Unit 1: The atoms


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The atoms. 2º ESO

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Unit 1: The atoms

  1. 1. UNIT 1: THE ATOMS
  2. 2. WHAT IS MATTER? <ul><li>Matter is everything that has or causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions: Matter occupies space. It has volume. (m 3 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertia: This property keeps the body still or in motion. The larger the mass, the greater is the inertia. (Kg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational attraction: Bodies attract each other because of gravity. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>A material system is anykind of matter whose limits are undefined . Ex: Clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>A body is anykind of matter whose limits are defined . Ex: A ball. </li></ul>BODIES AND MATERIAL SYSTEMS
  4. 4. <ul><li>Natural science studies from tiny things (bacteria) to huge things (stars). </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist use two scales: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A macroscopic scale : to measure things that can be perceived using our senses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A microscopic scale : to measure things like cells or atoms. </li></ul></ul>SCALES OF OBSERVATION
  5. 5. <ul><li>It’s a way of writing numbers to avoid writing too many zeros. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of writing using powers of ten . </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: 10 26 </li></ul><ul><li>0’000000000000001= 10 -15 </li></ul>SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  6. 6. <ul><li>All matter is made up of very tiny particles called atoms. (10 -10 m) </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are the smallest part of any substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are made up of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nucleus: protons (+) and neutrons. (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrons (-) around the nucleus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is nothing but empty space between the electrons and the electrons. </li></ul>COMPOSITION OF MATTER: THE ATOMS
  7. 7. <ul><li>Chemical element : All the atoms are the same kind. It is represented by a chemical symbol included in the periodic table . Example: Carbon (C) </li></ul><ul><li>The pure substances can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elements: They have only one type of atom that cannot be broken down. Ex: O 2, H 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compounds: There are two or more different atoms joined together. Ex: Salt (NaCl), water (H 2 O) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atoms join together to form molecules . Ex: CO 2 (Carbon dioxide), O 3 (Ozone) </li></ul>TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
  8. 8. Can be Found in nature as Found in nature as
  9. 9. <ul><li>1. What is matter? What are the characteristics of matter? </li></ul><ul><li>2.What is the difference between a material system and a body? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Give an example of inertia in everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Identify the elements that form these pure substances. </li></ul><ul><li>a)Glucose: C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>b)Ammonia: NH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>5. Indicate whether these substances are found in nature as atoms, molecules or crystals: helium, water, sodium chloride. </li></ul>ACTIVITIES
  10. 10. <ul><li>6. In your notebook fill in the blanks using the following words: gravitational, inertia, universe, energy, dimensions, matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The…………… can be described in terms of…….. and…….. Matter is everything that has……., ……… and is the cause of ………. attraction. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Indicate whether these pure substances are elements or compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Water b) Oxygen c)The carbon in a pencil </li></ul><ul><li>d)The phosphorus in a match. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Classify the following as bodies or material systems: </li></ul><ul><li>a)A ball b) A galaxy c) The water in a river </li></ul><ul><li>d) The air in the atmosphere </li></ul>