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Travel, Blood Borne Viruses and Sexual Health (part 4 of 5)



Powerpoint presentation by Susan Doran, Workplace Health Improvement Advisor,...

Powerpoint presentation by Susan Doran, Workplace Health Improvement Advisor,
NHS Grampian, about travel, blood bourne viruses and your sexual health.

Travel, Blood Borne Viruses and Sexual Health (part 4 of 5)

This part of the presentation is about HIV.

slides 28-36



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  • HIV numbers are on the increase world wide is only the tip of the iceberg the reasons for this is that many individuals will have no symptoms for many years therefore not suspect anything and do not go for a test Dark Red – Zambia, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland Bright Red – Uganda, Kenya Mozanbique, Gabon, Cameroon, Central African Republic Dark Orange – Angola, Zaire, Sudan, Ethiopia Russia, Mali, UK It is estimated that there are about 58,000 HIV infected people alive in Uk Eastern European countries show increasing new HIV infections while some harm reduction programmes are decreasing UNAIDS concerned that a number of counties in this region are reporting reductions in critical investments in the AIDS response. VIENNA, 16 July 2010— Eastern Europe and Central Asia is the only region where HIV incidence clearly remains on the rise. Russian Federation has reported an 8% increase in reported cases, Georgia a 10% increase and Belarus a 22% increase. Injecting drug use remains the primary route of transmission in the region. Use of contaminated equipment during injecting drug use was the source of 57% of newly diagnosed cases in eastern Europe in 2007. An estimated 3.7 million people in the region s most injecting drug users are sexually active—often with non-injecting partners—theexistence of a major injection-driven epidemic has also fuelled a growth in heterosexual transmission of HIV in the region. Ukraine has the highest level of reported HIV cases in the region. The number of new infections in the country has gone up from 18,963 in 2008 to 19,840 in 2009, and heterosexual transmission has eclipsed injection driven transmission.
  • now 6338 in Scotland` 72% male 28% female 470 in Grampian up to Sept 10 There is no vaccination and although many trials done we have to remember there are different types of HIV thus developing a vaccination is not going to happen soon There is very effective treatment that will help keep the person healthier and prolong life expectance but once someone is infected they will always be infected no cure If someone is diagnosed early on in infection and treated on the most appropriate drug for them then it has been said that life expectancy can be 35 year plus – Good lifestyle choices will improve life expectancy.
  • The difference between Grampian and all other health boards apart from Tayside and Fife to a lesser degree is the we have a much higher percentage of HIV transmission is where there has been sexual intercourse between men and women
  • This slide shows the geographical area of exposure A high risk partner is someone who has had sex with an IDU or women who has bisexual men The highest risk of exposure is in Africa and this is reflected in these figures
  • These are the cumulative figures Oceania is Australian, New Zealand, Malaysia, Fiji, Tonga etc.
  • Transmission altered by many things: some of the viruses more infectious than others, the exposure situation and how infectious the person is transmitting the virus Unprotected sexual exposure very effective way to transmit infection (particularly for HIV and hepatitis B) Sharing injecting equipment that has blood present on it (most of the HCV cases infected this way) Mother to child transmission can and can occur frequently in some developing countries particularly with HIV and hepatitis B. In the UK we have screened pregnant women for the last few years and if infected intervention to reduce the chance of infection to baby ( Breast feeding no for HIV women high risk Yes feed for HCV and those vax for HBV) All blood and blood products are screened in this country there are some individuals who became infected before screening happened All donors and organs are also screened There are a few countries that have not got the technical equipment to screen blood – Susan the blood care foundation - leaflet
  • Less common routes but they still can transmit Some of this risks can affect you eg if you are a first aider Not all risks occupational ! Skin puncture – this can be item covered with blood and breaking the skin eg needle stick injury Skin loss our skin gives us our protective membrane and if we have cuts are vulnerable Eyes nose and mouth have not got the same protective membrane as skin and any blood spkash to these areas can cause infection eg dentist wears goggles and mask when using equipment that can cause splash Bite only if it breaks the skin and there is blood to blood hopefully this is not an occupational hazard !! Oral sex ? Risk very low there have been isolated cases of HIV transmission higher risk for Hepatitis toothbrushes / razors etc sharing HBV and HCV so children household contacts should not share can also transmit other infections
  • Cover any cuts and abrasions with waterproof dressings (not fabric ones) Take appropriate PPE when providing first aid – expand If there is a spillage of body fluids there is only one safe way to clean it up – see safe working practice document If you may be visiting areas where the medical care could be questionable and you require self-administered injections, take your own supply of needles Some countries do not have the same medical standards as the UK. Equipment may not be adequately sterilised, nor blood screened for HIV and hepatitis B or C

Travel, Blood Borne Viruses and Sexual Health (part 4 of 5) Travel, Blood Borne Viruses and Sexual Health (part 4 of 5) Presentation Transcript

  • WHO/UNAIDS, 2008 A global view of HIV infection in 2008 33 million people [range: 30-36 million] living with HIV
  • HIV
    • Grampian numbers
    • No vaccination
    • Treatment BUT no cure
    • Life expectance now 35 years +
  • Grampian BBV’s
  • HIV by NHS Board
  • Exposure category
  • Geographical Exposure
  • Routes of Transmission
    • Unprotected sexual intercourse
    • Sharing injecting equipment
    • Mother to child - birth / breast-feeding
    • Blood transfusion
  • Routes of Transmission
    • Less common routes:
    • Skin puncture by contaminated sharp objects
    • Skin loss
    • Exposure of eyes/nose/mouth
    • Human bites - skin broken
    • Unprotected oral sex
    • Sharing toothbrushes / razors
  • Prevention
    • Cover any cuts
    • First Aid
    • Management of body fluids spills
    • Receiving medical intervention