Unit 1: The atoms
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Unit 1: The atoms

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The atoms. 2º ESO

The atoms. 2º ESO

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Unit 1: The atoms Unit 1: The atoms Presentation Transcript

  • UNIT 1: THE ATOMS
  • WHAT IS MATTER?
    • Matter is everything that has or causes:
      • Dimensions: Matter occupies space. It has volume. (m 3 )
      • Inertia: This property keeps the body still or in motion. The larger the mass, the greater is the inertia. (Kg)
      • Gravitational attraction: Bodies attract each other because of gravity.
    • A material system is anykind of matter whose limits are undefined . Ex: Clouds.
    • A body is anykind of matter whose limits are defined . Ex: A ball.
    BODIES AND MATERIAL SYSTEMS
    • Natural science studies from tiny things (bacteria) to huge things (stars).
    • Scientist use two scales:
      • A macroscopic scale : to measure things that can be perceived using our senses.
      • A microscopic scale : to measure things like cells or atoms.
    SCALES OF OBSERVATION
    • It’s a way of writing numbers to avoid writing too many zeros.
    • It consists of writing using powers of ten .
    • Ex: 100.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000= 10 26
    • 0’000000000000001= 10 -15
    SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
    • All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. (10 -10 m)
    • Atoms are the smallest part of any substance.
    • Atoms are made up of:
      • A nucleus: protons (+) and neutrons. (0)
      • Electrons (-) around the nucleus.
    • There is nothing but empty space between the electrons and the electrons.
    COMPOSITION OF MATTER: THE ATOMS
    • Chemical element : All the atoms are the same kind. It is represented by a chemical symbol included in the periodic table . Example: Carbon (C)
    • The pure substances can be:
      • Elements: They have only one type of atom that cannot be broken down. Ex: O 2, H 2
      • Compounds: There are two or more different atoms joined together. Ex: Salt (NaCl), water (H 2 O)
    • Atoms join together to form molecules . Ex: CO 2 (Carbon dioxide), O 3 (Ozone)
    TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
  • Can be Found in nature as Found in nature as
    • 1. What is matter? What are the characteristics of matter?
    • 2.What is the difference between a material system and a body?
    • 3. Give an example of inertia in everyday life.
    • 4. Identify the elements that form these pure substances.
    • a)Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6
    • b)Ammonia: NH 3
    • 5. Indicate whether these substances are found in nature as atoms, molecules or crystals: helium, water, sodium chloride.
    ACTIVITIES
    • 6. In your notebook fill in the blanks using the following words: gravitational, inertia, universe, energy, dimensions, matter.
    • The…………… can be described in terms of…….. and…….. Matter is everything that has……., ……… and is the cause of ………. attraction.
    • 7. Indicate whether these pure substances are elements or compounds:
    • a) Water b) Oxygen c)The carbon in a pencil
    • d)The phosphorus in a match.
    • 8. Classify the following as bodies or material systems:
    • a)A ball b) A galaxy c) The water in a river
    • d) The air in the atmosphere