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Unit 3 -4-Universe, Solar System and Earth
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Unit 3 -4-Universe, Solar System and Earth

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1º ESO

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  • 1. UNIT 3 & 4: THEUNIVERSE, THESOLAR SYSTEM ANDTHE EARTH
  • 2. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE LIKE? The Universe is all the matter, energy and spacethat exists. The Universe is made up of galaxies whichcontains stars and planetary systems. Galaxies are a vast of collection of stars, dust andgases, held together by the gravitational attraction.Our galaxy is the Milky Way. Stars are massive spherical bodies of gases. Theyemit heat and light. Planets are spherical bodies which orbit somestars. They do not emit light. Our planetary systemis the Solar System.(8 planets and the Sun) Natural satellites orbit some planets. The Earth’ssatellite is the Moon. Asteroids are rocky objetcs with irregular shape.
  • 3. Galaxy The Milky Way Asteroid
  • 4.  Galaxies appear in groups called galaxy clusters.The Milky Way belongs to the Local Group galaxycluster.The Milky Way over Utah.
  • 5.  Different theories to explain the Universe: Geocentric theory: 2nd Century BC. Ptolomyproposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. Heliocentric theory: In 1542 Copernicus proposedthat the Sun was at the centre of the Universe. In 1570 Lippershey invented the telescope, andGalileo proved that the planets revolve around theSun.GeocentricHeliocentric
  • 6. ACTIVITIES1. Imagine an alien friend from another galaxywants to write to you. Write your galacticaddres.2. Make a drawing of the heliocentric andgeocentric theories, label their components andthe person who proposed it.3. Find ten words. M P L A N E T SI G R L A A S AL U A T S R P TK N E L T T A EY S E N A H C LW O H B R X E LA T M S U N Y IY M O O N L G TK E S W C P A E
  • 7. HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE? The Big Bang theory says that the universe was oncein an extremely hot and dense state that expandedrapidly 13.700 millions years ago. The Earth seems huge, but it’s small compared to theSun. The Sun is 1.300.000 times greater than the Earth.
  • 8. WHAT MAKES UP THE SOLARSYSTEM? The Solar System was formed five thousand million yearsago from the gas and dust of a nebula. Our Solar System is made up of the Sun, eight planetswith their satellites, dwarf planets and small solarsystem bodies. The Sun consists mainly of two gases: hydrogen andhelium. Planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits.Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are made up of rock.Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are made up ofgases. Dwarf planets are smaller than planets and they orbitthe Sun. Pluto. Small solar system bodies are other celestial bodies whichorbit the Sun. They include asteroids, comets andsatellites.
  • 9. WHICH ARE THE INNER PLANETS? The inner planets are the four planets closest tothe Sun: Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. They are terrestrial or rocky planets. The crustand mantle are made of rock. The core ismetallic. The Earth is the only planet that has life on it. In 2004, the robots Spirit and Opportunitylanded on Mars.
  • 10.  The geosphere is the solid sphere of our planet. It’s divided into three layers:The crust: is the surface of the Earth. It’sbetween 5 and 70 km thick. It can becontinental crust and oceanic crust.The mantle: is the thickest layer of hot rock.Two parts: upper mantle and lower mantle.The core: is the hottest layer. It’s made up ofiron and nickel. Two parts: Outer core andinner core.THE GEOSPHERE
  • 11. LAYERS OF THE EARTH
  • 12. PHASES OF THE MOON The Moon shows 4 different phases: New Moon: We cannot see the Moon. First Quarter: We can see the right sideilluminated. Full Moon: We see the whole Moon illuminated. Last Quarter: We can see the left side illuminated.
  • 13. ECLIPSES An eclipse occurs when a celestial body hidesanother temporarily. It can be partially orcompletely. Lunar eclipse: It occurs when Earth blocks theSuns rays from the Moon. Solar eclipse: It occurs at New Moon when theMoon passes between Earth and Sun.
  • 14. Lunar eclipse
  • 15. THE TIDES The tides are periodicmovements of the level of theseas due to the attraction ofthe Moon and the Sun. When the water level rises iscalled high tide. When the water level goesdown is called low tide.
  • 16. ACTIVITIES1. What do we call the side of the Moon we cannot see?2. Which has more influence on tides, the Moon or theSun?3. Define:a) Eclipseb) Tide
  • 17. ACTIVITIES1. Make a drawing of the Earth’s spheres and labelthem in English and Spanish.

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