Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions
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Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions

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Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions Unit 10 & 11: Organism's vital functions Presentation Transcript

  • UNIT 10 & 11: ORGANISM’S VITAL FUNCTIONS
  • WHAT TO LEARN
    • Main types of cells; organelles and cellular regions.
    • Cellular nutrition. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition. Photosynthesis and respiration.
    • Cellular reproduction: main general types.
    • Cellular interaction.
  • MAIN FEATURES OF ORGANISMS
    • All the living beings have in common:
      • Same matter (biomolecules)
      • They have cells
  • THE CELL
    • The cell is the smallest unit of living matter that can exist freely and can carry out all the vital functions (nutrition, reproduction, interaction).
    • Organisms can be:
      • Unicellular organism , that consists of only one cell.
      • Multicellular organism , that consists of many cells.
    • Thanks to electron microscope we can observe different types of cells, its nucleus and organelles.
  • TYPES OF CELLS
    • There are two main groups of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    • Prokaryotic cells: They don't have a membrane-bound nucleus. Ex. Bacteria (Monera kingdom)
    • Eukaryotic cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles . (Protista, Fungi, Plantae,Animalia kingdoms)
    • They can be animal and
    • plant cells . Plant cells
    • have mitochondrions .
  •  
  • ACTIVITIES
    • The following sentences are false, correct them in your notebook.
      • a)All the living things except bacteria are made of cells.
      • b)All cells have plasmatic membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus.
      • c)Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, but they do not have any other organelles.
      • d)Eukaryotic plant cells have chloroplasts, but they do not have mitochondria.
    • Why was the microscope important in the discovery of cells?
  • AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION-PLANTS
    • Autotrophs produce their own food. They produce organic nutrients from inorganic substances .
    • Plants make organic nutrients through photosynthesis . They need water, mineral salts, carbon dioxide and sunlight.
    • Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts .
    • Respiration: To respire the plant absorbs oxygen and uses it in the mitochondria to get energy.
    • Where does the photosynthesis take place in plants?
  •  
  • HETEROTROPHIC NUTRICION-ANIMALS
    • It consists of obtaining organic nutrients by feeding on other living things.
    • Living things take oxygen from the environment to obtain energy in a cellular process called respiration .
    • The nutrition process in animals have some parts:
      • Feeding: ingestion of food.
      • Digestion: transformation of food into smaller components.
      • Transportation of substances: circulation.
      • Elimination of waste substances: Excretion.
  • ACTIVITIES
    • 1.Match the following terms to their definition:
    • a)Breathing 1.Eliminating waste substances
    • b) Photosynthesis 2.Transforming the food into
    • c) Circulation nutrients
    • d) Digestion 3.Transportation of nutrients
    • e) Excretion 4.Taking oxygen to obtain energy
    • 5.It takes place in the chloroplasts of cells.
    • 2. Give an example of ecological pyramid.
  • WHAT IS REPRODUCTION?
    • Reproduction is the ability to create other beings similar or identical to them.
    • TYPES OF REPRODUCTION:
    • Asexual: produces identical copies of itself. Ex: bacteria, some plants…
    • Sexual: Two living things join and provide gametes . The union forms a zygote . Ex: animals.
  • ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
    • Fragmentation: Division of the parent’s body into several parts, each part creates a new organism. Ex:Planarian, Starfish
    • Gemmation: Formation of buds on the surfaceof the parent creating a new organism. Ex; Hydra
  • SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN ANIMALS
    • It consists of gamete formation , fertilisation , and developement of the zygote .
    • Testicles produce spermatozoa .
    • Ovaries produce ova .
    • The species can be: unisexual (male and female) or hermaphrodite (both)
    • The fertilisation is the union of the spermatozoa and the ova.
  • ACTIVITIES
    • 1.Match each organism with the type of reproduction
    • Gemmation 1) Starfish
    • Fragmentation 2) Hydra
    • 2. Give three examples of hermaphrodite species and unisexual species.
    • 3.Complete.
    • Reproduction can be_________ or _________.
    • In sexual reproduction, the___________ join and produce a ________.
    • The _________is the union of the _____ and the ____.
    • 4.Asexual or sexual reproduction?
    • a)A mushroom b)An oak c)An elephant d)A beetle e)A paramecium
    • f)A kangaroo g)Algae
    • 5. Complete the diagram.
    • Ovule-petal-pistil-stamen-sepal