Stuttering  and  Bilingualism Presentation by Kristie Altenbach  and Ma. Larisa Atienza
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>What is Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers (US) </li></ul...
Stuttering and Bilingualism What is Bilingualism?
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>There is no one definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual children = Children who spe...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>Some reasons a parent would want their children to know two or more languages </li></u...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>Some reasons a parent would want their children to know two or more languages </li></u...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>The 2008 population estimate for the United States is  304,059,724 .  (http ://factfin...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>The West had the greatest number and proportion of  non-English-language speakers </li...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>California had the largest percentage of  non-English  language speakers (39 percent) ...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>It is not known how many people are bilingual stutterers.  </li></ul>Bilingualism and ...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect  fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect  fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism...
Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect  fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering Is it stuttering or normal/increased disfluency due to li...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><li>Is it stuttering or normal/increased disfluency d...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals th...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Does stuttering occur in one language or both...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Does stuttering occur in one language or both...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will talking to a child in two languages at home make him or her more ...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will talking to a child in two languages at home make him or her more ...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has been receiving two languages at home since birth, and now...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has been receiving two languages at home since birth, and now...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will introducing my child to extra languages between the ages of three...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will introducing my child to extra languages between the ages of three...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has recently been learning another language and has started t...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has recently been learning another language and has started t...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following a...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following a...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following a...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child
Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child A.  Speak to your child slowly, using pauses. Wait seve...
Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child D.  Give your child your full attention for at least a ...
Stuttering and Bilingualism References
Stuttering and Bilingualism References Guitar, B. (1998). Stuttering : An integrated approach to its nature and treatment ...
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Bilingualism

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Bilingualism

  1. 1. Stuttering and Bilingualism Presentation by Kristie Altenbach and Ma. Larisa Atienza
  2. 2. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>What is Bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers (US) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingualism and Risk of Stuttering </li></ul><ul><li>Information for Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Information for SLP </li></ul><ul><li>7 Tips for Talking With Your Child </li></ul>Presentation Outline
  3. 3. Stuttering and Bilingualism What is Bilingualism?
  4. 4. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>There is no one definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual children = Children who speak or have been spoken to in two or more languages at home since birth, and who are spoken to in one or both of those languages at school or daycare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-language learner children = Children who speak or have been spoken to in one language since birth at home and are later taught a second language after the age of three. </li></ul></ul>What is Bilingualism?
  5. 5. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>Some reasons a parent would want their children to know two or more languages </li></ul>What is Bilingualism?
  6. 6. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>Some reasons a parent would want their children to know two or more languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To carry on the family's culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To better understand the family's roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To have the child benefit in future jobs if bilingualism is an asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to communicate with family members, etc. (For instance, if family members speak only Spanish but not English)‏ </li></ul></ul>What is Bilingualism?
  7. 7. Stuttering and Bilingualism Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
  8. 8. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>The 2008 population estimate for the United States is 304,059,724 . (http ://factfinder.census.gov ) </li></ul><ul><li>The United States Census 2000 says that one in seven Americans speak a language other than English. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish/ Spanish creole is the most common language spoken at home other than English. </li></ul>Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
  9. 9. Stuttering and Bilingualism Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
  10. 10. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>The West had the greatest number and proportion of non-English-language speakers </li></ul>Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
  11. 11. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>California had the largest percentage of non-English language speakers (39 percent) </li></ul>Prevalence of Bilingual Speakers
  12. 12. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering
  13. 13. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>It is not known how many people are bilingual stutterers. </li></ul>Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering
  14. 14. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering
  15. 15. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering For young children who are bilingual or second-language learners, stuttering can be seen when: a. The child is combining vocabulary (also called &quot;code mixing&quot;) from two languages into a single sentence. This is a normal process that helps the child gain skills in the weaker language, but may increase disfluency temporarily. b.  The child is having a hard time finding the right word to express his/her ideas, which can result in an increase in normal speech disfluency.
  16. 16. Stuttering and Bilingualism <ul><li>How does bilingualism/second-language learning affect fluency? </li></ul>Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering c. The child is having a hard time utilizing grammatically complex sentences in one or both languages when compared to peers. In addition, the child may make grammatical mistakes. Developing proficiency in both languages may take time, so development between the two languages may be unbalanced. d.  Teaching a second or third language to a child between the ages of three to five years of age may cause stuttering to increase.  However, this might happen only when: i. The child’s grasp of the primary language is weak and/ or the child is experiencing hardship in his or her primary language ii. One language is used more often than the other language iii. The child does not cooperate in speaking the other language
  17. 17. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering Is it stuttering or normal/increased disfluency due to limited proficiency?
  18. 18. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><li>Is it stuttering or normal/increased disfluency due to limited proficiency? </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Normal Disfluency in the Average Non-Stuttering Child </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more than 10 disfluencies per 100 words </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically one-unit repetitions, occasionally two </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most common disfluency types are Interjections, Revisions, Word repetitions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As children mature past age 3, they will show a decline in part-word repetitions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A normally disfluent child has no secondary behaviors, has not developed escape or avoidance behaviors, and rarely notices his disfluencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the client feel ashamed? Does she anticipate them? Are they consistently in the same words or same sounds? Is there a history of stuttering in the family? (Stuttering: An Integrated Approach To Its Nature and Treatment, Barry Guitar) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were some studies that believe so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travis' Research Study – 1937 Stern's Research Study – 1948 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karniol's Research Study – 1992 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were some studies that believed so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travis' Research Study – 1937 Stern's Research Study – 1948 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karniol's Research Study – 1992 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Karniol suggested that stuttering was a function of syntactic overload and referred to neuroscience model of stuttering proposed by Nudelman, Herbrich, Hoyt and Rosenfeld (Van Borsel, 2000)‏ Speech motor control Outer loop (ideation and linguistic programming)‏ Inner phonatary loop (motor programming of the vocal patterns)‏
  22. 22. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul> Another study: Lebrun and Paradis Research Study – 1984 The input of linguistically mixed utterances might trigger the development of stuttering in bilingual children with predisposition of stuttering. Speech production is impeded in stuttering children because they find it difficult to select only one of two equivalent linguistic items crossing their mind. The difficulty is increased when two languages are used. (Van Borsel, 2000.)‏
  23. 23. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul>“ One cannot attribute differences in prevalence of stuttering between monolinguals and bilinguals solely to bilingualism.” Travis noted this in his own study. (Van Borsel et. al.,2000.)
  24. 24. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ One cannot attribute differences in prevalence of stuttering between monolinguals and bilinguals solely to bilingualism.” Travis noted this in his own study. (Van Borsel et. al.,2000.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Other factors that might have played a role: economic insecurity and instability found in many foreign homes, and confusion resulting from being placed in a strange and new environment during the process of second language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 97.20% bilinguals who did not stutter in his study. </li></ul><ul><li>Mussafia (1967) believed that being placed novel situation may also be a factor. Less talented kids had a higher risk of anxiety and demonstrate speech/language problems. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Is stuttering more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues in prevalence that needs further investigation: </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of stuttering higher in individuals speaking two linguistically related languages than those who speak two different languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Relation between the prevalence of stuttering and the age at which the second language is acquired. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Does stuttering occur in one language or both languages? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Stuttering and Bilingualism Bilingualism and Risks of Stuttering <ul><ul><li>Does stuttering occur in one language or both languages? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Theories: </li></ul><ul><li>Only in one language </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it did occur, Nwokah (1988) believed that the person may be far dominant in one language than the other. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In both languages: the same-hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More common for bilinguals to stutter in both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies: Nwokah (1988), Van Riper (1971), Lebrun et. al. (1990) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In both languages: the difference-hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show different patterns in one language than the other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nwokah (1998), Jayaram (1983), Shenkel (1998)‏ </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents
  29. 29. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will talking to a child in two languages at home make him or her more likely to begin stuttering?
  30. 30. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will talking to a child in two languages at home make him or her more likely to begin stuttering? There is no evidence that claims that speaking two languages in the home since birth causes stuttering.  This may actually be the ideal time and the best way to teach a child a second language.
  31. 31. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has been receiving two languages at home since birth, and now he or she stutters. What should I do?
  32. 32. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has been receiving two languages at home since birth, and now he or she stutters. What should I do? If your child is bilingual and is beginning to stutter, it is recommended that you should: a. Pay attention to the stuttering in the child’s strongest language, since that is where the most frequent stuttering would be heard. b. Follow the recommendations for stuttering prevention in publications from reputable sources like the Stuttering Foundation. c. If your child's stuttering continues for more than six months, visit a speech pathologist who specializes in stuttering. d. Do not combine vocabulary words from both languages when speaking to the child. Only use one language at a time. e. Let the child to combine vocabulary words in both languages, but model the word in the child's primary language. Do not ask the child to repeat your model.
  33. 33. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will introducing my child to extra languages between the ages of three and six years make him or her more likely to stutter?
  34. 34. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents Will introducing my child to extra languages between the ages of three and six years make him or her more likely to stutter? There is no proof that teaching your child another language causes stuttering. Extra languages are often brought in around age four, an important time for both language learning and stuttering. But if your child’s language is not progressing at his or her age level, or if you notice beginning stuttering, you will want to talk with a speech pathologist and postpone teaching an additional language until after the age of six. Speech and language literature suggests that teaching a second language during or after grade six can still be effective.
  35. 35. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has recently been learning another language and has started to stutter. What should I do?
  36. 36. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for Parents My child has recently been learning another language and has started to stutter. What should I do? If your child is a second-language learner/bilingual second-language learner and begins to stutter, you should: a. Help your child with new or challenging vocabulary by saying the word. You can give prompts by saying the first sound of the word,or by giving a clue about the word’s definition. b. Do not mix words from both languages in the same sentence/ sentences when speaking with your child c. Let your child use words from both languages when he or she talks. d. Simplify your language if your child is having trouble with vocabulary or grammar in his or her stronger language.
  37. 37. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs
  38. 38. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following are recommended:
  39. 39. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following are recommended: <ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully determine the nature of disfluency: whether the child is stuttering or merely struggling with linguistic development in two languages. - Language sample to differentiate between normal speech disfluencies (NSDs) which may characterize second- language learning rather than stuttering. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the types and frequency of disfluency between the two languages spoken to see if the disfluencies noted are seen in both languages. - If a high percentage of NSD occurs in only one language, this may be a result of limited proficiency in the language rather than from stuttering. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Stuttering and Bilingualism Information for SLPs When treating a child who speaks two (or more) languages, the following are recommended: <ul><ul><ul><li>If you initiate direct treatment for stuttering, treat the child in his/ her stronger language and monitor the weaker language(s) to determine whether the treatment effects carry over when the second language becomes more complex. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the child is resisting speaking a second-language, try to find out the reason why. Often the child may have been asked to perform in the second-language and this may be the cause of the resistance. Never force, as this puts additional pressure on the child to speak. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilingual stutterers are often bicultural as well. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child
  42. 42. Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child A. Speak to your child slowly, using pauses. Wait several seconds after your child's speaking turn before you talk. Using slow speech will be more helpful than being critical or telling your child to &quot;slow down.&quot; B. Do not ask your child too many questions. After your child speaks, comment on what he or she says to show that you are listening. Children are generally more comfortable with being allowed to say their own thoughts rather than answering an adult's questions. C. Use body language, gestures, and facial expressions to show your youngster that you are listening to the meaning behind his or her speech, and not for stuttering or disfluencies.
  43. 43. Stuttering and Bilingualism Seven Tips for Talking With Your Child D. Give your child your full attention for at least a few minutes everyday at a regular time. Use slow speech with pauses. This will help build your child's confidence as well as letting him or her know you enjoy his or her companionship. E. Help everyone in your family learn how to be better turn-takers and listeners. Children are more comfortable talking when there are less interruptions and when they know their listener is attentive. F. Monitor your interactions with your child. Give your child more time to speak and listen to him or her more often. Reduce criticisms, talking too quickly, questions, and interruptions. G. Show that you accept your child just as he or she is. Showing unconditional support towards your child is extremely important.
  44. 44. Stuttering and Bilingualism References
  45. 45. Stuttering and Bilingualism References Guitar, B. (1998). Stuttering : An integrated approach to its nature and treatment (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD, US: Williams & Wilkins Co. The Stuttering Foundation. Stuttering and the Bilingual Child. Retrieved March 6, 2009, from http://www.stutteringhelp.org/Portals/english/0110bilc.pdf U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey, 2005-2007 Community Survey 3-Year Estimates; Language Spoken at Home; generated by Larisa Atienza; using American FactFinder; <http://factfinder.census.gov>; (5 March 2009). U.S. Census Bureau; Census 2000, Language Use and English Speaking Ability: 2000; generated by Larisa Atienza; using American FactFinder; <http://factfinder.census.gov>; (5 March 2009). Van Borsel, J. (2001). Stuttering and bilingualism : A review. Journal of fluency disorders, 26(3), 179-205. Images: Fotosearch, www.bps.k12.in.us
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