English as an indo european language

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English as an indo european language

  1. 1. English asEnglish as anan Indo-Indo-EuropeanEuropean languagelanguage By D. LaraBy D. Lara
  2. 2. ►Language familyLanguage family is a group ofis a group of languages that are related to each otherlanguages that are related to each other genetically and share a common ancestry.genetically and share a common ancestry. the same
  3. 3. • English belongs to the Indo-EuropeanEnglish belongs to the Indo-European Language family (IE), which comes from Proto-Language family (IE), which comes from Proto- Indo-European (PIE)Indo-European (PIE)
  4. 4. What does “Indo-European” means?What does “Indo-European” means? It refers to a family of languages which were spoken over a large part of Europe and parts of southwestern and southern Asia. It is a linguistics term, originally geographic, referring to the location of India and Europe. It is realtively small, containing about 140 languages It has 11 subgroups being Germanic the one which English belongs to
  5. 5. Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages AnatolianAnatolian ►Completely extinctCompletely extinct ►It is now called HittiteIt is now called Hittite Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian ►It contains two subdivisions namelyIt contains two subdivisions namely IndicIndic andand IranianIranian IndicIndic ►It has three periods called Old Indic (1500-600 BCE),It has three periods called Old Indic (1500-600 BCE), Middle Indic (600 BCE- 1000 CE) and Modern IndicMiddle Indic (600 BCE- 1000 CE) and Modern Indic (since 1000 CE)(since 1000 CE) ►The most ancient language of this group is VedicThe most ancient language of this group is Vedic IranianIranian ►It has two representatives called Old Avestan (GathicIt has two representatives called Old Avestan (Gathic Avestan) dating from about 600 BCE and Old PersianAvestan) dating from about 600 BCE and Old Persian dated to as early as 500 BCE.dated to as early as 500 BCE. GreekGreek (Hellenic(Hellenic )) ►It contains some of the oldest documents of Indo-It contains some of the oldest documents of Indo- European languageEuropean language ►Its main dialect is Attic, the literary language of Athens.Its main dialect is Attic, the literary language of Athens.
  6. 6. Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages ItalicItalic ►There are two main Italic subdivisions,There are two main Italic subdivisions, Latin-FaliscanLatin-Faliscan andand Osco-Osco- Umbrian.Umbrian. Latin-Latin- FaliscanFaliscan ►It survivor of the Modern Romance languages.It survivor of the Modern Romance languages. ►It was developed from varieties of the Roman Empire.It was developed from varieties of the Roman Empire. Osco-Osco- UmbrianUmbrian ►It does not have mmodern descendants.It does not have mmodern descendants. ►It comprises Oscan, Umbrian, South Picene and someIt comprises Oscan, Umbrian, South Picene and some fragmentary languages.fragmentary languages. GermaniGermani cc ►Here is English languageHere is English language ►It is divided into three geographic subdivisions, EastIt is divided into three geographic subdivisions, East Germanic, North Germanic and West Germanic the mostGermanic, North Germanic and West Germanic the most expansive and internally diverse.expansive and internally diverse. CelticCeltic ►It is geographically divided into two groups, theIt is geographically divided into two groups, the Continental (now extinct) and the Insular.Continental (now extinct) and the Insular. ►Some classificatons put Italic with Celtic languageSome classificatons put Italic with Celtic language which is known as “Italo-Celtic”.which is known as “Italo-Celtic”.
  7. 7. Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages TocharianTocharian ►It was discovered in archeologicalIt was discovered in archeological excavationsaround the twentieth century in Chineseexcavationsaround the twentieth century in Chinese Turkestan.Turkestan. ►The documents of the languages are relatively late,The documents of the languages are relatively late, from the period of about 500-700 CE.from the period of about 500-700 CE. BalticBaltic ►It survives into two modern languages LithuanianIt survives into two modern languages Lithuanian and Latvian (Lettish), and together they create theand Latvian (Lettish), and together they create the East Baltic subdivision.East Baltic subdivision. ►Many of its languages have become extinct.Many of its languages have become extinct. SlavicSlavic ►It has three geographicall subdivisions:It has three geographicall subdivisions: South slavicSouth slavic (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian,(Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian and Old church slavic)Croatian, Slovenian and Old church slavic) West SlavicWest Slavic (Czech, Slovak, Polish, Kashubian)(Czech, Slovak, Polish, Kashubian) East SlavicEast Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian and Belarussian)(Russian, Ukrainian and Belarussian)
  8. 8. Indo-European languagesIndo-European languages ArmenianArmenian ►It was the first attested in religious documents andIt was the first attested in religious documents and translations from the fifth centurytranslations from the fifth century ►It was influenced by some languages like Greek,It was influenced by some languages like Greek, Arabic, Syriac and Persian.Arabic, Syriac and Persian. AlbanianAlbanian ►It was influenced by Greek, Slavic, Turkish andIt was influenced by Greek, Slavic, Turkish and Latin.Latin. ►It has two principal dialects which are Gheg andIt has two principal dialects which are Gheg and Tosk.Tosk.
  9. 9. There is another type of languages which are:There is another type of languages which are: Fragmentary Languages defined as Those languages which are just fragments or inscriptions of the language Fragmentary IE languages Ligurian Messapic Sicel and SicanianVenetic Thracian Phrygian Illyrian
  10. 10. There is another type of languages which are:There is another type of languages which are: Fragmentary Languages defined as Those languages which are just fragments or inscriptions of the language Fragmentary IE languages Ligurian Messapic Sicel and SicanianVenetic Thracian Phrygian Illyrian
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