A Passage to India is a novel written in 1924 by Edward Morgan Forster. It is considered one of the hundred best British novels of all time.
was born in London in 1879 and died 1970. After living some time in Italy, he returned to England. His first novel was published when he was 26 and reveals a mature style. His most important work is “The Mansion” and other highlights include &quot;A Room with view&quot; and &quot;A Passage to India&quot;. “ A Passage to India”, is his last novel based on the Foster experiences in India, in this novel he examines the conflict between Indian and British cultures
- Edward Morgan Foster was born in London in 1879 and died in 1970. After living some time in Italy, he returned to England. -His first novel was published when he was 26 and reveals a mature style. -His most important work is “The Mansion” and other highlights include &quot;A Room With View&quot; and &quot;A Passage to India&quot;. -“A Passage to India”, is his last novel based on the Foster experiences in India, in this novel he examines the conflict between Indian and British cultures .
Dr Aziz : A young Muslim Indian doctor who works at the British hospital in Chandrapore. Mr Fielding : Headmaster of the small college for Indians. He is tolerant and respectful toward Indians. Mss Quested : A young British schoolmistress who is visiting India with the intention of marrying with Ronny Heaslop, the city magistrate. Mrs Moore : Ronny’s mother, She respects Indians and their customs and she is appreciated by the Indians too.
The story begins when a young British schoolmistress, Adele Quested , and her elderly friend, Mrs Moore , visit the fictional city of Chandrapore in Bihar, a state located in the eastern part of India, its capital is Patna. Adele is to marry Mrs Moore's son, Ronny Heaslop, the city magistrate . This visit to India allows them to the see socio-cultural difference between British, for their superiority and supremacy and Hindus who are a British colony, they think Hindus are an inferior ethnic, politically and culturally. Meanwhile, Dr Aziz, a young widower Indian Muslim doctor , is dining with two of his Indian friends talking about if it is possible to be friends with an Englishman . During the meal, he is called from Major Callendar , Aziz's superior at the hospital , but when he arrives the major has already left. ,
Worried, Aziz walks to his favourite Mosque, he comes in and he sees a strange Englishwoman there, and angrily he shouts at her “not to profane this sacred place”. The woman was Mrs Moore who respected native customs and she had taken off her shoes outside, Aziz apologizes to Mrs Moore and both make friends. Aziz was amazed to see the kind character of Mrs Moore, a British woman who treats him with respect and dignity, a different behavior from the rest of his fellow British, intolerant and proud.
Mrs Moore returns to the British Club and relates her experience at the mosque. Ronny Heaslop, her son, initially thinks she is talking about an Englishman, and becomes indignant when he knows the truth.
Mrs Moore an Adela had expressed interest to know Indian people and Mr Turton, the city tax collector , and his wife invites numerous Indian gentlemen to a party at his house.
and Adele meets Cyril Fielding, headmaster of Chandrapore's college for Indians . Fielding invites Adela and Mrs Moore to a tea party with him and his friend Professor Godbole a Hindu - Brahman . On Adela's request, Fielding extends his invitation to Dr Aziz .
At Fielding’s party everyone has a good time talking about India, and Fielding and Aziz even become great friends. Fielding, like Mrs Moore, is one of the few British whose behavior with the native population is close and open. Aziz promises to take Mrs. Moore and Adela to see the Marabar Caves , a cave complex that everyone talks about but no one seems to have visited. This caves are Inspired by the Barabar caves in Bihar, a state located in the eastern part of India.
Ronny Heaslop arrives and rudely breaks up the party, he picks up the two women and after leaving his mother at home, Ronny asks Adele if she wants to marry him, Adele accepts with a lot of doubts.
Aziz prepares the expedition to Marabar caves. Fielding and Godbole are late and miss the train.
Aziz and the women begin to explore the caves.
In the first cave, Mrs Moore feels claustrophobia, but worse than the claustrophobia is the echo. Mrs Moore declines to continue exploring.
So Adela and Aziz with a local guide climbed up the hill to see the next caves. Aziz came into one cave and when he came out, he found the guide sitting alone outside the caves. The guide says Adele had gone into one of the caves by herself. Aziz looked for her, he was angry with the guide, who ran away. Aziz looked around again and discovered Adela's binoculars lying broken on the ground. He put them in his pocket. Then Aziz looked down the hill and saw Adela speaking to another young Englishwoman, Miss Derek, who had arrived with Fielding in her car. Aziz ran down the hill and greeted Fielding effusively, but Miss Derek and Adele sped off without a word of explanation
Fielding, Mrs Moore, and Aziz returned to Chandrapore by train. Fielding asked Aziz what had happened in the cave, but he didn’t know
Adele is hurt after running down the mountain
At the train station, Dr Aziz is arrested and charged of raping Adele in the cave. Adele reports the incident to the British authorities and accused Aziz. She said that he followed her into the cave and tried to grab her, and she remembers him grabbing the binoculars and the strap broke, which allowed her to get away. The only evidence for the British was the possession of the binoculars by Dr Aziz. The British were stunned when Fielding proclaimed his belief in Aziz's innocence, but the Indians thanked his behavior and collaboration
During the weeks before the trial, Mrs Moore was apathetic and irritable. She was sad because she believed in Aziz's innocence, and she had not done anything to help him. Ronny, alarmed by his mother's assertion decided that she returned by ship to England before she could testify at the trial. Mrs Moore died of heart attack during the voyage
After an initial period of fever and crying, Adele is not sure of Aziz's guilt. At the trial, she is asked if Aziz had sexually abused her. She thought before replying. She had a vision of the cave. The echo had disconcerted her so much that she ran around the cave, escaped down the hill, and finally sped off with Miss Derek. Adele misinterpreted her shock as an assault by Aziz but he never was there. She admitted that she was mistaken. The case was dismissed. All the Anglo-Indians were shocked and furious
The Indians were happy and brought Aziz on their shoulders shouting, singing and celebrating his freedom
Ronny and Adele broke off their engagement. Adele left Ronny’s house and Fielding offered his home. She explained to him that the echo was the cause of the whole problem and her confusion, she misinterpreted her shock as an assault and she was very sorry. Many days later she returned to England
Although Aziz was free, he was angry and bitter because his friend Fielding was still Adele’s friend after she nearly ruined his life
Fielding returned to England too. Aziz believed that he had left to marry Adele for her money
Aziz left behind British customs and his relationships with them. He went to live to the north of India, where he opened a clinic wearing their traditional clothes, trying to forget and to begin a new life.
Two years later, Fielding returned to India with his wife Stella, Mrs Moore's daughter. Aziz at first persisted in his anger against his old friend. But in time, he will respect and love Fielding again. However, he will continue dreaming of a free India.
-Edward Morgan Forster was born in London in 1879 and died in 1970. - His first novel was published when he was 26 and reveals a mature style . -His most important work is “The Mansion” and other highlights include “A room with a view” and “A Passage to India”. -“A Passage to India” is his last novel, based on Forster’s experiences in India . In this novel he examines the conflict between Indian and British cultures.
MAIN CHARACTERS <ul><li>Dr Aziz : A young Muslim Indian doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Fielding : Headmaster of the small college for Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>Mss Quested : A young British schoolmistress </li></ul><ul><li>Ronny Heaslop : The City Magistrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs Moore : Ronny’s mother. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Turton : The City tax-collector. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Challendar : Aziz’s Superior at the hospital . </li></ul>