TYPES OF PRESENTATION There are many different types of presentations ranging from reports to emergency or crisis response presentations. Some of the most common types that you may be called upon to present are: • Proposals • Sales • Project reports
ProposalsPurpose: To provide necessary information for a decisionStructure:Introduce the issue: The audience or the target of the proposal must be informed of the nature and purpose of the proposal. If you are asking for sponsorship, state that this is a sponsorship proposal. If it is a partnership or cooperation proposal it must be clear from the very start in order to avoid misunderstanding• State the present situation:• Describe facts:• Offer explanations and interpretation:• Present recommendations and advantages:• Propose a solution:• Ask for approval
Sales:Purpose: To lead a potential buyer to purchase a product or service.Structure:• Get their attention: The opening moments will determine whether the prospect or audience will give you their attention. Most decisions are made within the first few seconds of a sales presentation. Start with something that will draw their attention to your presentation and to your message, more than your product or service.• Show the need for the product or service:• Describe how it will fulfil the need:• Explain the benefits of buying it:• Offer testimonials from other users:• Present the proposal:• Ask for the closing:
Project Reports: Purpose: To update clients on progress of a project or inform about an activity. Structure: • What: • Why: • Who: • How: • How long: • When: • Where: • What if:
AUDIENCE ANALYSIS Audience analysis can be divided in three major aspects: Audience demographics: Is the process of gathering and analyzing information about audience members in order for the presenter to adapt his or her message to them? Audience perspective: The presenter must know how the audience feels about the topic, the presenter and the occasion. it plays a huge role in how effective the presentation will be. Effective presenters will find a link between their message and their audience. Audience knowledge: Consider how much the audience knows about the subject, it allows the presenter to adapt their message to the audience’s level of knowledge and understanding. Now consider each aspect of audience analysis and think about how each factor might affect the presentation.
Audience Demographics Age: How did is the audience? This will determine the level of language to be used and references and examples the presenter can use. Gender: what is the gender of the audience? This will determine the approach and appeal of the presentation. Family: what is the martial status of the audience? Do they have children? This will determine the social appeal of the presentation. Culture: What is the ethnic or cultural background of the audience? This will determine the approach and examples to be used. Professions: what are the professions and economical levels of the audience? This will determine approach, jargons and level of language Audience Perspective Attitude: What is the audience’s attitude or opinion about the subject? This will determine the approach of the presentation. Prejudices: Are there any prejudices or historical facts that could affect the presentation?
Audience Knowledge No knowledge: You will try to convince them to believe in your proposal. Some knowledge: You will ask them to consider your alternative. Experts: You will ask them to consider the existence of other alternatives. Above your level: Present as your contribution. Same level: Present your opinion as an alternative. Below your level: Present it as the best option
PRESENTATION CONTENT• A good and efficient presentation is not just luck, but the result of careful planning, practising, and content selecting and distributing the content in the presentation.• Although some creatively and last minute adaptations must be foreseen, the core of the presentation must have been researched and planned to ensure the audience understand it, believes in it and agrees with it.• An effective presentation needs to be well structured in order to accomplish the purpose and convince the audience.
The 3 parts of a Presentation In general, an effective presentation should have the following format: Introduction: To get the audience’s attention. “Tell them what you are going to tell me.” An attention grabber: something related to the topic that will shock the audience. Statistic: Figures always get the attention selecting a strategic number will do it. Facts: Things that are not well known. Exaggeration: what would happen if things get worse, etc. Worse case scenario: The situation when everything contributes to a disaster. Body: where you present and explain the topic. “Tell them” All your main points should be included here In some logical order that is easy to understand. Conclusion: Brief wrap up – call to action. “Tell them what you told them.”
Forms of Evidence • Facts • Statistic • Testimonials • Examples • Comparisons and contrasts • Explanations • Definitions • Audio and visual aids • Narratives (stories, tales, myths, real life stories)
Points to Remember about Evidence: • Evidence should be related to the audience • Evidence should be vivid • Evidence should be varied • Evidence should be sufficient, not superfluous
Visual Aids/Equipment:• Function: To help listeners process and retain information• Definition: Anything visual that enhances a presentation• Choices: Choice of the equipment and the audio visual depends upon the place, the availability, the audience and the relevance• Aid, not reason: Never be used as the main reason for presentation – only to enhance the presentation• Measurement: The effectiveness of a presence is never measured by the use of the audio-visuals. The presenter is the best audio-visual
Types of Visual Aids:• Objects and Models• Pictures (photographs, drawings, diagrams, maps and posters)• Graphics and charts• Audio and Video• Multimedia (combines several medias such as sound, video, text and data)Types of Media to use:• PowerPoint• LCD projector• CD and DVD player• Flipcharts• Chalkboards• Handouts
EFFECTIVE DELIVERY Effective presentations depend greatly of the speaking skills of the presenter and good speakers are looked upon as instant leaders because they can speak to people and convince them. Speaking with a purpose is what everyone wants to listen to. A good presentation requires three basic qualities from the presenter: Attitude, Skills and Knowledge. • Your attitude sets you apart from the average presenter. The audience excepts and wishes you to perform and deliver with confidence. • Skills • Knowledge • The Delivery Method • Manuscript: • Memory: • Spontaneous: • Outline:
The presentation • The beginning Your presentation starts the moment your name is called and you approach the stage area, but as a rule of thumb, never start talking until you are on stage. Take your time and acknowledge the audience with your body language and facial expression. • The message To deliver the message effectively you have to be a master of verbal communication. The audience should understand your message the way you want them to understand it, and should respond the way you want them to respond. Some tips to effectively communicate verbally are: • Words: • Sentences: • Examples: • Tone: • Voice: • Answering Questions
Some basic rules for question handling. • Repeat the question • Invite the audience to come up with answers • Enable discussion • Relate questions to the topics mentioned in the presentation • If you don’t know the answer, say so and promise to find the answer Asking questions The closing • First impression is the best impression, but the last impression has a lasting impression. • The closing of a presentation is the most strategic point. What you say here is the final word which will ring in the ears of your audience after they leave. The conclusion of your presentation should: • Summarize or clarify • Heighten the interest • Establish the appropriate mood • Appeal for some action • Propose acceptance or approval
Tips for PowerPoint • Get trained on it or at least get familiar with it • Keep the location of the presentation in mind • Keep it simple – don’t over use the animation feature • Use Arial, or another serif font • Don’t use too much clip art • Use only key words or phrase • Never read during your presentation • Only use full sentences when you are quoting others. Tips for Flip Chart • Useful as a backup when projection is not available • It has the advantage of fast and easy setup • It must be prepared in advance • Writing on it during the presentation will show lack of preparation • Don’t write too much. Write only a few key words
Other Consideration • Logistics: • Size of the room (need microphone?) • Type of room (dinner, restaurant, ballroom, other distractions) • Illumination (can you darken to use projection?) • Template (comfortable for audience) • Equipment (ready, connected) • Location (Address and directions?) • Attendance (How many people expected?)
Agenda• Time• Captive audience (Nowhere to go anyway?)• Length (How much time do you have?)• After (will there be time for questions and answers?)• Flexibility (can you run overtime?)
Things to remember • Practice: Becoming an excellent presenter takes time so work at it constantly – • Easy words: Choose your words carefully – don’t use words which are difficult to pronounce or utilize in a sentence. • Keep it simple: People are not expecting an award winning presentation and you are not looking for an award, but getting the message across. • Nobody knows what you will say: No one knows what you are going to tell them until you tell them. • Mistakes: Unless you tell them or it is very obvious, most people won’t realize you made a mistake – • Good is good enough: You are your own worst critic: Nobody is perfect! Leave your auto evaluation for after the presentation. • Depersonalize it: Depersonalize the evaluation; it’s the message – not the person who is important