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# Unit 1: The atoms

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The atoms. 2º ESO

The atoms. 2º ESO

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### Transcript

• 1. UNIT 1: THE ATOMS
• 2. WHAT IS MATTER?
• Matter is everything that has or causes:
• Dimensions: Matter occupies space. It has volume. (m 3 )
• Inertia: This property keeps the body still or in motion. The larger the mass, the greater is the inertia. (Kg)
• Gravitational attraction: Bodies attract each other because of gravity.
• 3.
• A material system is anykind of matter whose limits are undefined . Ex: Clouds.
• A body is anykind of matter whose limits are defined . Ex: A ball.
BODIES AND MATERIAL SYSTEMS
• 4.
• Natural science studies from tiny things (bacteria) to huge things (stars).
• Scientist use two scales:
• A macroscopic scale : to measure things that can be perceived using our senses.
• A microscopic scale : to measure things like cells or atoms.
SCALES OF OBSERVATION
• 5.
• It’s a way of writing numbers to avoid writing too many zeros.
• It consists of writing using powers of ten .
• Ex: 100.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000= 10 26
• 0’000000000000001= 10 -15
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
• 6.
• All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. (10 -10 m)
• Atoms are the smallest part of any substance.
• Atoms are made up of:
• A nucleus: protons (+) and neutrons. (0)
• Electrons (-) around the nucleus.
• There is nothing but empty space between the electrons and the electrons.
COMPOSITION OF MATTER: THE ATOMS
• 7.
• Chemical element : All the atoms are the same kind. It is represented by a chemical symbol included in the periodic table . Example: Carbon (C)
• The pure substances can be:
• Elements: They have only one type of atom that cannot be broken down. Ex: O 2, H 2
• Compounds: There are two or more different atoms joined together. Ex: Salt (NaCl), water (H 2 O)
• Atoms join together to form molecules . Ex: CO 2 (Carbon dioxide), O 3 (Ozone)
TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
• 8. Can be Found in nature as Found in nature as
• 9.
• 1. What is matter? What are the characteristics of matter?
• 2.What is the difference between a material system and a body?
• 3. Give an example of inertia in everyday life.
• 4. Identify the elements that form these pure substances.
• a)Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6
• b)Ammonia: NH 3
• 5. Indicate whether these substances are found in nature as atoms, molecules or crystals: helium, water, sodium chloride.
ACTIVITIES
• 10.
• 6. In your notebook fill in the blanks using the following words: gravitational, inertia, universe, energy, dimensions, matter.
• The…………… can be described in terms of…….. and…….. Matter is everything that has……., ……… and is the cause of ………. attraction.
• 7. Indicate whether these pure substances are elements or compounds:
• a) Water b) Oxygen c)The carbon in a pencil
• d)The phosphorus in a match.
• 8. Classify the following as bodies or material systems:
• a)A ball b) A galaxy c) The water in a river
• d) The air in the atmosphere