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Enviromental, industrial micro


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  • 1. Microbial ecology Soil
  • 2. Soil MicrohabitatsDifferent microhabitats favor different indigenousmicrobial populationsSurface horizons with rich litter Indigenous microflora can tolerate high levels of organic nutrients Diverse groups Obligate aerobes Facultative anaerobes Microaerophiles Obligate anaerobes e.g. Waterlogged soils – anoxic conditons microflora – facultative and obligate anaerobes
  • 3. Soil as a microbial habitat Microorganisms are attached to the surface of soil particles Microcolonies
  • 4. A soil particle has soil microenvironments Decreasing O2 le vels anaerobes aerobes microaerophilic
  • 5. Soils: Microbial CommunitiesHigher microbial numbers – compared with freshwateror marine habitats Algae Bacteria Cyanobacteria Bacteria Fungi Protozoa VirusesAbout 106 to 109 bacteria per gram soilDue to high organic matter content
  • 6. Soils: Microbial CommunitiesAutochthonous microorganisms in soil Can utilize humic substances Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria ActinomycetesZymogenous or opportunistic soil organisms Cannot utilize humic substances High metabolic activity Rapid growth due to presence of utilizable substrates (plant litter remains, fecal matter from other animals, carcasses) Bacillus Aspergillus Penicillium Mucor Penicillium
  • 7. Soils: Microbial CommunitiesZymogenous or opportunistic soil organisms Not allochthonous Intermittently active True indigenous soil microflora
  • 8. Soils: Microbial CommunitiesIndigenous soil microflora Determined by the abiotic factors of the soil Polar soils – psychrotrops or psychropiles Desert and arid soils – micrflora should be tolerant to extreme high temperatures and dessicationSome adaptive structures by indigenous soil microflora Bacillus spp. – endospores Arthrobacter spp. - pleomorphism
  • 9. Roles of soil microorganismsAgents of biodegradation Degraders of cellulose and ligninAgents of mineral cyclingNitrogen-fixing activity – Makes nitrogen available for the plantsMinor role – primary production
  • 10. Biogeochemical CyclesRecycling (oxidation and reduction) of chemical elements
  • 11. The Carbon Cycle
  • 12. The Nitrogen Cycle Figure 27.4
  • 13. Nitrogen Cycle Microbial decompositionProteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial ammonificationAmino acids (–NH2) Ammonia (NH3) NitrosomonasAmmonium ion (NH4 +) Nitrite ion (NO2- ) Nitrobacter Nitrite ion (NO2 -) Nitrate ion (NO3- ) PseudmonasNitrate ion (NO3 -) N2 Nitrogen - fixationN2 Ammonia (NH3)
  • 14. Formation of a Root Nodule Figure 27.5
  • 15. Life Without Sunshine• Primary producers in most ecosystems are photoautotrophs• Primary producers in deep ocean and endolithic communities are chemoautotrophic bacteriaH2S SO42– Provides energy for bacteria which may be used to fix CO2 Calvin CycleCO2 Sugars Provides carbon for cell growth
  • 16. The Sulfur Cycle
  • 17. Sulfur Cycle Microbial decompositionProteins and waste products Amino acids Microbial dissimilationAmino acids (–SH) H2S ThiobacillusH2S SO42– (for energy) Microbial & plant assimilationSO4 2– Amino acids
  • 18. The Phosphorous Cycle
  • 19. Degradation of Synthetic ChemicalsNatural organic matter is easily degraded by microbesXenobiotics are resistant to degradation
  • 20. Decomposition by Microbes• Bioremediation – Use of microbes to detoxify or degrade pollutants; enhanced by nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer• Bioaugmentation – Addition of specific microbes to degrade of pollutant• Composting – Arranging organic waste to promote microbial degradation
  • 21. Decomposition by Microbes Figure 27.10
  • 22. Biofilms Figure 27.11
  • 23. Freshwater Zonation
  • 24. Microorganisms in water• Diverse• The numbers and types of bacteria present will depend on: – Amounts of organic matter present, – Presence of toxic substances, – water’s saline content, – environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and aeration
  • 25. Water Quality• Microbes are filtered from water that percolates into groundwater.• Some pathogens are transmitted to human in drinking and recreational water.• Resistant chemicals may be concentrated in the aquatic food chain.• Mercury is metabolized by certain bacteria into a soluble compound, concentrated in animals
  • 26. Water Quality• Most important source of infection is water – Drinking – Cooking – Swimming• Common water borne diseases: – Shigelosis (Shigella spp.) – Salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) – Gastroenteritis (Campylobacter spp.) – Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) – Giardiasis (Giardia lambia) – Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporium parvum)
  • 27. Direct tests for pathogens• Involve selective cultivation to large numbers – Time consuming – Expensive – Potentially dangerous to lab personnel• Molecular tests – Require testing for each pathogen – Expensive – Require expertise
  • 28. Indicator organisms for water• Indicators that water is contaminated with pathogens• Criteria of good indicator – Suitable for all water types – Similar survival characteristics as pathogens in water – Present when pathogens are present – Present in greater number than pathogens – Correlate with the degree of pollution – Can be detected at low cost – Non-pathogenic
  • 29. Coliforms• Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, gram- negative, non–endospore forming rods that ferment lactose to acid + gas within 48 hr, at 35°C• Indicator organisms – Used to detect fecal contamination• MPN – Most probable number/100 ml of water
  • 30. Algal Blooms• Pollutants (nutrients) may cause algal blooms.• Algal blooms lead to eutrophication.
  • 31. Multiple-Tube Method Figure 6.18a
  • 32. Multiple-Tube Method Figure 6.18b
  • 33. MUG Test• ONPG causes E. coli to make -galactosidase - galactosidase MUG fluorescent compound
  • 34. Municipal Water Treatment
  • 35. Foods are preserved by:• Drying• Osmotic pressure (salt or sugar)• Fermentation
  • 36. Industrial Food Canning Figure 28.1
  • 37. Commercial Sterilization to Destroy C. botulinum Endospores• 12D treatment kills 1012 endospores• Surviving endospores of thermophilic anaerobes cause spoilage with gas• Or flat-sour spoilage
  • 38. Food Preservation• Pre-sterilized materials assembled into packages and aseptically filled (Aseptic packaging)• Gamma radiation killsbacteria, insects, andparasitic worms• High-energy electrons
  • 39. Cheese• Curd: solid casein from lactic acid bacteria and rennin• Whey: liquid separated from curd• Hard cheeses produced by lactic acid bacteria• Semisoft cheeses ripened by Penicillium on surface
  • 40. Alcoholic Beverages and Vinegar• Beer and ale are fermented starch• Malting: Germinating barley converts starch to maltose and glucose• Yeast ferment sugars to ethyl alcohol + CO2
  • 41. Yeast Fermentations
  • 42. Making Red Wine
  • 43. Microbial Metabolism Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSugar Ethyl alcohol + CO2 Lactic acid bacteriaMalic acid Lactic acid Acetobacter or GluconobacterEthyl alcohol Acetic acid
  • 44. Fermentation Technology Figure 28.10
  • 45. Primary Fermentation Figure 28.11a
  • 46. Secondary Fermentation Figure 28.11b
  • 47. Industrial Microbiology• Amino acids• Citric Acid• Enzymes• Vitamins• Antibiotics• Steroids
  • 48. Alternative Energy Sources Using Microorganisms BioconversionBiomass Methane or ethyl alcohol