Unit 6. Vertebrates

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Unit 6: Vertebrates

Unit 6: Vertebrates

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  • 1. UNIT 6: VERTEBRATES
  • 2. OBJECTIVES
    • 1. To learn about the characteristics and the main groups of fish.
    • 2. To learn about the characteristics and the main groups of amphibians.
    • 3. To learn about the characteristics and the main groups of reptiles.
    • 4. To learn about the characteristics and the main groups of birds.
    • 5. To learn about the characteristics and the main groups of mammals.
    • 6. To differentiate the groups.
  • 3. VERTEBRATES
  • 4. 1. FISH
    • Fish are aquatic vertebrates that can live in salt water and fresh water.
    • They have fins .
    • The body is covered by scales.
    • They are ectotherms because they can’t regulate the body temperature.
    • They breathe through gills .
    • They have swim bladder . It’s a sac of gas to stay afloat.
    • TYPES OF FISH:
      • Bony fish : They have a bony skeleton . Ex: Sardine, tuna, hake.
      • Cartilaginous fish : They have a cartilaginous skeleton . Ex: Sharks, rays and manta rays.
  • 5.
    • PARTS OF A BONY FISH
  • 6.  
  • 7. ACTIVITIES
    • 1.Which structure use a fish to breathe?
    • 2.What is the main difference between cartilaginous fish and bony fish?
    • 3.What is the swim bladder?
    • 4.What is an ectotherm?
    • 5. Find three more examples of bony fish.
  • 8. 2. AMPHIBIANS
    • Amphibians are vertebrates capable of living in terrestrial and humid environments.
    • They usually have four limbs .
    • They often have webbed feet .
    • They are ectotherms .
    • They breathe through lungs, gills and skin.
    • TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS:
    • Anura : They don’t have a tail. Ex: Frog, toad.
    • Urodela: They have a tail. Ex: Salamander, newt.
  • 9.
    • ACTIVITIES
    • 1. What are the types of respiration in amphibians?
    • 2. What is the main difference between a toad and a salamander?
  • 10.  
  • 11. 3. REPTILES
    • Reptiles are vertebrates animals which live on land, but some live in water.
    • They always have a tail.
    • They have four limbs . (except snakes)
    • The skin is covered by scales .
    • They breathe through lungs.
    • They are ectotherms.
    • TYPES OF REPTILES
    • Turtles: They have caparace.
    • Lizards: Ex: Iguanas, Chameleons
    • Snakes: They don’t have legs. They are venemous.
    • Crocodiles: They are the biggest reptiles.
  • 12. ACTIVITIES
    • 1. Which group of reptiles is leggless?
    • 2.What reptile has a venemous bite?
    • 3. What group of reptiles has a caparace?
    • 4.What is the biggest living reptile?
    • 5. Find six examples os reptiles .
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. 4. BIRDS
    • Birds are flying vertebrates . They can live on the ground or on water.
    • They have two limbs called wings .
    • They have hollow and light bones .
    • They have a corneus beak .
    • The body is covered with feathers .
    • The lungs have some extensions called air sacs. The air sacs help them to fly and breathe.
    • They are endothermic .
    • TYPES OF BIRDS
    • Carinatae : They have keel and flying muscles. Ex: Gulls, goldfinches, falcons, sparrows, parrots, etc
    • Ratites: They don’t have keel or flying muscles, and the wings are atrophied. Ex: Ostrich, cassowary, rhea, emu.
  • 16.  
  • 17. FLOCK OF STARLINGS IN SPRING
  • 18. ACTIVITIES
    • 1. How can birds fly?
    • 2. What are air sacs? What are they used for?
    • 3.Find 3 more examples of carinatae and ratites.
    • 4. What are the main differences between ratites and carinatae?
  • 19. 5. MAMMALS
    • They have four limbs adapted to fly,swim,run…
    • The skin is covered by hair.
    • Most of them are viviparous.
    • They are endothermal .
    • They breathe through lungs.
    • Females feed their babies through their mammary glands.
    • TYPES OF MAMMALS
    • Monotremes: They are oviparous. Ex: platypus, echidna.
    • Marsupials: The babies develop inside the marsupium . Ex: kangaroo, koala bear.
    • Placental mammals: The embryo develops in the mother’s uterus. Ex: cat, dog, human being.
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22. VERTEBRATES BONY CARTILAGINOUS URODELA ANURA TURTLES LIZARDS SNAKES CROCODILES CARINATAE RATITES MONOTREMES MARSUPIALS PLACENTAL
  • 23. ACTIVITIES
    • 1. What is the main characteristic of mammals that gives its name to the group?
    • 2. State the main differences between marsupial and placental mammals.
    • 3. Name the groups in which vertebrates are classified.
    • 4. Define endothermal and ectothermal.
  • 24.
    • 5. Match each type of breathing with the animal:
    • a) Through lungs 1.Eagle
    • b) Through gills 2. Hake
    • c)Through the skin 3. Wall lizard
    • 4.Tuna
    • 5. Tadpole
    • 6.Dolphin
    • 7. Toad
    • 6. Match each kind of vertebrate to its type of skin:
    • 1.Mammals a) skin covered with feathers
    • 2.Reptiles b) naked and wet skin
    • 3.Birds c)skin covered by thick scales
    • 4.Amphibians d) skin covered by thin scales
    • 5.Fish e)skin covered with hair