IGCSE Population Review and Revision 40 slides, 20 minutes; sit back and enjoy….. Moses Lutta
Population distribution – the spread of the population, where people live.
Population density – the number of people per km squared.
Densely populated – an area with a high number of people per km squared.
Sparsely populated – an area where the number of people per km squared is low.
Where people live?
Why they live there (what are the human and physical factors that explain population density and distribution)?
A densely populated area of the world is Europe ?
A sparsely populated area of the world is Amazonia .
Population Change The Population Formula Natural Population Change = Birth Rate (BR) – Death Rate (DR) Moses Lutta
The Demographic Transition Model
This is a model which shows population change (births, deaths and natural change) over time.
A model is a simplified version of reality.
The demographic transition model suggests all countries go through 4 (or 5) stages of population change.
The demographic transition model can be used to predict short and long term population changes.
Population pyramids show the population structure for an area or country in terms of age and sex ratios.
The pyramid is useful because it helps us to predict short and long term population changes.
Mozambique – An LEDC Moses Lutta
The UK – An MEDC Moses Lutta
Population Explosion Moses Lutta
Individual Decisions This explosion occurred largely in LEDCs and results from millions of individual decisions that are influenced by the characteristics of the places people live. Moses Lutta
LEDC Population Trends and Issues High birth rates and falling death rates leading to rapid population growth – the population explosion Youthful populations Moses Lutta
Children needed as workers and to look after parents when they are older.
Infant mortality rates are high, so high birth rates compensate for this.
It is hoped children will grow up`, move to the city and get a good job, then send money home.
Religion often forbids the use of birth control.
Having a big family increase peoples status and importance in their village.
People (women) do not have access to EDUCATION and contraception
Why traditionally are BRs high in LEDCs? Moses Lutta
Why did death rates fall in LEDCs?
Improved health care as knowledge, technology and medicines are imported from MEDCs.
Cleaner and safer drinking water, again as systems are imported from more developed countries.
Better diets as more food is grown, often as a result of improved farming techniques developed in MEDCs.
All leads to better living conditions and less disease which results in people living longer and falling death rates.
Youthful Populations Death rate maybe be falling in LEDCs but life expectancy is still low – the result when combined with high BR is a youthful population Moses Lutta
Lack of food and famine cause early death in many people.
The spread of disease, for example cholera that comes from drinking dirty water, causes many deaths.
Health care and hospitals are poor and often difficult to access.
Why is life expectancy low in LEDCs? Moses Lutta
Youthful Population Pyramid Moses Lutta
Overpopulation Issues Moses Lutta
Overgrazing and Overcultivation As seen in the Sahel region of Africa including Darfur in western Sudan Moses Lutta
Deforestation and Soil erosion Again think Mato Grosso, Amazonia (Brazil) the Sahel (Darfur) Moses Lutta
Overcrowding and the growth of Shanty Towns Favelas in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Busties in India, e.g. Mumbai Slums in Jakarta Moses Lutta
Pollution and Waste
Water pollution for example from human waste (villages in Bangladesh)
Land pollution for example from farming (Mato Grosso, Brazil).
Air pollution for example from increased car use (think Rio).
Waste – see the Rio favela photo above
Traffic Congestion And Rio once again – think of the road to Barra Moses Lutta
Crime and Lawlessness Moses Lutta
Shortage of resources, food and raw materials.
Unemployment and underemployment.
Lack of money for basic health care and schooling.
Rising crime, political coups and huge debts.
Low living standards and a lack of development.
Youthful Populations Many young people (with a high youthful dependency ratio) puts pressure on schools, taxes, families; and exacerbates problems associated with rapid population growth and over population in LEDCS – this can hinder development Moses Lutta
What are the sustainable management solutions?
Anti-natalist population policies and strategies
Tanzania case study
Kerela, India case study
China, One Child Policy case study
North Africa case study
Disease – HIV/AIDS
In many LEDCs disease is another demographic factor that has significant implications.
In Africa there are an estimated 30 million infected with HIV, in India and China rates of infection arte growing.
What are the social, economic, environmental and political impacts of HIV/AIDS?
What can countries and the international community do about HIV/AIDS?
You should have detailed information including a country specific case study from your AIDS report.
MEDC Population Trends and Issues Ageing population in MEDCs result from long life expectancies , low fertility rates and the legacy of the post-war baby boom Moses Lutta
Why is life expectancy long?
Top quality health care with well trained doctors, high-technology equipment and advanced medicines
Access to clean water and high levels of sanitation (such as sewage) – reduces the spread of disease
Food supply is plentiful and levels of hunger and malnutrition are low
People’s working lives are often office based which can be healthier and involves a reduced risk of accidents
Why are fertility rates low?
Female education and emancipation are key as women then become involved in the decision making process
Education about, and access and availability of, contraception
Urbanization leading to reduced requirement for children as farm workers
Increased perception of children as financial burden
Post-war Baby Boom Moses Lutta
Example case studies where the issues of an ageing population are happening now. Italy, UK, Germany, (western Europe), Japan, South Korea Maybe even China??? Moses Lutta
Ageing Population Pyramid Moses Lutta
Ageing Populations in MEDCs
Problems and Issues
Declining economically active population and high (old age) dependency ratio
Pressure on the pensions system
Great demand for services such as hospitals, care homes, public transport
Pressure on the housing sector with many old couples occupying large family homes
Tourism and other grey Euro opportunities
A place in the sun and impact on southern European hosing sectors
Availability of skilled, experienced and “wise” people in labour force
Availability of wiling part-time workers
Reduced demand for schools and child care services
What are the sustainable management solutions?
Pro-natalist population policies (e.g. France)
Encouraged immigration (UK and Italy although policies changing regularly)
Raising retirement ages (currently gone up to 67 from 65 in UK)
Forcing people to have private pensions and not rely on state (Slovakia’s 2 nd tier)
Completing the formula - Migration Population change within an area needs to consider both natural change (BR-DR) and migration (add those who move in and subtract those who move out) Moses Lutta
Migration Case Studies
Economic migration – Mexico to the USA
Forced migration – Darfur (Sudan) internally displace people and refugees
Rural to urban migration – urbanization in Brazil and the growth of mega-cities such as Rio de Janeiro
Migration Case Studies
Headline facts and figures – when, where, how many?
Reasons – push (e.g. poor living conditions) and pull (e.g. better paid work with opportunities for career development) factors
Impacts – on area of origin AND are of destination (positive, such as supply of cheap labour or remittances, and negative, such as impacts on origin population structures or exploitation)
Long term sustainable management attempts e.g. wall on US border vs. better managed temporary work visas