The roles of stakeholders in curriculum implementation
The roles of stakeholders incurriculum implementation
Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. Their interests vary in degree and complexity. They get involved in many ways in the implementation, because the curriculum affects them directly or indirectly. These stakeholders shape the school curriculum implementation.
Learners at the Center of the curriculumFor a particular curriculum design mentioned earlier, the learner is placed at the center. The learners are the very reason a curriculum is developed. They are the ones who are directly influenced by it. Learners in all levels make or unmake the curriculum by their active and direct involvement. How each individual learner contributes to the realization of a planned curriculum would depend on the interactions and internalization of the different learning experiences provided. After all, in curriculum implementation, the concluding question will always be: has the learner learned?
Teachers as curriculum developers and implementersIn the teaching and learning process, the other side of the coin is the teacher. Most curricula start to gain life from the time it is conceived and written. Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the teacher. A teacher is a curriculum maker. He/ she writes a curriculum daily through a lesson plan, a unit plan or a yearly plan. The teacher designs, enriches, and modifies the curriculum to suit the learner’s characteristics. Teachers are empowered to develop their own curricula taking into consideration their own expertise, the context of the school and the abilities of the learners. By so doing, teachers become architects of school curriculum.
Curriculum managers and administratorsIn school organization, there is always a curriculum manager or school administrator. In fact, for school principals, one of their functions is being a curriculum manager. They supervise curriculum implementation, select and recruit new teachers, admit students, procure equipment and materials needed for effective learning. They also plan for the improvement of school facilities and physical plants.The role of the administrators can never be ignored. The principle of command responsibility and institutional leadership rests on the shoulders of the school administrators. The final decision making in terms of the school’s purpose rests on the shoulders of school administrators. In the academic institution, school administrators have a great stake or concern about what kind of curriculum their schools offer and how these are implemented.
Parents as supporters to the curriculum“my child and my money go to this school”. Reads a car sticker. What is the implication of this statement to the school curriculum? It simply means that the parents are the best supporters of the school, especially because they are the ones paying for the child’s education. Parent’s voices are very loud and clear. In our country, it is a general fact that even in college the parents are responsible for their child’s education. The power of parent’s to influence curricula to include instructional materials and school activities is great, such that success of curricula would somehow depend on their support.How do parents shape the curriculum and why are they considered as stakeholders?
• Here are some observations:i. Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be linked to parent educational programs which is central to high quality educational experiences of the children.ii. The parent’s involvement extends from the confine of the school to the homes.iii.In most schools the Parents Association is organized
Community Members as curriculum resources • The success in the implementation of the curriculum requires resources. However, most often teachers complain that resources are very scarce. There are no books, materials nor facilities available. These are usual complaints of teachers. The community members and materials in the existing local community can very well substitute for what are needed to implement the curriculum. Respected community members may be included in school boards as in some schools.
Other stakeholders in curriculum implementationThere are other important stakeholders in curriculum implementation. Professional organizations have shown great influence in school curriculum. They are being asked by curriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review because they have a voice in licensure examinations, curriculum enhancement and many more. Often, professional organizations are those of each profession, like teachers’ organization, lawyers’ organizations, medical doctors’ association, engineers’ organizations and many others.
• On the other hand, since all schools in the country, are under the regulation of the national government as provided for in the Phil. Constitution, then the government has a great stake in curriculum implementation. The government is represented by the DepEd for basic education curricula and the CHED for the tertiary and graduate education curricula. These two government agencies have mandatory and regulatory powers over the implementation of any curricula. The third government agency that has high stake in the schools’ curricula is the professional regulation commission (PRC).
The role of technology in delivering the curriculumThe role of technology finds its place at the onset of curriculum implementation, namely at the stage of instructional planning. In a teaching-learning situation, there is the critical need to provide the learners information that forms a coherent whole. Otherwise, learning may end up haphazard and in the end ineffective. A systematic approach to instructional planning is, therefore, necessary. And in instructional planning, each lesson should have an idea of general specific goals, instructional objectives, content, activities, media, materials, assess ment and evaluation on how objectives have been achieved.In the choice of instructional media, technology comes into play.
Figure 4- A systematic planning process Identifyinstructional goals Plan Identify and Choose an instructional assess instruction activities instructional al media media maintains technology Revise instruction Assess Implement Analyze learners instruction instruction
Instructional media may also be referred to as media technology or learning in technology, or simply technology. Technology plays a crucial role in delivering instruction to learners.Technology offers various tools of learning and these range from non-projected and projected media from which the teacher can choose, depending on what he sees fit with the intended instructional setting.
• Factors for technology selection1.Practicality2.Appropriateness in relation to the learners3.Activity/suitability4.Objective-matching
The role of technology in curriculum delivery• It can easily observed that technological innovation in the multifarious fields of commerce, science and education, is fast developing such that it is difficult to foresee the technological revolution in the millennium ,inclusive of educational changes.
Presently we can identify three current trends that could carry on the nature of education in the future. The first trend is the paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered approach to learning. The second is the broadening realization that education is not simply a delivery of facts and information, nut an educative process of cultivating cognitive , affective, psychomotor and much more the contemplative intelligence of the learners of a new age.nut the third and possibly the more explosive trend is the increase in the use of new information and communication technology or ICT.
For now, the primary roles of educational technology in delivering the school curriculum’s instructional program have been identified:• Upgrading the quality of teaching-and-learning in schools.• Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning, and for students to gain mastery of lessons and courses.• Broadening the delivery of education outside school through non-n traditional approaches to formal and informal learning, such as Open Universities and lifelong learning to adult courses• Revolutionizing the use of technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that give importance to student-centered and holistic learning.
Pilot testing, monitoring and evaluating the implementation of curriculumPilot testing or field try-outWhenever a curriculum is written as in books, course manuals, modules or the whole curricular program, there is a need to have a try-out or field testing. This process will gather empirical data to support whether the material or curriculum is useful, relevant, reliable and valid.
Most of the field testing or try-out follows some form of researched designs. Usually it follows an experimental method, however an initial process can be done without any comparison group. In this case only one group of students will be used as a try out for the curriculum.Using the principles of curriculum writing and backed up by the content specialization of the writers and the consultants, the modules were written. The printed modules were reviewed by the consultants and peers, however, there was a need to try out or pilot test the activities and the field practicals by the users who are the students themselves.
The try-out or pilot testing assures the teachers and the schools that indeed the curriculum materials are ready for use.Modification and revisions are inherent characteristics of a curriculum. The pilot test or try-out is a developmental process that gives the signal as to whether the particular curriculum can already be implemented with confidence.
• However, as the curriculum is beingimplemented, there is a need to continuouslymonitor the process. Curriculum monitoring Curriculum evaluation1. School-based evaluation is an approach to curriculum evaluation which places the content, design, operation, and maintenance of evaluation procedure in the hands of the school personnel.
• Some of the disadvantages of the school based-evaluation include the following:i. Accountability is shared by all; hence bias and conflict are minimized.ii. School personnel develop evaluation skills.iii.The real concerns of the school and community are addressed by the evaluationiv.Broad participation of school personnel provide opportunities for building school cohesiveness.v. Provides reliable and valid information on curriculum, resources , and general school functioning.
1.Accreditation- this is a voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an external accrediting body for review in any level of education: tertiary or graduate school to assure standard. Accreditation studies the statement of the educational intentions of the school and affirms a standard of excellence. • What are the areas for accreditation under Curriculum and instruction?
1. Curriculum and program of studies • Program of studies includes the clusters of knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences that will provide the students at any level with necessary competencies for effective learning. A List of subjects or courses to be taken and arranged in a logical order compose the program of studies.1. Classroom management • The teacher who implements the curriculum sees to it that management of teaching and learning in the classroom follows procedure and guidelines to enhance and create an environment conducive to learning considers the physical factors such as classroom physical arrangements, ventilation, lighting, cleanliness while the human factors include the teachers’ attitude, students’ responses, teacher- students relationships, student-student relationships and interactions.
1. Instructional processes or methodologies How to translate action into the written and planned curriculum is a concern of instruction. The decision of choosing and using the method of teaching is a crucial factor in curriculum and instruction. There are varied teaching methodologies that are compatible with the different learning styles of the students. These emerging strategies of teaching follow principles and theories that enhance learning outcomes. As teachers, there is a need to know not only the steps or strategies of teaching but understand the pedagogical content knowledge of each strategy.
1. Graduation requirements Graduation means successful accomplishment of the curricular program of studies. A student has to accomplish its academic program as prescribed in the program of studies mentioned earlier. Aside from the academic subjects required, some curricula provide activities that are necessary and should be accomplished as a graduation requirement. Some call these comprehensive examinations, or exit examinations.
1. Administrative support for effective instruction • The required physical facilities like good classrooms, libraries, playground, laboratory, study areas are the primary responsibilities of the school administrators. A school administrator which can provide high and quality support to instruction assures effective curricular outcomes.1. Evaluation of academic performance of students • The evaluation of students’ performance should make use of valid and reliable tools which are periodically reviewed and revised. Students should receive information about their school performance promptly and regularly. Likewise recognition like scholarships, certificates and merits should be given. • Success of the school curriculum is shown in the results of the evaluation of the students’ performance.