Learning and Thinking Styles• refer to the preferred way an individualprocesses informationI. Sensory Preferences- individualstend to gravitate toward one or two types ofsensory inputs and maintain a dominance inone of the following types:
Visual Learners may think in pictures and learn bestfrom visual aids like diagrams, illustratedtextbooks, overhead transparencies,videos, flip charts and hand-outsa. Visual Iconic- prefer visual imagerylike film, graphic display or picturesb. Visual Symbolic- prefer abstractsymbolisms like written words ormathematical formula
2. Auditory Learners learn best through verbal lectures,discussions, talking things through andlistening to what others have to saya. Listeners- remember things said tothem and make the information their ownb. Talkers- prefer to talk and discuss3. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners prefer“learning by doing”, benefit much fromhands-on approach, actively exploring thephysical world around them
II. Global-Analytic Continuum1. Analytic Learners- tend toward thelinear, step-by-step processes of learningand see finite elements of patterns ratherthan the whole2. Global Learners- lean towards non-linear and tend to see the whole patternrather than particle elements
Exceptionalities These refer to learners who aredifferent in some way from the normal oraverage. Most of these learners require alot of understanding and patience as wellas special education and related services ifthey are to reach their full potential anddevelopment.
1. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities2. Learning Disabilities3. Intellectual Differences (Gifted and Talented)4. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders5. Visual Impairment6. Hearing Impairment7. Oral Communication Problems8. Orthopedic Impairments
Other Factors1. Gender2. Racial, ethnic or cultural background3. Socioeconomic status
Applications in Teaching and Learning Process1. Encourage learners to share their personal history and experiences.2. Integrate learning experiences and activities which promote students’ multicultural and cross-cultural awareness.3. Aside from highlighting diversity, identify patterns of unity than transcend group differences.4. Communicate high expectations to students from all sub-groups.5. Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity in learning styles and multiple intelligences.
• Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to provide multiple contexts that are relevant to students from diverse backgrounds.• Adapt to the students’ diverse backgrounds and learning styles by allowing them personal choice and decision-making opportunities concerning what they learn and how will they learn from it.• Diversify your methods of assessing and evaluating student learning• 9. Purposely, form small-discussion groups of students from diverse backgrounds: different learning styles, multiple intelligences, different cultural background, etc