English as an indo european languagePresentation Transcript
English as an Indo- European language By D. Lara
Language family is a group of languages that are related to each other genetically and share a common ancestry.
English belongs to the Indo-European Language family (IE), which comes from Proto-Indo-European (PIE)
What does “Indo-European” means? It refers to a family of languages which were spoken over a large part of Europe and parts of southwestern and southern Asia. It is a linguistics term, originally geographic, referring to the location of India and Europe. It is realtively small, containing about 140 languages It has 11 subgroups being Germanic the one which English belongs to
It contains some of the oldest documents of Indo-European language
Its main dialect is Attic, the literary language of Athens.
It has two representatives called Old Avestan (Gathic Avestan) dating from about 600 BCE and Old Persian dated to as early as 500 BCE.
It has three periods called Old Indic (1500-600 BCE), Middle Indic (600 BCE- 1000 CE) and Modern Indic (since 1000 CE)
The most ancient language of this group is Vedic
It contains two subdivisions namely Indic and Iranian
It is now called Hittite
Anatolian Indo-European languages
It is geographically divided into two groups, the Continental (now extinct) and the Insular.
Some classificatons put Italic with Celtic language which is known as “Italo-Celtic”.
Here is English language
It is divided into three geographic subdivisions, East Germanic, North Germanic and West Germanic the most expansive and internally diverse.
It does not have mmodern descendants.
It comprises Oscan, Umbrian, South Picene and some fragmentary languages.
It survivor of the Modern Romance languages.
It was developed from varieties of the Roman Empire.
There are two main Italic subdivisions, Latin-Faliscan and Osco-Umbrian.
It was discovered in archeological excavationsaround the twentieth century in Chinese Turkestan.
The documents of the languages are relatively late, from the period of about 500-700 CE.
It has three geographicall subdivisions:
South slavic (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian and Old church slavic)
West Slavic (Czech, Slovak, Polish, Kashubian)
East Slavic (Russian, Ukrainian and Belarussian)
It survives into two modern languages Lithuanian and Latvian (Lettish), and together they create the East Baltic subdivision.
Many of its languages have become extinct.
Baltic Tocharian Indo-European languages
It was influenced by Greek, Slavic, Turkish and Latin.
It has two principal dialects which are Gheg and Tosk.
It was the first attested in religious documents and translations from the fifth century
It was influenced by some languages like Greek, Arabic, Syriac and Persian.
Armenian Indo-European languages
There is another type of languages which are: Fragmentary Languages defined as Those languages which are just fragments or inscriptions of the language Fragmentary IE languages Ligurian Messapic Sicel and Sicanian Venetic Thracian Phrygian Illyrian