen for aparticular reason or purposesuffrage: n. the right to vote in anelectionright: n. a legal claimdecade: n. a period of ten yearspicket(ing): v. to stand or demonstrateoutside a building or place of work toprevent people from entering andworking, as a means of political protestpetition(ing): v. to demand or requestsome action from a government or otherauthorityamendment: n. a change in a law37Writing Skills Programhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Writing_Skills_Program.html
  37. 37. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netIN ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICAN HISTORYDalip Singh SaundGovernmentRepresenting California in 1956, DalipSingh Saund became the first Asian-AmericanU.S. Representative.Science and medicineIn 1957, Tsung-Dao Lee and Chen NingYang became the first Asian-Americans to winthe Nobel Prize for physics. They were awardedthe prize for disproving a quantum-physics law.Literature and PublishingIn 1974, both Ken Kashiwahara and ConnieChung became the first Asian-Americannetwork news reporters. In 1993, Chung alsobecame the first Asian-American news anchor(main reporter) for a major television station.FilmIn 1921, Anna May Wong became the firstwidely recognized Asian-American film star. In1951, she also became the first Asian-Americanto have her own television series, “The Galleryof Madame Liu Tsong.”Anna May Wong38Stories With Audiohttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Short_Stories_Audio.html
  38. 38. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netCalvin ChinAir and SpaceIn 1932, Katherine Sui Fun Cheung becamethe first licensed Asian-American aviator. As aco-member of the woman-only aviation “99-Club” (headed by Amelia Earhart), Cheungparticipated in numerous aerial performancesand races, eventually retiring from aviation afteran accident destroyed her plane.MilitaryIn 1944, Calvin Chin and Anthony LooWong became the first Chinese Americans to becommissioned as second lieutenants (officers),after graduating from the MedicalAdministrative Corps Officer Candidate Schoolat Camp Barkeley, Texas.SportsIn 1948, Richard Tom became the firstAsian-American to win an Olympic medal. Hereceived the Bronze Medal for weightlifting.Anthony Loo Wong39FlashCards listhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/All_FlashCards_List.html
  39. 39. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMAYMuch like Black History Month andWomen’s History Month, Asian PacificAmerican Heritage Month originatedwith a congressional bill. TwoRepresentatives introduced the bill to theHouse of Representatives and twosenators introduced the bill to the Senate.Both of them passed, and U.S. PresidentJimmy Carter officially recognizedAsian/Pacific Heritage Week on October5, 1978. Several years later, in May 1990,President George H. W. Bush expanded itto a month, and designated it as AsianPacific Heritage Month. The month ofMay was chosen in honor of the arrivalof the first Japanese immigrants to theUnited States on May 7, 1843 and alsothe completion of the transcontinentalrailroad on May 10, 1869.May is celebrated with communityevents that involve historical,educational, and cultural activities, andthe recognition of famous AsianAmericans in such fields as architecture,entertainment, athletics, education, art,and science. One historical period oftendiscussed in school curricula in May isthe building of the first railroad thatspanned the American continent. Thisrailroad, largely built by Chineseimmigrants, is considered one of thecrowning achievements of PresidentAbraham Lincoln, even though it wascompleted four years after his death. Tobuild the railroad, the Union PacificRailroad began in Nebraska, and workedwestward through Colorado andWyoming to Utah. At the same time, theCentral Pacific Railroad began inCalifornia, and moved eastward throughNevada to Utah, carving out places forrailroad tracks in high mountain peaks.The two railroad companies met in thetown of Promontary, Utah, where theydrove in the final “golden spike” thatbrought together the east and west coastsof the American continent. This featrevolutionized the economy andpopulation of the U.S. It caused thewagon trains to be obsolete, andaffected commerce, trade, and travelacross the continent.Glossarycongressional: adj. of an elected group ofrepresentativesbill: n. a proposed law in governmentdesignate(d): v. to officially choose for aparticular reason or purposetranscontinental: adj. extending across acontinentspan(ned): v. to cross the length betweentwo pointslargely: adv. mostly; almost completelycrown(ing): adj. greatestdrive: v. to provide the power to makesomething happen; to pound inspike: n. a narrow thin shape with a pointon one end, usually metalfeat: n. an action that involves risk ordifficultywagon train: n. a group or line of vehicleswith four wheels, pulled by animalsobsolete: adj. not in use anymore becausesomething more modern has replaced itaffect(ed): v. to cause to change40Free LSL English Grammar E-Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Free_English_Grammar_Book.html
  40. 40. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netLAST MONDAY IN MAYFlowers and wreaths are placed on graves inmemory of loved ones who have died in war.It was 1866, and the united states wasrecovering from the long and bloodycivil war between the north (union) andthe south (confederate). Survivingsoldiers came home, some with missinglimbs, and all with stories to tell. HenryWelles, a drug-store owner in Waterloo,New York, heard the stories and had anidea. He suggested that all the shops intown close for one day to honor thesoldiers who were buried in the Waterloocemetery. On the morning of May 5, thetownspeople placed flowers, wreaths,and crosses on the graves of the northernsoldiers in the cemetery.In the South, women’s organizationswere also honoring the war dead,decorating the graves of southern soldierswho had died in the war. In many townsand cities there was a growing movementto honor the war dead with a special day.So in 1868, General Jonathan Logan,commander of the Grand Army of theRepublic, established May 30 as theofficial day of observance to honor allthose who had given their lives in serviceof their country. The day was calledDecoration Day.In 1868 General Jonathan Logan establishedMay 30 as the official day of observance, notonly as a memorial but also as a day ofreconciliation. Flowers are placed on graves ofthose who have lost their lives in wars.In General Logan’s proclamation ofDecoration Day, he declared:The 30th of May, 1868, is41Free LSL 101 Grammar Worksheetshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Grammar_Workbookpdf.html
  41. 41. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netdesignated for the purpose ofstrewing with flowers, or otherwisedecorating the graves of comradeswho died in defense of their countryand during the late rebellion, andwhose bodies now lie in almost everycity, village and hamlet churchyardin the land. In this observance noform of ceremony is prescribed, butposts and comrades will in their ownway arrange such fitting servicesand testimonials of respect ascircumstances may permit.The day was to be a memorial, andwas intended also to be a day ofreconciliation, as flowers were placed onthe graves of both Union andConfederate soldiers in ArlingtonCemetery.In a typical Decoration Dayceremony in the North, veterans wouldmarch through the town to the cemeteryto decorate their comrades’ graves withflags. They took photographs of soldiersnext to American flags. Rifles were shotin the air as a salute to the northernsoldiers who had given their lives to keepthe United States together. Children readpoems and sang civil war songs andhymns. Veterans came to the schoolswearing their medals and uniforms to tellstudents about the Civil War.In 1882, the name was changed fromDecoration Day to Memorial Day, tohonor soldiers who had died in allprevious wars – not only the Civil War. Inthe northern States, it was designated alegal holiday. The southern stateshonored their war dead on other daysuntil the end of World War I.After World War I, Memorial Daywas also called Poppy Day because ofMoina Michael’s idea to wear redpoppies on the day, in honor of those whohad died in the war. She was inspired byJohn McCrae’s poem, “In FlandersFields,” which speaks of the bright redpoppies that grow among the graves onformer battlefields in Belgium. Her saleof poppies on Memorial Day benefitedmilitary men in need. The traditioneventually spread to other countries,where real or artificial poppies were soldto benefit war orphans. Since 1922, theVFW (Veterans of Foreign Wars)organization in the United States has soldpaper poppies, made by disabledveterans, on Memorial Day.After World War I, Memorial Day was also calledPoppy Day, and bright red poppies were worn inhonor of those who had died in that war.In 1966, President Lyndon Johnsonproclaimed Waterloo, New York thebirthplace of Memorial Day. In 1971,42Free LSL English Grammar Book of Phraseshttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/PDF_1000_Phrase_Book.html
  42. 42. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netPresident Richard Nixon declaredMemorial Day a national holiday, to beobserved on the last Monday in May.Cities all around the United States holdtheir own ceremonies on this day to payrespect to the men and women who havedied in wars or in the service of theircountry.Today, Memorial Day is also a dayfor personal remembrance. Families andindividuals honor the memory of theirloved ones who have died. Churchservices, visits to the cemetery, flowerson graves, or even silent tributes markthe day with dignity and solemnity. It isa day of reflection. Memorial Day oftencoincides with the end of the school year,so to many Americans the day alsosignals the beginning of summer – with athree-day weekend to spend at the beach,in the mountains, or at home relaxing.Arlington NationalCemetery Arlington NationalCemetery in Virginia is the nation’slargest national cemetery. Buried therewith a special place of honor aremembers of the armed forces, as well asastronauts, explorers, and otherdistinguished Americans. President JohnF. Kennedy is buried in a spotoverlooking Washington, D.C., andmarked with an eternal flame.In the early hours of the morning, onthe Friday before Memorial Day, soldiersof the Third U.S. Infantry walk along therows of headstones. Each soldier stops ata headstone, salutes, takes one flag fromthe bundle of flags he or she is carrying,and pushes it into the ground. Thesesoldiers are part of a special regiment, theOld Guard, and they consider it aprivilege to place flags on the more thantwo hundred thousand graves of soldierswho served and died in wars. “They havedone their job,” said one soldier, “andnow it’s my turn to do mine.”It is an equal honor to guard theTomb of the Unknowns. Four unknownsoldiers have been buried in this spot:one soldier from each of the two WorldWars, one from the Korean conflict, andone from the Vietnam War. Each of thesesoldiers represents all of those who gavetheir lives in the modern wars. Onanother hill of Arlington Cemetery, thereis a mass grave of unidentified soldiersfrom the Civil War. On Memorial Day,the President or Vice President of theUnited States gives a speech and lays awreath on the Tomb of the Unknowns.Members of the armed forces give a riflesalute. At other tombs, veterans andfamilies come to lay their own wreathsand say prayers.Glossaryrecover(ing): v. to get well after anillness, disaster, or injurylimb(s): n. arm or leghonor: v. to remember or recognize withrespect and thankscemetery: n. graveyard; place of burialwreath(s): n. ring or circle of leaves orflowers used for decoration orcommemorationdecorate(ing): v. to furnish or cover withsomething ornamental, such as to placeflowers on a graveproclamation: n. an official or publicannouncementdesignate(d): v. to specify; assignstrew(ing): v. to throw around lightlyrebellion: n. revolution or uprisinghamlet: n. small town; village43Free LSL English Grammar Book of Slanghttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Slang_PDF_eBook_LSL.html
  43. 43. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netchurchyard: n. the ground around achurch, often used as a graveyardprescribe(d): v. to give guidance or arule or a directionpost(s): n. military camp or fortfitting: adj. appropriatetestimonial(s): n. formal statement ordeclaration of value or merit; words ofpraisememorial: n. ceremony or monument tohonor the memory of a person who hasdied or an historical eventreconciliation: n. the act of restoringharmony or a resolution of differencesveteran(s): n. member of the armedforces, now retired or dischargedcomrade(s): n. good friend; a colleaguesalute: n. gesture of honor or respectpoppy(-ies): n. a species of flowerknown for its bright red or scarlet flowersorphan(s): n. a child whose parents havedied or have abandoned the childdisable(d): adj. having limited abilitydue to an injury or physical abnormalitypay respect: v. phrase. honortribute: n. statement of praise andrespectdignity: n. self-respect; nobleness ofmannersolemnity: n. seriousnessreflection: n. deep thoughtsignal(s): v. to indicate; to markheadstone(s): n. stone marker for burialplacesprivilege: n. special rightmass: adj. pertaining to large numbers orquantities; not separatedunidentified: adj. having no name oridentity44Free English Test!http://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Testing_English.html
  44. 44. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netMAY AND JUNEThis reading includes a description ofthe two most celebrated family days:Mother’s Day and Father’s Day. ThoughNational Grandparents’ Day andInternational Children’s Day also exist,they are not as widely celebrated in theUnited States as Mother’s Day andFather’s Day.Mother’s DayOn Mother’s Day children of all ages make theday a special one for their mothers.On the second Sunday in May,American children of all ages treat theirmothers to something special. It is theday when children, young and old, try toshow, in a tangible way, how much theyappreciate their mothers, or those whohave served as mother figures in theirlives.England was one of the first countriesto set aside a day to recognize mothers.In the eighteenth century when manypeople worked as household servants forthe rich, “Mothering Sunday” wasreserved for them to return home to bewith their mothers. Though this customchanged when the Industrial Revolutionaltered people’s working and livingpatterns, mothers in England are stillhonored with a special day in March.In the United States, the idea ofMother’s Day was first introduced in1872 by Julia Ward Howe, a famouswriter and social reformer of the time.However, the establishment of an officialday to honor mothers was due largely tothe perseverance and love of onedaughter, Anna Jarvis. Anna’s mother hadprovided strength and sup port as thefamily made their home in West Virginiaand then Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,where Anna’s father served as a minister.As a girl, Anna had helped her mothertake care of her garden, filled mostlywith white carnations, her mother’sfavorite flower. When Mrs. Jarvis died onMay 5, 1905, Anna was determined tohonor her. She asked the minister at herformer church in West Virginia to give asermon in her mother’s memory. On thesame Sunday, their minister inPhiladelphia also honored Mrs. Jarvis,45Free LSL English Grammar Speaking Drill Bookhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/English_Drill_Book_PDF.html
  45. 45. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netand all mothers, with a special Mother’sDay service. Anna Jarvis began writingto members of congress, asking them toset aside a day to honor mothers. In 1910,the governor of West Virginiaproclaimed the second Sunday in May asMother’s Day. A year later, every statewas celebrating it, and in 1914 PresidentWoodrow Wilson declared the firstnational Mother’s Day.Anna Marie Jarvis was successful in her effortsto set aside a day to honor mothers.On Mother’s Day morning, someAmerican children follow the tradition ofserving their mothers breakfast in bed.Other children will give their mothersgifts that they have made themselves orbought in stores. Adults also give theirmothers cards, gifts, and flowers – oftenred carnations, the official Mother’s Dayflower. If their mothers are deceased,they may bring white carnations or otherflowers to their gravesites. Mother’s Dayis the busiest day of the year forAmerican restaurants. On her special day,family members do not want Mom tohave to cook dinner!Fathers DayA new dad comforts his baby.The United States is one of the fewcountries in the world that has an officialday on which fathers are honored by theirchildren. On the third Sunday in June,fathers, and all men who act as fatherfigures, all across the United States aregiven presents, treated to dinner, orotherwise made to feel special.The origin of Father’s Day is notclear. Some say that it began with achurch service in West Virginia in 1908.Others say the first Father’s Day washeld in Vancouver, Washington. Another46Skype Online Englishhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/Skype_Online_English.html
  46. 46. www.larisaschooloflanguage.netstory claims that the president of theChicago Lions’ Club, Harry Meek,celebrated the first Father’s Day with hisorganization in 1915, choosing the thirdSunday in June, the date closest to hisbirthday!Regardless of when the first Father’sDay occurred, the strongest promoter ofthe holiday was Sonora Smart Dodd ofSpokane, Washington. She thought of theidea of a Father’s Day while she waslistening to a Mother’s Day sermon. Mrs.Dodd felt that she had an outstandingfather. He was a veteran of the CivilWar. His wife had died young, and he hadraised six children alone, without theirmother. When Mrs. Dodd became anadult she recognized with greatappreciation the sacrifices her fatherhad made, and the remarkable job he haddone as a single parent.In 1909, Mrs. Dodd approached herminister and others in Spokane abouthaving a church service dedicated tofathers on June 5, her father’s birthday.That date was too soon for her ministerto prepare the service, so he presented ita few weeks later on June 19th. Fromthen on, the state of Washingtoncelebrated the third Sunday in June asFather’s Day. Children made specialdesserts, or visited their fathers if theylived apart.States and organizations beganlobbying Congress to declare an annualFather’s Day. In 1916, PresidentWoodrow Wilson approved of this idea,but it was not until 1924 that PresidentCalvin Coolidge made it a national event.He declared that the official recognitionof Father’s Day was to “establish moreintimate relations between fathers andtheir children and to impress uponfathers the full measure of theirobligations.” Since then, fathers havebeen honored and recognized by theirfamilies throughout the country on thethird Sunday in June. In 1966, PresidentLyndon Johnson signed a presidentialproclamation making Father’s Day anational commemorative day.This Father’s Day gift tie is accompanied by alovingly-written note.When children can’t visit theirfathers, they usu ally contact them bytelephone or email, or they may send agreeting card. The cards might betraditional and sentimental, orwhimsical so fathers laugh when theyopen them. Father’s Day gifts may bestore bought or hand-made, andtraditional gifts might include a tie, shirt,sports item, or a child’s own drawing.Some children give their fathers heartfeltthanks for always being there when theyneeded “Dad.”47IELTS Test Preparationhttp://www.larisaschooloflanguage.net/IELTS_Test_Preparation_Plus.html

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