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Tropicalcyclones 091124165030-phpapp02


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  • 1. The Physical Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones
    Case Study: The 1970 Bhola Cyclone
  • 2. Cyclones, Hurricanes, Typhoons
    Named according to region (1)
    Cyclones – Develop over the Indian Ocean(1)
    Hurricanes - Develop over Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans(1)
    Typhoons – Develop over western Pacific Oceans(1)
    All produce similar effects(1)
    Typhoon Odessa, Philippines
  • 3. Developmental Stages
    Progression: depression storm cyclone(2)
    Classified according to wind speeds(2)
    Tropical Depression - less than 39 m/h (2)
    Tropical Storm - between 39 m/h and 73 m/h (2)
    Tropical Cyclone - at least 74 m/h (2)
  • 4. Tropical Cyclones Introduction
    Tropical cyclones are intense, rotating, low-pressure storms (2)
    Develop over warm, tropical oceans(2)
    Produce strong winds and heavy rainfall(2)
    Can lead to immense flooding(2)
    Destructive Winds
  • 5. Formation of Tropical Cyclones
    Warm water generates formation of tropical cyclones(4)
    Ocean temperatures must be at least 26.5°C(7)
    Over warm oceans moist, humid air (water vapour)(4)
    Warm air moves along the surface(4)
    This air converges and rises rapidly(5)
    Intense rising of air forms low pressure systems (7)
  • 6. Formation of Tropical Cyclones
    As air rises, it cools, becomes saturated and condenses(4)
    Water vapour condenses into liquid droplets(4)
    Formation of thunderclouds(5)
    Condensation releases heat stored in water vapour(4)
    This latent heat warms the atmosphere(4)
    Air becomes lighter causing strong updrafts(4)
  • 7. Formation of Tropical Cyclones
    Air expands and diverges at higher levels(5)
    Occurs only where wind speed/direction remain constant (no wind shear) (7)
    Air moves in at surface taking the place of rising air(4)
    This intensifies convergence(5)
    Creates wind and increases rising movement(4)
    Builds and progresses into a mature cyclone(5)
  • 8. Coriolis Effect
    Spinning of earth on its axis produces wind deflections (Coriolis Effect) (7)
    Causes rising air to spiral around center (core) (7)
    Spirals with great force (7)
    Winds are now rotating, rising and moving in to fill spaces (7)
    Wind speeds increase and cyclone grows (7)
  • 9. Coriolis Effect
    Northern hemisphere winds are blowing counter-clockwise around center core (6)
    Southern hemisphere winds are blowing clockwise around center core (6)
  • 10. The Eye, Eyewall, Rainbands
    The Eye - the clear, calm center of storm(4)
    Cool air descends into this center (downdrafts)(4)
    Eyewall – ring of thunderstorms close to eye(4)
    Eyewall produces the most devastating winds(4)
    Rainbands – curved groups of clouds andthunderstorms (4)
    Rainbands travel away from eye in a spiral motion(4)
  • 11. Storm Surges
    Occur when tropical cyclones reach land (3)
    Storm surge – raised swell of water (3)
    60 to 80 km across (3)
    Around 2 to 5 meters higher than normal tides (3)
    Created by heavy winds and cause flooding (3)
  • 12. Locations of Tropical Cyclones
    Between 10 to 30° North and South of equator (2)
    Within the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn (2)
    Poleward side of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (2)
    Zone of low pressure (ITCZ) (2)
    Coriolis effect greatly reduced at equator (4)
    No tropical cyclones occur at equator (4)
    Tropical Cyclone Appearances
  • 13. Tropical Cyclone Categories
  • 14. Case Study: The 1970 Bhola Cyclone
    Storm Survivors
  • 15. The 1970 Bhola Cyclone
    November 12, 1970(8)
    The deadliest tropical cyclone recorded(8)
    Developed over Bay of Bengal(8)
    Gathered speed as it moved northward(8)
    Devastated East Pakistan (Bangladesh) and West Bengal of India(8)
    Bay of Bengal
    Storm Path
  • 16. The Bhola Cyclone Characteristics
    Wind speeds reached 115 m/h (8)
    Strength of a category 3 hurricane (8)
    33 foot high storm surge (8)
    Massive storm surge caused flooding and fatalities (8)
    Bhola Cyclone on November 11, 1970
  • 17. The Bhola Cyclone - Damage
    Storm surge:
    • Flooded low-lying islands
    • 18. Wiped out crops
    • 19. Destroyed whole villages
    • 20. Demolished 85% of homes in the area (8)
    Estimated damage at 86.4 million dollars (8)
    300,000 - 500,000 people were killed (8)
    Great Bhola Cyclone
  • 21. References
    (3)Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. (2009). About Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from
    (8) 1970 Bhola cyclone. (2009, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 23, 2009, from
    (1)Catto, N., Hyndman, D., Hyndman, D. (2009). Natural Hazards and Disasters. Toronto, ON: Nelson Education
    (6) Earth Science Australia. (2009). Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from
    (4)National Weather Service. (2008, October 8). Tropical Weather. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from
    (5) Nelson, S.A. (2009, October 30). Exceptional Weather – Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from
    (2) Tropical cyclone. (2009, November 22). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from
    (7)WikiAnswers. (2009). How do cyclones form? Retrieved November 23, 2009, from