Pre-War IssuesBefore the Civil War, America was in a bit of turmoil. The lives ofslaves were becoming harder, so they were running away. Thestates were divided because of their different climates andgeography, making different lifestyles and arguments. This waseventually called the Sectional Division. The Kansas-Nebraska Act(decided which state would be a slave state and which one wouldbe a free state), the Dred Scott decision, and the Raid at Harper’sFerry (when John Brown and his men attacked a U.S. FederalArsenal) was leading America into the Civil War.
Causes of the Civil War• The Civil War is a bit controversial about why it was started, and it was not started to free the slaves.• Common reasons for the Civil War are: – The inauguration of president Lincoln – The secession of the states, the first being South Carolina – States individual issues and rights
The Start of the War• On November 6, 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States -- an event that outraged southern states. The Republican party had run on an anti-slavery platform, and many southerners felt that there was no longer a place for them in the Union. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded. By February 1, 1861, six more states -- Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas -- had split from the Union. The seceded states created the Confederate States of America and elected Jefferson Davis, a Mississippi Senator, as their provisional president.• In his inaugural address, delivered on March 4, 1861, Lincoln proclaimed that it was his duty to maintain the Union. He also declared that he had no intention of ending slavery where it existed, or of repealing the Fugitive Slave Law -- a position that horrified African Americans and their white allies. Lincolns statement, however, did not satisfy the Confederacy, and on April 12 they attacked Fort Sumter, a federal stronghold in Charleston, South Carolina. Federal troops returned the fire. The Civil War had begun.• Immediately following the attack, four more states -- Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee -- severed their ties with the Union. To retain the loyalty of the remaining border states -- Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri -- President Lincoln insisted that the war was not about slavery or black rights; it was a war to preserve the Union. His words were not simply aimed at the loyal southern states, however -- most white northerners were not interested in fighting to free slaves or in giving rights to black people. For this reason, the government turned away African American volunteers who rushed to enlist. Lincoln upheld the laws barring blacks from the army, proving to northern whites that their race privilege would not be threatened.
The North vs. The South• After the North was attacked and the southern states declared themselves as their own country, the northern states cut the South from any trade with the U.S.• The North began to forbid the South for looking for their slaves• Soon there were two separate countries
Advantages and Disadvantages for the Northern StatesAdvantage Disadvantage• With slaves running to the • Northern soldiers had to northern side, the north conquer a huge area to increased at an almost bring the South back into exponential rate. the Union• Had many people to grow • They were invading food and to work in unfamiliar land factories making supplies• Had more than 70% of the nations rail lines• Had a strong navy and a large fleet of private trading ships
Advantages and Disadvantages for the Southern StatesAdvantage Disadvantage• Defending their • Had few factories to homeland gave them a produce weapons, railroad strong reason to fight tracts, and other supplies• Had skills that made • Had few railroads to move them good soldiers troops and vital supplies• Many of the best officers • The South had a small in the United States were population, about 9 from the South million lived in the Confederacy and 22 million in the Union • More than 1/3rd of the population was enslaved; therefore they had fewer people that could be soldiers
Battle of Appomattox Court House• Started April 9th, 1865, and would be the last battle. General Robert E. Lee, the general for the Army of Northern Virginia, turned to attack General Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army of the Potomac. At this point, the Confederacy is basically crumbling. General Lee began to retreat across Virginia, with his army disintegrating. He attempted one more attack at the Appomattox Court House and ended up surrendering .
After War• After the Civil War, the South’s labor force was lowered drastically due to the amount of deaths.• Many new inventions were created after the Civil War, including the cultivator and railroads.• Money was now one currency, instead of one for each state.• Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on April 15, 1865 in the Petersen House.
Importance of the Civil War• The Civil War is important in U.S. history because it ended with the creation of the 13th and 14th amendments and is the reason why America’s still united. It is especially important now when referring to today’s political issues and some states wanting to secede once again.
Works Cited• http://civilwarcauses.org/• http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil- war/warweb.html#crisis• http://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/app omattoxbattle.html• http://www.pacivilwar150.com/AboutUs/End orsedProjects