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Introduction…..Organs An organ is a structure that contains at least two different types of tissue functioning together for a common function. Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Organs exist in all higher biological organisms, in particular they are not restricted to animals, but can also be identified in plants. There are many organs found in the human or animal body and are vital to their existence. Eg. Brain Heart Kidneys Spleen Lungs Stomach The Pancreas
The Pancreas……..Anatomy The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates. It is situated transversely across the posterior wall of the abdomen, at the back of the epigastricand left hypochondriac regions. It consists of: Head: Lies within the concavity of the duodenum Uncinateprocess: emerges from the lower part of head & lies deep to superior mesenteric vessels Neck: The constricted part between the head and the body Body: It lies behind stomach Tail: It is the left end of the pancreas. It lies in contact with the spleen and runs in the lienorenal ligament
The Pancreas…..Exocrine & Endocrine Gland The Pancreas is both an endocrine gland exocrine gland. The pancreas produce hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. The Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice such as trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase The part of the pancreas with endocrine function are clusters of cells called Islets of Langerhans.
The Pancreas…..Cells of Langerhans The clusters of cells are classified according to their secretions: αcells secrete glucagon which increase Glucose in blood. βcells secrete insulin which decrease Glucose in blood. δ cells secrete somatostatin regulates or stops α and β cells. PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The Pancreas……Diseases Diabetes mellitus : caused by insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas Acute pancreatitis: Inflammation of pancreas due to alcohol intake, drugs, trauma to pancreas, gall stones Chronic pancreatitis: Excessive alcoholism Pancreatic enzyme deficiency :Usually caused by diarrhea and sudden weight loss. Can also be caused by pancreatitis. Pancreas tumor : Abnormal or cancerous growth of pancreatic cells.
Summary. Though each organ is unique and vital for normal functioning associated with living, the Pancreas is rather unique and essential organ for continuity of life. Its dual function and role as an exocrine and endocrine gland in the digestive system makes it indispensible for normal physiological process, hence at loss of function, disease and death ensues rather quickly.