The heart


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The heart

  1. 1. The HeartPumps blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen,and waste.
  2. 2. So here we go……..The heart is divided into four chambersthat are connected by heart valves. Theupper two heart chambers are calledatria. Atria are separated by an interatrialseptum into the left atrium and the rightatrium. The lower two chambers of theheart are called ventricles. Atria receiveblood returning to the heart from thebody and ventricles pump blood from theheart to the body.
  3. 3. Atria of the Heart The atria of the heart receive blood returning to the heart from other areas of the body• Right Atrium: Receives blood returning to the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae. The superior vena cava returns de-oxygenated blood from the head, neck, arm and chest regions of the body to the right atrium. The inferior vena cava returns de-oxygenated blood from the lower body regions (legs, back, abdomen and pelvis) to the right atrium.• Left Atrium: Receives blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary veins. The pulmonary veins extend from the left atrium to the lungs and bring oxygen-rich blood back to the heart.
  4. 4. Ventricles of the Heart The ventricles of the heart function to pump blood to the entire body• Right ventricle: Receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the main pulmonary artery. The main pulmonary artery extends from the right ventricle and branches into left and right pulmonary arteries, which extend to the lungs. Here oxygen- poor blood picks up oxygen and is returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins.• Left ventricle: Receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the aorta. The aorta carries and distributes oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.
  5. 5. The Heart WallThe heart is composed of cardiac muscle which enable the heart to contract and allow the synchronization of the heart beat. The heart wall is divided into three layers: the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.  Epicardium - outer protective layer of the heart.  Myocardium - muscular middle layer wall of the heart.  Endocardium - inner layer of the heart that is continuous with the inner lining of blood vessels.
  6. 6. Cardiac ConductionCardiac Conduction is the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses. The following structures play an important role in causing the heart to contract: Atrioventricular Bundle - bundle of fibers that carry cardiac impulses.  Atrioventricular Node - a section of nodal tissue that delays and relays cardiac impulses.  Purkinje Fibers - fiber branches that extend from the atrioventricular bundle.  Sinoatrial Node - a section of nodal tissue that sets the rate of contraction for the heart.
  7. 7. Cardiac CycleThe Cardiac Cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats. Below are the two phases of the cardiac cycle:  Diastole Phase - the heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood.  Systole Phase - the ventricles contract and pump blood to the arteries.
  8. 8. ValvesHeart valves are flap-like structures that allow blood to flow in one direction. Below are the four valves of the heart:• Aortic Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta.• Mitral Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left atrium to the left ventricle.• Pulmonary Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.• Tricuspid Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
  9. 9. Blood Vessels Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. The following are some of the blood vessels associated with the heart:Arteries: Veins:• Aorta - the largest artery in the body of which • Brachiocephalic Veins - two large veins that join most major arteries branch off from. to form the superior vena cava.• Brachiocephalic Artery - carries oxygenated blood from the aorta to the head, neck and arm • Common iliac Veins - veins that join to form the regions of the body. inferior vena cava.• Carotid Arteries - supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck regions of the body. • Pulmonary Veins - transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.• Common iliac Arteries - carry oxygenated blood from the abdominal aorta to the legs and feet. • Venae Cavae - transport de-oxygenated blood• Coronary Arteries - carry oxygenated and from various regions of the body to the heart. nutrient filled blood to the heart muscle.• Pulmonary Artery - carries de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.• Subclavian Arteries - supply oxygenated blood to the arms.
  10. 10. About the HeartComposed of the heart and blood vessels, the cardiovascularsystem is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body.A healthy cardiovascular system is vital to supplying the bodywith oxygen and nutrients.
  11. 11. Anterior View of heartThe heart is the hardest working muscle in the human body. Locatedalmost in the center of the chest. During an average lifetime, the humanheart will beat more than three billion times - pumping an amount ofblood that equals about one million barrels. The heart is always working,24 hours a day, seven days a week - even while we are sleeping.
  12. 12. Amazing Facts About Did You Know?Heart Health You’re more likely to have a heart attack on Monday morning than at any other time of the week. Doctors have long knownEvery day, your heart beats about that morning is prime time for heart attacks. I is called witching100,000 times, sending 2,000 gallons ofblood surging through your body. hour. Thats because levels of a stress hormone called cortisolAlthough it’s no bigger than your fist, peak early in the day. When this happens, cholesterol plaqueyour heart has the mighty job of keeping that has built up in the arteries can rupture and block the flowblood flowing through the 60,000 miles of blood to the heart. Add in the rise in blood pressure andof blood vessels that feed your organs increased heart rate from the stress of returning to work afterand tissues. Any damage to the heart orits valves can reduce that pumping the weekend, and you have the perfect recipe for a Mondaypower, forcing the heart to work harder morning heart attack. That’s why it’s important to reduce yourjust to keep up with the body’s demand stress levels as much as you can. Practicefor blood. yoga, meditate, exercise, laugh, or spend more quality timeHealth experts now have proof that with your family -- whatever works best for you.laughter is good medicine.A good belly laugh can send 20% moreblood flowing through your entire body.One study found that when peoplewatched a funny movie, their blood flowincreased. That’s why laughter might justbe the perfect antidote to stress.When you laugh, the lining of your bloodvessel walls relaxes and expands. So havea good giggle. Your heart will thank you.
  13. 13. START WITH YOUR HEARTLearn the facts your heart will thank you!!!The End……………………