Unit 1 The Universe
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  • 1. UNIT 1: THE UNIVERSE AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  • 2. THE UNIVERSE
    • What are the points of light in this photo?
    • What’s the difference between
      • A star and a planet?
      • A moon and a comet?
  • 3. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE LIKE?
    • The Universe is all the matter , energy and space that exists.
    • The Universe is made up of galaxies which contains stars and planetary systems.
    • Galaxies are a vast of collection of stars, dust and gases, held together by the gravitational attraction. Our galaxy is the Milky Way .
    • Stars are massive spherical bodies of gases. They emit heat and light.
    • Planets are spherical bodies which orbit some stars. They do not emit light. Our planetary system is the Solar System .(8 planets and the Sun)
    • Natural satellites orbit some planets. The Earth’s satellite is the Moon .
    • Asteroids are rocky objetcs with irregular shape.
  • 4.
    • Galaxy The Milky Way Asteroid
  • 5.
    • Galaxies appear in groups called galaxy clusters . The Milky Way belongs to the Local Group galaxy cluster.
    • The Milky Way over Utah.
  • 6.
    • Different theories to explain the Universe:
      • Geocentric theory : 2nd Century BC. Ptolomy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe.
      • Heliocentric theory: In 1542 Copernicus proposed that the Sun was at the centre of the Universe.
    • In 1570 Lippershey invented the telescope, and Galileo proved that the planets revolve around the Sun.
    • Geocentric
    • Heliocentric
  • 7. ACTIVITIES
    • Imagine an alien friend from another galaxy wants to write to you. Write your galactic addres.
    • Make a drawing of the heliocentric and geocentric theories, label their components and the person who proposed it.
    • Find ten words.
    M P L A N E T S I G R L A A S A L U A T S R P T K N E L T T A E Y S E N A H C L W O H B R X E L A T M S U N Y I Y M O O N L G T K E S W C P A E
  • 8. HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE?
    • The Big Bang theory says that the universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state that expanded rapidly 13.700 millions years ago.
    • The Earth seems huge, but it’s small compared to the Sun.
    • The Sun is 1.300.000 times greater than the Earth.
    • Astronomers use units of measurenment:
      • AU (Astronomical Unit). Approximately 150 million kilometres.
      • Light-year: The distance light travels in one year.
    • ACTIVITY:
    • Express the distance of Mercury, Mars and Pluto from the Sun in kilometres.
    • Mercury is 0.4 AU:
    • Mars is 1.5 AU:
    • Plutos is 39.4 AU:
  • 9. WHAT MAKES UP THE SOLAR SYSTEM?
    • The Solar System was formed five thousand million years ago from the gas and dust of a nebula .
    • Our Solar System is made up of the Sun , eight planets with their satellites, dwarf planets and small solar system bodies .
    • The Sun consists mainly of two gases: hydrogen and helium .
    • Planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits . Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are made up of rock. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are made up of gases.
    • Dwarf planets are smaller than planets and they orbit the Sun. Pluto .
    • Small solar system bodies are other celestial bodies which orbit the Sun. They include asteroids, comets and satellites.
  • 10.  
  • 11. HOW DO THE PLANETS MOVE?
    • Celestial bodies like Earth have two types of movement:
      • Rotation : Celestial bodies spin or rotate on an invisible axis. This invisible line is called rotational axis .
      • Revolution: Celestial bodies revolve around other celestial bodies.
    • An orbit is a curved path which a celestial body follows in its revolution around another celestial body. The orbit of the Earth around the Sun is an ellipse.
  • 12.
    • Revolution
    • Rotation
  • 13. ACTIVITIES
    • 1. Do some research at home.
      • Which planet takes the longest to orbit the Sun?
      • Which planet takes the fastest to orbit the Sun?
      • Which planet has the longest day?
      • Which planet has the shortest day?
    • 2. What is an orbit?
    • 3. What do you call the imaginary plane of the Earth’s orbit?
  • 14. WHICH ARE THE INNER PLANETS?
    • The inner planets are the four planets closest to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars.
    • They are terrestrial or rocky planets. The crust and mantle are made of rock. The core is metallic.
    • The Earth is the only planet that has life on it.
    • In 2004, the robots Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars.
  • 15. Inner planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars Interesting characteristics The smallest and closest to the Sun Rotates in opposite direction The only planet with life Very thin atmosphere Average surface temperature -180ºC to 430ºC 465ºC -89ºC to 58ºC -82ºC to 0ºC
  • 16. WHICH ARE THE OUTER PLANETS?
    • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the four outer planets. They are called gas giants .
    Outer planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Interesting characteristics Largest planet, most satellites System of rings Rotational axis almost horizontal Greatest distance from the Sun Average surface temperature -150ºC -170ºC -200ºC -210ºC
  • 17.
    • Did you know that Pluto used to be a planet? In 2006 the International Union of Astronomers reclassified it as a dwarf planet.
    • Most of the asteroids are between Mars and Jupiter. This area is called asteroid belt.
    • When comets travel close to the Sun, some of the ice on it evaporates, creating the long, bright tails.
  • 18. ACTIVITIES
    • Answer these questions:
      • Which planet has the most satellites?
      • Which planet is closest to the Sun?
      • Which planet supports life?
      • Which planet is the largest is the Solar System?
      • Which planet spin on its axis in the opposite direction?
    • Draw a diagram of the Solar System seen from above. Include the rotation and revolution movements of each planet.