Historical Perspectives of Nursing and the Computer .
The computer help transform the nursing profession prior to the new century. It includes the transformation of paper-based records to computer-based records. It is use to manage information in patientscare, monitor the quality of care and evaluate the outcomes of care. It can be used for• communication and enhancing the nursing . education and support nursing research.
Prior to the 1960s• Adopt to computers for health care• Computer were used for business office function• Punch card/ stored data
1960s• Computer technology in health care settings were questioned• Why computers? What should be computerized?• Nurses station was viewed as the HUB of the information exchanged• Introduction of CRT or (Cathode Ray Tube)• Online data communication• Hospital Information System (HIS)
1970s• Giant step were taken for both nursing and computer• Recognized the value of computer into nursing• Improvement of Documentation• Repetitive aspect of patient care• Mainframe HIS were designed and developed• Use for reimbursement of Medicare
1980s• Emersion of Informatics in the healthcare industry• Computer-based patient records system or CPRS• HIS Order entry *online results Kardex *nurses notes Vital Signs *Discharge Plan• Updates on Practice Standards Data Standards Vocabularies Classifications Schemes
.• The microcomputer or personal computer (PC) emerged
1990s• Computer technology become integral part of healthcare• N.I was approved by ANA as a new nursing specialty (1992)• Laptops or notebook to the bedside and all point of care settings• Local Area Network (LAN) were developed – Linking hospital care Units
• Wide area network were developed (WAN) . Linking across the different system• Introduction of internet Information superhighway Mainstream social Milieu Electronic Mail (e-mail) File transfer Protocol (FTP) The web became the means for online communications and resources to the nursing practice Integral component of all IT system WWW use to browse the internet and search worldwide resources
Post 2000• Intorduction of mobile technology• Wireless tablets computers• Personal digital assistant or PDA• Smart cellular telephones• Use of voice-over internet protocol (VoIP)• The health insurance portability and accountability act of 1996 was inacted (HIPPA) – To streamline health care transaction and reduce cost – Used for reimbursement
.–Critical care units are monitored remotely by health providers (eICU)
Nursing Practice• Evolve and change radically• Become and integral part of the EHR• Introduction of several nursing terminologies that were recognized by the ANA• Use to assist problem, document care, and measures outcome
Nursing Administration• Change the introduction of the computer that links nursing departments• Policy ad procedure manuals are access and retrieve by computer• Internet is being used by nurses to access digital libraries online resources and research protocols at the bedside
Nursing Education• Schools of nursing offers computer enhance courses and distance education• Campus wide computer systems are available for students to communicate• Time, distance, costs are no longer barrier to educational programs
Nursing Research• Provide the impetus to use the computer for analyzing nursing data• Can retrieve information or other data basis that contain relevant healthcare content• Internet provides online access to millions of web resources which increase the capabilities of online searching and retrieving information
Nursing Practice Standards• Developed and recommended by the ANA• Recommended that the nursing process serve as the conceptual framework for the documentation of nursing practice• Also recommend acuity systems to determine resource used as well as required care plans for documenting nursing care
Nursing Data Standards• Emerged as a new requirement for HER• 13 nursing terminologies that have been recognized by the ANA for this 4th edition• The ANA is responsible for the recognition of the terminologies and for determining if they have met the criteria to be included in the NLM, UMLS
Healthcare Data Standard Organizations• American national standard institute• American society for testing and materials• Health level 7• SNOMED• The national committee on vital and statistics work group on computer based patient records
Early computer-based nursing applications• Developed before the mid 1970s• Different nursing applications focused on documentation of nursing practice and management of patient care
Landmark Events in Nursing and Computers• Major milestones of nursing are interwoven with the advancement of computer and information technologies, the increase need for nursing data, development of nursing applications, and changes making the nursing profession an autonomous discipline
• The landmark events. were described by the following categories:(a)early conferences, meetings(b)early academic initiatives(c)initial ANA initiatives(d)Initial National League for Nursing initiatives(e)early international initiatives(f)initial educational resources(g)significant collaborative events
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