(Teaching Methods and
Content- Based Instruction:
Methods and Strategies
- In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical
rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between
the source language and their native language. Advanced students
may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word.
- this method focuses on reading and writing and has developed
techniques which facilitate more or less the learning of reading
and writing only. As a result, speaking and listening are
Direct Method (Natural Method)
- established in Germany and France around 1900.
- used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners’ native
language and uses only the target language. Teaching focuses on the
development of oral skills.
Characteristic Features of Direct Method
• teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming,
real-life objects and other visual materials.
• teaching grammar by using inductive approach (i.e. having
learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate
linguistic forms in the target language).
• centrality of spoken language (including a native-like
• focus on question-answer patterns.
Audio – Lingual Method (Army Method or New Key Method)
- Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students
be taught a language directly, without using the students' native
language to explain new words or grammar in the target language.
- However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didn’t
focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the
use of grammar.
- In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction—
everything is simply memorized in form.
Types of Learning and Teaching activities (Stroller)
• Language skill improvement
• Vocabulary Building
• Discourse Organization
• Communicative interaction
• Study skills
• Synthesis of Content materials
Metacognitive Strategies: planning for learning, monitoring one’s
comprehension and production, evaluating how well learning objectives
have been achieved.
Cognitive Strategies: interaction with material by physical (grouping,
taking notes, making summaries…) and mental (making mental images,
relating new information to previous concepts and skills) manipulation .
Social-Affective Strategies: interaction with others to assist learning.
CBI: Cognitive Approach
According to current development in cognitive psychology,
information is stored in memory in two forms:
declarative knowledge – what we know about a given topic,
procedural knowledge – knowing how to do.
In the content-based instruction, the content component
represents declarative knowledge, while the language component
aims at teaching the procedural knowledge students need to use
language as a tool for learning. In addition to this a third
component comes at play to train learners’ autonomy through
teaching learning strategies.