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Managing Small Groups
 

Managing Small Groups

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This presentation has some wonderful information and resources to help with differentiating instruction!

This presentation has some wonderful information and resources to help with differentiating instruction!

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  • Presenter Materials: l TPRI Student Record Form l Tejas LEE Resumen de Calificaciones l Reading Health Screen l Stopwatch l Vis-à-vis pen if using transparencies l Calculator l Index cards to cover portions of specific slides l Texas Five Star Reading Recipe Book Participant Materials: l White boards l Dry erase pens l Tissue l Pen l TPRI Student Record Form l Tejas LEE Resumen de Calificaciones l Third Grade Reading Health Screen -- Student Record and Student copy l Content Web - Effective Instruction l 3 X 8 Index Cards - 4 per participant l True/False Response Cards; Yes, No, Maybe Response Cards l Concept of Definition Map
  • Point to each objective on the slide as discussed. Specifically, we will discuss: how to plan differentiated instruction using student assessment data, how to use flexible grouping arrangements, how to increase academic engagement during both teacher-directed and student-directed instruction, and how to arrange your classroom to facilitate instruction.
  • classroom. First, we will look at how you schedule your time each day to ensure you are scheduling time for both whole-group and small-group instruction during your reading or language arts block. Even if you do not teach reading and language arts, you will still want to examine your use of instructional time allocated for reading. What we are talking about applies across content areas, even though the primary focus of this Academy is reading. Point to the information on the slide as it is discussed On this slide, you see a basic routine for use of time. This teacher starts the language arts block with a whole-group lesson. The content of this lesson is chosen because most of the students in the class need it. After a short teacher-directed lesson on a particular skill, strategy, or routine, the teacher then moves into the differentiated instruction phase of her reading/language arts. During the differentiated time, the teacher rotates small groups of students, while the remaining students engage in student-directed instruction. Later, this same teacher pulls all the students back together. Some days, the teacher uses this time to review skills that she presented earlier. Other days, the teacher holds whole-class discussions of literature the students analyzed during student-directed instruction. On other days, the teacher uses this time to have all the students in the class read orally with partners.
  • This slide provides an overview of how we can ensure successful readers. The first goal is to learn the reading model that works to both prevent and provide intervention for reading difficulties. This slide provides an overview of all components of student success. We want to take a moment to share how these components are interrelated. We will take a closer look at each of these components in the following slides. Please do not worry right now about fully understanding this entire model. Click The first key component is good teacher training . All teachers must have knowledge and access to the materials and strategies from which effective teachers make choices. The CD ROM and website (TPRI.org) help make the materials and strategies more accessible for instruction based on the TPRI results. Click The second component of this model is that the curriculum —the “what” that is being taught in the classroom— must be aligned with assessment objectives . Click And finally, effective features of instruction must be in place. Student progress must be monitored and assessed, the data should be used to design instruction, and the design of this instruction should include a variety of grouping practices—whole group, small group (same and mixed ability), pairs and partner practice, and intervention groups. Click Only when all of this is present will we see student success. Let’s take a closer look at each of the three components of this reading model.
  • Now, we will consider how to provide differentiated instruction that targets the needs of individual students. Point to the Model for Student Success on the Slide. This model will be revisited throughout the Academy. You will notice that there are three interlinked pieces to effective instruction: assessing student progress, making data-based decisions, and delivering instruction. (Foorman, Fletcher, Francis, in press; Good & Kaminiski, 1996)
  • Assessing student progress requires a starting place. The first step is to assess students at the beginning of the school year. This assessment will tell you the reading strengths and needs of each of your students. The key to using assessment effectively is to assess reading skills frequently across the year. Armed with frequent assessment information, you are able to group flexibly as the needs of the students change across the year. You probably are using assessment tools already. You should continue to use assessment tools that inform your instruction. (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986, 1991)
  • The purpose of any assessment is to identify the need …..Screening Diagnostic to validate the need and to plan instruction. and progressing monitoring to see if the instruction is working.
  • There are four assessment purposes provided by Texas Reading First guidelines: (1) screening, (2) diagnosis, (3) progress monitoring, and (4) outcome measurement.
  • The key for a SBRR assessment is to use data to form instructional groups. This is an ongoing process. Identify a need Plan instruction Implement the instructional plan Monitor progress Gage success of the plan by the progress made First, let’s think about making data-based decisions.
  • Decoding is foundation for everything else This slide needs to be revised.
  • Now, we will consider how to provide differentiated instruction that targets the needs of individual students. Point to the Model for Student Success on the Slide. This model will be revisited throughout the Academy. You will notice that there are three interlinked pieces to effective instruction: assessing student progress, making data-based decisions, and delivering instruction. (Foorman, Fletcher, Francis, in press; Good & Kaminiski, 1996)
  • Data-based decision making means planning what to teach to whom based on ongoing, frequent assessment. Point to the first bullet. It means planning the content of daily instruction on the basis of frequent, ongoing assessment data. From such data, you match the content of what you teach to the observed needs of your students. Point to the second bullet. Another aspect of data-based instructional planning means using data to group and regroup students for small-group instruction according to needs observed through assessment data. By grouping and regrouping students based on observed need, you will help students master all of the objectives of the TEKS more easily. When students master the TEKS, what else will they pass? Participants: TAKS. Point to TAKS poster. Just remember, the way to the TAKS is to teach the TEKS well. (Fuchs & Fuchs, 1986, Kameenui et al, 2002; Walter-Thomas & Brownell, 2001)
  • Data-based decision making also means matching the level of text to the reading abilities of your students. Matching text to readers is the hallmark of providing differentiated instruction. If every student in your class is always reading from the same text, are you providing differentiated instruction? Participants: No. Point to Professor TEKS. Professor TEKS is sitting here to point out that the TEKS clearly states that each student should be reading from text that is at the student's independent and instructional level. If you are not matching text to the student, you are following the curricular standards in the TEKS. Point to the second bullet. Look at your copy of the TEKS. Turn to page A-9. Read paragraphs a & b of TEKS 3.6 silently. Allow two minutes. Do those TEKS say anything about the student reading only grade level materials? Participants: No. The TEKS talk about students reading independent and instructional level text. Independent and instructional levels are individual to each student. What is instructional for one student may not be instructional for another student. Think about Kassandra, the student for whom beginning of third=-grade text was frustrational. According to the TEKS, what should Kassandra’s teacher do so that she reads instructional and independent intrusional materials across the year. Take a moment to discuss this with the other members of your table. Allow @ 2 minutes Elicit Participants responses Main ideas: l The teacher will need to: find materials written at a lower grade level that are at Kassandra’s instructional and independent level. l The teacher will need to apply the 1-10 rule to check to see that text at a given level it really at the the instructional level. Earlier we said that we could determine if text was at a student’s instructional level using the 1 to 10 rule. That rules translates in to a child reading with 90% accuracy. A similar rule can be used to determine if text is at a student’s independent level. It is the 1 to 20 rule. This rules means that a student makes no more that one error for every 20 words of text. This translates into a 95% accuracy rate. Everybody, if a student misses no more than 1 word in 10, what level text is the selection? Participants: instructional If a student misses no more than 1 word in 20 words read what level text is that selection? Participants: Independent
  • Now, we will consider how to provide differentiated instruction that targets the needs of individual students. Point to the Model for Student Success on the Slide. This model will be revisited throughout the Academy. You will notice that there are three interlinked pieces to effective instruction: assessing student progress, making data-based decisions, and delivering instruction. (Foorman, Fletcher, Francis, in press; Good & Kaminiski, 1996)
  • Why should you provide differentiated reading instruction? Consider this information. The range of reading ability in a typical third-grade classroom is five years. Briefly discuss with the other members of your table the range of reading abilities within your classrooms and why you need to provide differentiated instruction. Discuss @ two minutes. In summary, providing differentiated instruction ensures that every student makes good reading progress. (Kameenui, 1993)
  • As we think about increasing academic engagement and making every minute count, we have to consider that students with different reading levels are going to need different arrangements to keep them academically engaged. When you are teaching, which group of students are the ones who are most likely to be the least engaged? Participants: Struggling readers. Right, struggling readers are most likely to be the least engaged. One of the likely reasons why they are struggling readers is that they tend to get off task more easily and not pay attention to the instruction taking place. There is more to it, though. It turns out that advanced readers actually get more opportunities to practice reading than low readers. Typically, poor readers are asked to read very seldom during the school day. This means that, even within the same classroom, the learning opportunities for different students can be widely different. (Allington, 1983; Allington & McGill-Frazen, 1989; Gelzheiser & Myers, 1991; Haynes & Jenkins, 1986; O’Sullivan, Ysseldyke, Christenson, Thurlow, 1990; Simmons et al, 1995; Stanley & Greenwood, 1981)
  • Now we are going to explore the concept of differentiated instruction more in-depth using a concept of definition map. On the next two pages of your participants notes, you will see that you have been provided an English and Spanish version of a Concept of Definition Map. Please take those out now. Allow 30 seconds.
  • You are going to use the Concept of Definition Map to explore Differentiated Instruction with your partner. Explain the following steps. Point to each bullet discussed. Activity: l With your partner, write your own definition of differentiated instruction. - You will do this in the top box l Brainstorm examples of how a teacher might differentiate instruction. Write these in the Examples column. l Brainstorm examples that do NOT depict differentiated instruction. Write these in the non-examples column. l Identify synonyms that describe what differentiated instruction is like. Write those in the box at the bottom of the map. Tell participants, that if they teach students primarily in Spanish, they should complete this activity in Spanish on the Concept Map in Spanish. Allow @ 5 minutes
  • Cover sections of the map with sticky notes or index cards until discussed. The only parts that should show initially is Differentiated Instruction in the center and titles of each section. Note: CD version is animated. Now we will discuss our maps. Point to “What is it?” How did you define Differentiated Instruction? Elicit several responses. l Discuss the extent to which they are getting at the same idea. l Show the prewritten definition on the map, and point out that everyone is defining differentiated in a similar context. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Point to “What is it like?” What did you think differentiated instruction is like ? Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten "What is it like?" on the slide. l Point out items they identified during discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Note: Explain that the following concepts as necessary. Data-based instruction = using assessment to guide instruction scaffolded = providing supports Now, give some examples of what differentiated instruction looks like in action. Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten "Examples" section on the slide. l Point out items they identified during the discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Now, give some examples of what differentiated instruction does NOT look like in action. Elicit several responses. l Briefly discuss the responses. l Uncover the prewritten " Non-examples" section on the slide. l Point out items they identified during discussion. l Tell participants to make any changes they want on their maps based on the discussion and example. Note: Be prepared to discuss learning styles and/or multiple intelligences theories if they come up during discussion. Teaching to preferred learning styles or intelligence is not differentiated instruction, because there is no research showing that this approach accelerates reading. If these ideas come up in the discussion, emphasize that there is no evidence to support theories of preferred learning styles or intelligence. (Kameenui, Carnine, Dixon, Simmons, Coyne, 2002; Moody et al., 2000; Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes, Hodge, 1995; Taylor, 2002)
  • Before discussing effective differentiated instruction, we first need to define it. Point to each bullet as discussed. Differentiated instruction means varying instruction to meet the needs of all students within the same classroom. It means taking students from where they are academically and moving them forward. For children who are behind, this means teaching them where they are, but accelerating their rate of progress to move them academically to where they need to be by the end of the year. It means flexibly grouping and regrouping students across the day and year as their reading strengths and needs change. (Moody, Vaughn, Hughes, & Fischer, 2000; Tomlinson, 2000; Walter-Thomas & Brownell, 2001)
  • We know from observational research that teachers typically teach to average learners. However, in most classrooms, there are at least three categories of learners: Advance and Gifted, typical, and struggling readers. |The advanced and gifted learners in the typical classroom already read well and know much of what is being taught in the standard curriculum. If provided only the standard curriculum, how are these students likely to respond to your instruction? Take a moment to discuss this with the other members of your table. Allow @ 1 minutes. Elicit several participant responses from multiple tables Main ideas a) students will be bored,b) students are more likely to be disruptive, c) other related ideas. On the other end of the continuum, there are students who are struggling readers. They may lack skills that we think of as being first- or second-grade skills. If you teach only the standard third-grade curriculum to these students. What is likely to happen? Discuss this briefly with the other members of your table. Allow @ 1 minutes. Elicit several participant responses from multiple tables Main Ideas: a) They get farther behind, b) They learn to hate school, they experience more failure, their self- esteem drops, Other related ideas. None of us want any students to be bored with school. Likewise, we do not want any of our students to experience failure in achieving academic expectations. What do we all want for our students? Elicit several responses. As you have just stated, we all want students to be successful, motivated to learn and energized by the prospect of new learning.
  • In order for student to be successful and motivated, students must be able to meet grade level expectations. For those students who are struggling, this means we have to help them to read at grade level expectations. We know from several studies that students who leave the third grade behind on reading will probably never catch up. So, what about those students who enter third-grade classrooms behind? Clearly, we have to accelerate their rate of progress. By matching what we teach to the instructional needs of students, we accelerate their rate of learning. It may mean providing scaffolded instruction while teaching grade-level skills or teaching skills that should have been mastered in an earlier grade. (Felton & Pepper, 1995; Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998; Juel, 1988)
  • Effective teachers are aware that every minute counts. These teachers plan instruction, both teacher-directed and student-directed so that student's academic engagement is maximized. These teachers know that the most effective learning arrangements increase academic engagement. Academic engagement means that students are actively involved in reading or writing text or practicing related skills and strategies. When students are only watching and listening, academic engagement tends to be less and students achievement tends to be less . Think about students you have taught. Were these students always engaged during instructions? Participants: No! Of course not. Even the best students find it difficult to stay engaged if they have to "sit and get" for too long. Even you may find this kind of learning environment difficult here today. Why would we expect more of our third graders than we do of ourselves? The bottom line is that students cannot learn what they do not attend to, and the best way to focus student's attention is to create highly engaging learning environments. (Rosenshine, 1981; Vaughn, Hughes, Moody & Elbaum, 2001)
  • Now we are ready to discuss our final session goal: how to keep the rest of the students academically engaged while you are working with a small group. There are several issues that you will need to keep in mind while planning for differentiated instruction. 1. You need to teach students the routine for how to behave in, and complete each station. Once students are familiar with the routine, they are less likely to cause behavior problems and to remain focused on the task at hand. This will take time at the start of the year to establish, review, and practice but, the long-term pay off is worth it. 2. The classroom arrangement and student movement from station to station must have clear routines established prior to the onset of use. This requires time spent up front to teach all students every routine they are expected to follow. The most wonderfully developed centers will be useless without a well-developed management system. 3. Time Allocation for daily reading and writing instruction will need to be established. Additional time to allow more practice beyond daily reading and writing instruction should be considered. 4. A planning board showing where each student is assigned and expected to move after the completion of one station is imperative in keeping the classroom organized and manageable. A teacher plan will provide a guide for allotted small group instructional time. The student plan will display the daily tasks for students to refer to throughout instruction.
  • Teach all students the rules and expectations for center time. Develop a system for moving to centers . Students need to know where to look in order to know where they are required to go for each rotation. A planning board indicates which centers students go to each day. Students need to know when it is time to clean up and switch to a different station. Some examples of signals are a timer, wind chime, bell, clap of hands, or a flash of lights. Establish a form of communication for asking for help . Students needs to know how to get the teacher’s attention while he/she is with a small group of students. Students also need to know what to do if something goes wrong at the center. One common example is to use the, “Ask three before me,” rule. Students need to be held accountable for the work that is done at each center. Some form of an Exit Slip is suitable where students record the name of the center they went to and what they did at that center. These slips can be turned in for some form of a grade. 2. The activities that students are expected to complete at workstations or their desks need to be reviews of previously learned skills . By using activities from current classroom learning, you are providing students with the opportunity to fully grasp concepts and solidify understanding, as well as practice critical reading and writing skills. Incorporating review activities into this type of arrangement, you minimize the need for teacher assistance as well as help the students apply their knowledge to various related tasks.
  • As we have said, when planning for workstations, you will need to teach students clear routine for how to behave and how to complete each station. In fact, routines are the key to your sanity. Once students know the routine, they are less likely to cause behavior problems and to remain focused on academics. Less behavior problems means more teaching time for you. This means that you will need to spend the time to teach all students every routine they are expected to follow during the work-station time. Once you have taught a routine, it is wise to use the routine again and again across the year. This way you are not achieving to spend item teach new routine, giving you more time to focus on academics. Literacy stations can be a very important part of learning each day fro your students and not something to do when everything else is finished. Of course stations are most effective when the activities follow from current classroom activities and are not random activities. They provide your students with the opportunity to fully grasp new concepts and solidify understandings,as well as practice critical reading and writing skills.
  • Please take out Handout 12, Daily Time Allocation. Work out exactly how much time your students spend engaged in reading and writing each day. First, look at how you typically have used time. Then, look for places where you can build additional time for reading and writing instruction and practice. Reading and writing are together because they are highly related. Furthermore, writing instruction increases reading comprehension. When planning a schedule that allows for all types of grouping practices on a daily basis, set priorities . Do instructional activities have a curriculum-to-assessment match? Do activities that engage students in reading and writing have a high priority? Is a high percentage of the day spent in academically engaged time? Teachers sometimes wonder how to make this all fit in the school day. Finding enough time for important instructional activities is all about setting priorities. Things that must fit into the school day and have priority are instructional activities that have a curriculum-to-assessment match . It is also important to ensure that activities that involve students in actual reading and writing have high priority . A final key piece to having enough time for targeted instructional activities using various grouping practices is evaluating what percentage of the school day is spent in instructional time. The number of in-room and out-of-room transitions between activities must be controlled to not lose valuable instruction time (Snow et al., 1998). Materials: Handout 12: Daily Time Allocation
  • Explain the following about the TPRI assessment: Overview of summary sheet- tasks, criteria, percents Point out how the branching rules moved Jeffery out of PA into GK portion after SD. Scores for entire class vs. individual summary sheet Red= SD difference between a red # and a red SD Green=D difference between a green # and a green D Percents 2/3 or 66% recommend for whole group instruction
  • On this slide, we are looking only at the portion of the Grouping Chart that focuses on the four Reading areas for all our Groups – Low, Middle, and High. We’ve omitted the “Final” and “Instructional Focus” Columns. Explain how students were placed in each level/domain briefly. Explain what D and SD stand for. Point out that this is only step 1 and that they won’t see the entire process just an overview.
  • Remind participants of the groups that were formed during the grouping demo. We are only going to focus on Group 1 and the instructional foci that was determined. During the grouping demo, we determined that group one needs instruction in Basic PA and GK skills as well as listening comprehension. See corrections From previous slide
  • The five basic types of grouping practices, the focus of the grouping format, and the group formations are detailed on this slide. During whole group instruction all students learn new concepts or review concepts. As a rule of thumb, skills not mastered by 2/3 of the class are taught during whole group instruction. For small group instruction , you will have three to six students in each group. This type of grouping serves two purposes: targets specific instructional needs and reviews concepts previously taught. When utilizing pairs or partners, students are working together to reinforce previously taught skills. Your intervention group requires more intensive instruction for specific skills and may require teaching reading more than once during the day. Multiple grouping patterns allow teachers to accommodate academic diversity and there by differentiate instruction.
  • After the instructional foci is determined, the next step is to plan instruction to meet the identified needs. The IAG provides over 100 pages of research based activities. The TPRI Interventions Activities Guide is one resource for activities. The IAG offers numerous sections, including Phonemic Awareness, Word Study or GK, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension, Spelling, and Writing . Materials: IAG
  • Please take out your copy of the Intervention Activities Guide Continuum. We developed this Intervention Activities Guide Skills Continuum so that the phonemic awareness and graphophonemic awareness activities are ordered according to level of difficulty. What you see on this Slide are only a portion of the Phonemic Awareness Activities; we selected those that would allow us to illustrate the use of the Intervention Activities Guide Continuum. The activities in the guide are not ordered in level of difficulty, but you can use this continuum as a guide. On the left, the skills are listed in order of difficulty from easiest to most difficult. On the right, the activities are listed in order of difficulty as you can see for example 4.6 appears on the continuum after 4.9 because 4.6 is more difficult. If there are multiple activities listed on the same line from left to right these activities are of equal difficulty. Materials: IAG Continuum handout
  • The activities in the graphophonemic portion are listed from top to bottom in order of difficulty. This order of difficulty was determined by two factors. The first determining factor is the sample sequence of word study found at the front of the Word Study section in the Intervention Activities Guide on page 43 ( direct participants to page 43 ). The word study and spelling activities were categorized according to their relevance to each of the 12 steps in the sample sequence. The second determining factor was the progression of difficulty of the activities according to the phonemic awareness continuum featured in the front of the Phonemic Awareness section of the Intervention Activities Guide on page 29. Only, the phonemic awareness continuum skills become the basis for ordering the graphophonemic activities in much the same manner, but with letters incorporated. Within each of the 12 steps, activities were color coded as easy, less easy, less difficult, and difficult (point out color coding on actual Activity Guide Continuum). Activities coded as easy were those activities that provided practice with letter-sound correspondence. Activities coded as less easy were activities that involved onset-rime blending and phoneme comparison (with the incorporation of letters into the activities). Activities coded as less difficult were activities that involved phoneme blending, elision, and phoneme segmentation (all with letters incorporated). Activities coded as difficult involved chunking or instruction on word reading by first breaking words down into two words for compound words or by first breaking words down into word parts for multi-syllabic words or root words and prefixes for word with affixes. The activities listed for each of the 12 steps of the sample sequence of word study are listed in order from easy to difficult from top to bottom. If more than one activity is listed from left to right, this means that the activities are of comparable difficulty. Fore example, there are three activities listed from left to right next to initial and final consonants: 5.15, 5.28, 5.29. Highlight the relevant points on speaker notes through bullets
  • Where does this activity fall on the continuum? What skill does it teach? Explain that most of the activities are not scripted and the importance of including additional explicit directions as well as modeling. Demo activity as is on slide using something to toss. First explain, today we are going to play a game called The Ship is loaded with. I am going to say, The ship is loaded with cheese and if I toss the (animal/bean bag) to you I want you to say a word that rhymes with cheese. Toss the item to other trainer an then continue game with some audience members. Materials: An item to toss IAG Activity 4.9 PA tab
  • After the groups are formed it is important to plan lessons to target needs that were identified. The Teacher Lesson Planning Sheet facilitates planning small group, differentiated instruction. This form can be used to plan daily lessons, weekly lesson, or unit lessons. The main goal is to help teachers identify skill areas and activities. All of the 5 Reading Domains and Spelling are addressed. Under each Domain, the skills are identified that students need to master. Space is provided to indicate Skills to be taught for each Group as well as to the Whole Group . Space is also provided to write Activity Name(s) and Source(s) that are appropriate to address these skills. Materials: IAG continuum Lesson Planning Sheet IAG
  • Now that we have determined the instructional focus and skills that the students in Group 1 must master, we want to identify activities that will move them forward in their reading development. To improve their PA, they need to work on rhymes, syllable awareness and blending sounds orally . ( Point to the Skill #’s written/identified on the Planning Sheet.) Discuss transitioning from the Planning Sheet to the Continuum, then back to the Planning Sheet. Use PA for your example. Materials: IAG continuum Lesson Planning Sheet IAG
  • The TPRI Interventions Activities Guide is one resource for activities. The IAG offers numerous sections, including Phonemic Awareness, Word Study or GK, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension, Spelling, and Writing . The same process of referring to the IAG continuum and the IAG to match appropriate activities would continue for each instructional focus. This lesson plan illustrates IAG activities that were chosen by consulting the continuum to match the skill A1-4; B1-3;7 and E1. All of the activities address skills that the Basic Skills group needs. Materials: IAG Continuum Lesson Planning Sheet IAG
  • Teacher Schedule: Time Allocation for daily reading and writing instruction will need to be established. Additional time to allow more practice beyond daily reading and writing instruction should be considered. Developing a teacher schedule is critical so the teacher can see how the classroom minutes are spent. This schedule shows a schedule where the teacher does not meet with each group every day. Which group does the teacher meet with each day? Why? Which groups does the teacher meet with 3 times a week? Why?
  • Student Schedule Providing a schedule for the students is equally important. A planning board showing where each student is assigned and expected to move after the completion of one station is imperative in keeping the classroom organized and manageable. A teacher plan will provide a guide for allotted small group instructional time. The student plan will display the daily tasks for students to refer to throughout instruction.
  • Before video We have covered quite a few ideas about how to provide differentiated instruction. We will take a moment to recap what we have discussed. We are going to see a video on providing differentiated instruction. As you watch the teachers highlighted in this film, look for how they use routines, how classrooms are arranged to facilitate differentiation, how teachers use many techniques for increasing academic engagement during both teacher-directed and student-directed instruction, and how peer-parings are used. Play the video.
  • Here is an example of the physical arrangement in a differentiated classroom with 24 students. Point to each area of the room as you discuss it. Notice that the planning board is located where it is easily visible if students need to refer to it. Notice also that, because tables are arranged to make larger tabletops, so that students can sit at their desks to collaboratively complete activities associated with different workstations. Students will move to and from the computer when it is their turn. Likewise, if students need to regroup for specific activities or projects, they can move to and from the project tables. Also, Students may sit in each other's desks from time to time in order to sit with partners or collaborative groups. Notice how the teacher has arranged the desks.This teacher has arranged the students' desks so that it is easy to make eye contact with every student in the class and to see every student’s desktop. The teacher has placed all the desks in what is called the zone of proximity. Observational research suggests that teachers tend to call on students in the zone of proximity, which is front and center. Students who sit on the sides and along the back in a traditional classroom get much less attention from the teacher. By moving the desks into this horseshoe arrangement, all the students are pushed into the area for which the teacher is more likely to remain attentive. The teacher can also see everyone's table top easily and move around the desks easily. Do you notice anything else about this classroom? Briefly discuss participant responses Allow @ 2minutes (Allington & Cunningham, 1996; Babyak, Luze & Kamps, 2000; Lawry, Danko & Strain, 2000)
  • Note: Do not show this slide at first.Complete the activity first. CD version comes up with headings only. Effective teacher-directed and student-directed instruction share many of the same characteristics. We are going to complete an activity that examines how teacher directed and student directed instruction are different, and how they are alike. For this activity you will need 4 things You will need a poster size copy of Teacher DIrected and Student Directed Venn diagram. It is the center of your table. Attached to it is a sheet of paper with characteristics of good instruction on the next page of you participant notes. You will also need a glue stick, and 1 pair of scissors for the table Please get those materials ready. Allow @ 30 seconds Activity Explain following directions l One person at each table should cut the characteristics into separate squares. l Working as a table group, discuss each characteristic and decide where it best fits on the Venn diagram. l Place each characteristic where it best fits and glue it down. Allow 5 minutes Point to each item on the Venn Diagram and walk participants through each item on the Venn diagram by discuss each item with participants Discuss any discrepancies that participants bring up.
  • One of the first things to think about before you deliver instruction is how you will group students. For grouping, the two most popular techniques are whole-group or small-group instruction. Those are the two basic grouping patterns to deliver instruction directly to students. Student directed instruction uses instructional arrangements in which students are responsible for monitoring their own learning and/or the learning of their peers. Student directed instruction does NOT include activities designed to fill student's time while they wait for teacher-directed instruction. It must be productive instruction. Student-directed instruction is an important part of the third grade for many reasons. With your partner, take a moment to list some of the reasons why students need some student-directed instruction during their school day. You plan student-directed instruction just like you plan teacher-directed instruction based on data and focused on specific needs. Point to Student-Directed box on the slide. On this slide, there are several forms of student-directed groupings, including work stations, collaborative groups, peer parings or buddy activities, and the old favorite; independent seatwork. Over the course of the next few days, you will be taught specific routines and techniques that make use of these various learning arrangements.
  • Now we will discuss how to increase academic engagement during either teacher-directed whole group-instruction or small-group instruction. Increasing academic engagement for all students can be challenging. It is challenging because, typically, only one student has a chance to respond at a time. In order to increase academic engagement in this format, we have to figure out better ways to interact actively with more students. If all we ever do is call on one student at a time, many students will simply tune out. Our goal is for all students to have many opportunities to respond to and interact with the teacher and with each other. This means using techniques other than calling on one student at a time. (Greenwood, 1991; Heward et al, 1996)
  • To illustrate how easy and inexpensive it is to use response cards in your class, we are going to have you make a set just as you can have your own students make a set before answering a series of questions. Now, take four index cards from you materials box. and write in bold letters the four techniques for increasing academic engagement. Write one technique per card Allow 1 minute Activity: 1. Read the following items and ask participants to identify the technique that would be most appropriate for each. 2. If participants make responses that differ from the answers listed, discuss to determine possible correctness. 3. Allow participants to hold up more than one card at a time. Discuss |Participants may have good rationale for responses not given below. Allow brief discussion Items 1. The students identify main idea of a paragraph. (White Board) 2. The students agree or disagree with another student's response. (Thumbs-up/Down, Response Cards). 3. The students match vocabulary words to definitions given by the teacher. (Response Cards) 4. The students identify the main character of a short story. (White Board) 5. The teacher makes a statement and students determine if the statement is true or false. (Thumbs-up/Down, Response cards). 6. The teacher asks the students to determine if a statement from a text selection is fact or opinion. (Everybody Question, Response Cards) 7. After introducing the suffix -ly, the teacher asks the students to say words with -ly added. For instance the teacher says, "say happy with -ly." (Everybody Question)
  • Keeping the other students actively engaged in academically profitable activities is a challenge, but it is not an insurmountable challenge. There are proven techniques for keeping the other students, with whom the teacher is not working, academically and profitably engaged. We will talk about a few of these effective ways, including workstations, computers, peer-assisted learning strategies, and collaborative groups.
  • An effective way to ensure that students are engaged in learning is to assign well-thought-out work stations. In order to make work stations effective, it is important that they are highly interactive. Having students working by themselves is not the |most effective use of their time. A simple way to keep them engaged is to assign them to complete work station activities with partners or at the computer. Peer-assisted learning is one of the best researched forms of student-directed instruction. From research we know that working with peers increases the academic achievement for all learner types, including the advanced students. Work stations that could be done easily in pairs or in collaborative groups are limitless. Examples include partner reading, word study activities such as word sorts, vocabulary activities such as playing jeopardy, and peer planning and peer editing during writing. Of course, to make peer-assisted learning or collaborative group work, the routines have to be carefully taught by the teacher, so that the students will know what to do and how to be helpful partners or team members. What will happen if you simply assign students to work together? Elicit participant response. Participants: Answers will vary.Possible answers include chaos, arguing, playing, high students just do it. Another tool that is increasingly available in classrooms is computer technology. If you are fortunate enough to have several computers in your classroom, then you have a tool that can truly help you to differentiate instruction for individual learners. Today, there are many well-designed software packages that can help you to provide remediation for struggling readers. At the same time, the computer can help to keep advanced learners challenged. (Mathes & Fuchs, 1994; Shannahan, 1998, Vaughn et al, 2001)
  • When we talk about work stations, we are not necessarily talking about special locations all over the room. Most of us do not have enough space to have multiple centers taking up space. In actuality, most work stations can be completed at the students' own desks. For instance, students can work on writing projects at their own desks, they can read at their own desks with partners, or they can sit temporarily at someone else's desk. When would you want to set up a special location for a work station? On your white boards, write down the types of activities that would require special locations. Hold up your answers. Possible answers: Activities with pocket charts, computer activities, or tape-recorded listening stations. Comment on the answers. Point out activities that do and do not need special locations.
  • You will have some students entering your classroom who will need explicit instruction on writing sentences. Teaching sentence writing helps students develop the concept of a main idea. To start, teach the definition for a sentence. The definition is “ A sentence names a ‘who or what,’ and tells what the who or what is doing .” This definition is related to the main idea strategies taught in the Reading Academies comprehension section making a nice link between reading and writing. Also, in written form, a sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. To model this, take a picture from any grade level material, and write a sentence about the picture . Start with a picture, so that students can focus on the task of writing. Of course the pictures you choose should lend themselves to writing sentences following the definition. When you model by writing the sentence based on the picture, you also want to include the punctuation rules . When you model the skill, talk out loud so the students hear your thought process as you go through the steps. Next, distinguish sentences from non-sentences explaining why there is a difference in the two. Take out handout 7: Duck picture. You would write the two sentences on the board or overhead and tell the students the difference between the two. The first sentence names a who or what and tells us about the who or what. The second sentence just has the who or what, but it doesn’t tell us anything about the who or what. Let us practice this another way using another picture.
  • Here is another picture that you could use with your students to compose a sentence . This is a picture of a king sitting at his desk. A sentence names ‘who or what’ and tells more about that ‘who or what.’ So a sentence for this picture could be ‘The king is counting his money,’ because it is a statement, the sentence ends with a period. If we said, “The king,” it would not be a sentence, because it would not tell more about the king. If we said, “Counting his money,” it would not be a complete sentence, because it does not name a ‘who or what.’ After you model sentence writing, you guide the student’s writing of sentences from pictures using the definition. As students dictate a sentence, write what they say on chart paper or a board. Scaffold the students’ responses as needed by having them identify the parts or the sentence. You can start using the self-monitoring checklist for this level. Two possible items would include: Does it name a who or what? Does it tell what the who or what did? Here is another example for secondary level instruction. Have students discriminate between complete and incomplete sentences. Write sentences with and without parts missing. The missing parts should be either the ‘who or what’ or the part that tells more about the ‘who or what.’ For example, you have a picture of a boy playing with a dog and the teacher prints ‘The boy.’ The student’s job would be to complete this sentence by telling more about the boy. When students can write sentences from pictures and can discriminate complete and incomplete sentences, they should be ready to write sentences without pictures. Students also need instruction on keeping their focus while writing a paragraph.
  • Teaching students to develop their ideas through the use of details is the third element of writing. When you teach to write with the details , you are teaching students to develop their writing through the use of appropriate details. First, you will learn how to teach students to add details to their sentences . Next, you learn how to expand the simple organizer into a detailed content web . This teaches students add details at the paragraph level. Finally, you will learn how to teach student’s different ways to revise their composition . This section encompasses the revision stage of the writing process.
  • A way for students to develop their composition is to work on expanding their sentences. Once students can consistently write complete sentences using correct punctuation, you can begin to teach them how to add complexity to their sentences. One way of doing this is by teaching how to combine simple sentences into compound sentences using the words ‘and’ and ‘but.’ For example, the two sentences ‘My social studies class was easy. My math class was difficult’ would be combined to read ‘My social studies class was easy, but math was difficult.’ Another way to add complexity to the sentence is with introductory clauses and moving around the part that tells when. For example, take the picture of the king and say “Before breakfast, the king counts his money,” this means the same thing as “The king counts his money before breakfast.” Or another example is ‘Before I brushed my teeth, I ate a bowl of cereal.’ which could be reworded to say ‘I ate a bowl of cereal before I brushed my teeth.’ Now let’s learn how to develop details by expanding paragraphs. This is done with the assistance of a content web.
  • Now we will talk about how to form student partnerships so that they can work together in pairs throughout the day. Asking students to work with a partner gives students the chance to share ideas with each other and to interact academically with each other. When students are interacting, they are engaged. To make peer-partnering work, you will need to assign students to pairs. Of course if you have an uneven number of student, you may end up with one triad. Once you have decided which students to place in pairs, we recommend strongly that you assign members of each pair to sit next to each other. If students are seated by their partners, then you can teach them to help each other throughout the day. Of course, you'll have to teach them exactly how to help and what is allowable help. You may be wondering how to best form pairs within your classroom. To ensure that both students within a pair will benefit from working together, it is wise to pair students from different reading levels. In other words, struggling readers are paired with average readers and advanced readers are paired with average readers.
  • Now, we will talk about how to form pairs. The scheme we are discussing with you has been used successfully in thousands of classrooms. The steps are located in your Fiver Star Reading Recipe Book on page __. Please turn to that now. Allow @ 15 seconds. The first step is to rank order all of your students in terms of reading skill. You should have some assessment data on which to base your ranking, even if you do not, rank them according to your best judgment. It is not important that you be exact. Just be close. Remember you want students of adjacent reading abilities to be paired. (Fuchs, Mathes & Fuchs, 1992; Greenwood et al, 1986; Mathes, Torgesen, Allen & Allor, 2001
  • Point to items on the slide as discussing them Once you have rank ordered your students, split the list into two halves. One list will represent the more skilled half, and the other half will represent the less skilled half. Now, pair the top-ranked student in the more skilled half with the top-ranked student in the less skilled half. Continue this process until all of your students have partners. Of course, you may decide to alter this pairing scheme somewhat, based on your students' individual needs and personalities. You know best how your students will work together. (Fuchs, Mathes & Fuchs, 1992; Greenwood, 1986; Mathes, Torgesen, Allen & Allor, 2001)
  • There are two things you need to know about pairing students. These bits of wisdom come straight from teachers who have used peer-pairing routines. First, you reassign parings about every four to five weeks. Why do you think this is important? Elicit participant response. Main Point: Students grow tired of working with the same partner after a while. This next item is the most important!! Do not change partnerships in response to a student's request or complaint. Everybody, what will you not do? Participants: Change partnerships in response to a student's request or complaint. You can imagine what will happen if you change partnerships in response to a student's request. Suddenly, every student in the class will be begging to change partners and you will have a real mess on your hands. The first time you pair students, you can expect that some of the students will vocalize discontent with your choices, but stand firm. One way to handle this situation is simply to explain to students that everybody has to learn to work with people they don't necessarily choose. Tell them that you care so much about them that you are going to help them practice this important life skill. Of course, you may make partnership changes, but do not make them directly in response to a student's request. (Fuchs et al, 1992; Mathes et al, 2001)
  • In order to design highly engaging and profitable instruction, there are some basic guidelines. You have to do more than just allocate time to reading. You must use that time is well spent. This means making sure that every activity has real academic value. It also means reducing down time. If even a minute is being wasted on activities that are not academically focused, then you are wasting your students' very precious time. Here is a motto to internalize: Every minute counts. Repeat that with me. Participants: Every minute counts. Now, say it like you mean it. Participants: Every minute counts. (Foorman & Schatsneider, in press; Taylor, 2002)
  • As the film showed, we have learned many things in the past few hours. Point to each objective as discussed. We have learned how to plan differentiated instruction using student assessment data, how to use flexible grouping arrangements, how to increase academic engagement during both teacher-directed and student-directed instruction, and how to arrange your classroom to facilitate differentiated instruction.
  • On the next page of your participant notes, you will find a Reflections page. Please take that out. Allow 15 seconds. Point to each column as you discuss it. In the "Currently Do" column, write down each technique that we've discussed or that you saw in the film that you already use in your classroom. Allow 2 minutes. Now, in the "New Techniques" row, write down techniques that you've learned today that you believe you could implement. Allow 2 minutes. Now, place a check mark next to at least two techniques that you will commit to implementing in your classroom. Allow 1 minute. I want you to fill out the pledge at the bottom. This pledge says you will commit to implementing the two techniques you checked when you get back to your classroom. This pledge is both to yourself and to your students. Allow 2 minutes.
  • Here are some important facts to remember: Most reading difficulties can be prevented through explicit, systematic instruction. In order for students to make progress, targeted student instruction must be continually assessed The teacher is the best intervention strategy.

Managing Small Groups Managing Small Groups Presentation Transcript

  • Managing Small Group Instruction to Ensure Successful Readers Kristi L. Santi, Ph.D. The University of Texas – Houston Center for Academic and Reading Skills [email_address] http://cars.uth.tmc.edu
  • Objectives
    • Components of Effective Reading
    • Overview of Differentiated Instruction
    • Establishing Routines
    • Grouping Procedures
    • Work Stations
  • Activation Profiles during Word Reading of Older Children
  • Before Intervention After Intervention Left Right
  • Reading Time Whole-Group Reading Instruction Peer-Assisted Reading Small-Group Instruction – Same Ability Whole-Group Review Collaborative Groups Pairs/Partners Work Station Routines
  • Teacher Training A key to a successful prevention and intervention model resides in good teacher training. Curriculum Aligned with Assessment Curriculum content must be based on assessment objectives. Features of Effective Instruction Assessing student progress, using assessment data to design instruction, and using a variety of grouping practices are necessary to meet instructional needs. A Reading Model for Prevention and Intervention Student Success
  • Components of Effective Reading Instruction Assess Student Progress Decisions Based on Data Differentiated Instruction
  • Assessing Student Progress
    • First Step
    • Collect assessment data at the beginning of the year.
    • Key to Success
    • Monitor progress by collecting assessment data frequently across the year.
  • Purpose of Assessment 1. Screening 2. Diagnostic 3. Progress Monitoring Identifies need for support Validates need for Instructional support Guides classroom Instruction and support Determines student progress toward benchmarks
  • Why Assessment?
    • Knowing why a student is struggling is key to knowing how to help them.
    • David Tilly 2006
  • Teaching the Test
    • When testing, teachers should view the assessment as a tool to assist with instructional planning.
    • Gains made by “teaching the test”
      • are not “ability” gains
      • will not predict to other outcomes
      • will not generalize to other tests measuring the same ability
      • Inferences about test scores will be invalid
  • Linking SBRR Assessments to Instruction Identify Need with SBRR Assessment Progress Monitoring Implement Review Plan based on Progress Plan Instructional Support
  • Emergent Reading Word Recognition Comprehension Fluency Skilled Reading The Reading Pillar Print Awareness & Letter Knowledge Motivation to Read Oral Language including Phonological Awareness Decoding using alphabetic principal Decoding using other cues Sight Recognition Conceptual Knowledge/vocabulary Strategic processing of text Speed and ease of reading text
  • Reading Instruction Components of Effective Decisions Based on Data Assess Student Progress Differentiated Instruction
  • Data-Based Decision Making
    • Planning the content of daily instruction based on frequent, ongoing assessment data
    • Grouping and regrouping students based on shared needs observed from data
  • Matching Text to Readers
    • Instructional and independent levels are based on an individual student’s reading ability
    • What instructional and independence for one student may not be instructional or independence for another student in the same classroom
  • Components of Effective Reading Instruction Assess Student Progress Decisions Based on Data Differentiated Instruction
  • Why Differentiate Instruction?
    • The range of reading ability in a typical classroom is about five years and is more academically diverse than anytime in history.
    • Kameenui & Carnine, 1998; Mathes, Torgesen, Menchetti, Santi, Nicholas, Robinson, & Grek, 2003
  • Instructional Context for Different Learners
    • During typical reading instruction, students spend 70% of their time passively watching and listening to others.
    • Students spend only a small fraction of their time reading.
    • Poorest readers typically receive the least reading instruction.
    • O’Sullivan, Yssledyke, Christensen, & Thurlow, 1990; Grek, 2000; Vaughn, Moody, & Schumm, 1998; Allington & McGill-Franzen, 1989; Stanovich, 1986
  • Concept of Definition Map Nonexamples: What is it? Differentiated Instruction Examples : What is it like?
  • Concept of Definition Map
    • With your partner, write your own definition of differentiated instruction.
    • Brainstorm examples of how a teacher might differentiated instruction.
    • Brainstorm examples that do NOT depict differentiated instruction.
    • Identify synonyms that describe what differentiated instruction is like.
  • Concept of Definition Map What is it like? Nonexamples : What is it? Differentiated Instruction Examples : Teaching students according to their individual needs.
    • Data-based instruction
    • Individualized instruction
    • Scaffolding
    Teaching targeted small groups Flexible grouping patterns Using assessment data to plan instruction Matching text level to student ability Independent projects tailored to student ability Whole class instruction Small groups that never change (tracking) All students reading same text Same independent seatwork assignments to entire class
  • What is Differentiated Instruction?
    • Varying instructions to meet the needs of all students within the same classroom
    • Taking students where they are and moving them forward
    • Flexibly grouping and regrouping students according to shared needs and abilities
  • The Academic Continuum Advanced Readers
    • Read fluently and with expression
    • Read independently
    • Have advanced decoding skills
    • Have good comprehension
    Typical Readers
    • Read less fluently
    • Developing independence
    • Developing advanced decoding skills
    • Developing strategies for comprehension
    Struggling Readers
    • Read with labored fluency
    • Have poor decoding skills
    • Comprehension hindered by poor reading
  • Differentiation = Acceleration
    • If students leave third grade behind on reading they probably will never catch up.
    • Reading progress is accelerated when reading instruction is matched to the student’s needs.
    • Torgesen & Mathes, 1998; Juel 1988; Torgesen & Burgess, 1998
  • The most effective learning arrangements increase academic engagement.
  • Effective Classroom Management Factors
    • Frequent monitoring
    • Nonverbal signals
    • Use of routines
    • Models routines first
    • Frequent positive interactions (4 to 1 ratio)
    • Reinforce student accomplishments
  • Develop a Classroom Plan for Differentiated Instruction
    • Routines are the key to sanity.
    • Arrangement of the classroom.
    • Time Allocation.
    • Scheduling.
  • Establishing Routines
    • Rules for Centers
        • Moving to centers
        • Asking for help
        • Being accountable
    • Activities
        • Previously learned
        • Academically engaging
  • Moving to Centers
    • At the beginning of the year practice the routine of moving with the students
    • Role play how to ask for help
      • Three before me
    • Exit slips
      • Students complete a half sheet of paper that contains a rubric for self-evaluation
      • Attach to completed work
  • Activities
    • All activities should be previously learned
      • Use new words for word sort
      • Extend word activities into writing activities
    • Academically engaging
      • As much fun as cutting out boots and pasting on glitter might be to the students, it is not instructionally relevant.
  • Other Guidelines
    • Make literacy stations an important part of learning each day – not something to do when everything is finished .
    • Have no more than two or three “work stations.”
    • Stations are always the same!!!!!!
    • Less is more!!!!!
    • Don’t have to be cute, just well thought out.
  • Instructional Delivery
    • Well organized
    • Task oriented
    • Explicit
    • Reduces practice of errors
    • Demonstration, guided practice
    • with prompts, and feedback
  • Instructional Delivery
    • Classroom is well organized.
    • Desks are arranged so that all students are in the teacher's instructional zone.
    • Instruction is explicit (no guess work). Students know what and why.
    • All students are being engaged in instruction.
    • No students are on the peripheral only marginally participating.
    • No students are sitting alone confused.
    • No student has been “ written off.”
  • Time Matters
    • This means:
    • Allocating more time to reading is only a first step .
    • Carefully choosing instructional materials and activities based on what research suggests is most effective.
    • Reducing down time and related activities time.
  • Daily Time Allocation TIME ALLOCATED FOR: Current Minutes Possible Minutes Reading Instruction Spelling Instruction Writing Instruction Total Language Arts Block
    • Additional Minutes :
    • Sustained Silent Reading (less time/closely monitor)
    • Library Time (from lining up to returning to classroom)
    • Reading/Writing During Social Studies (more time)
    • Reading/Writing During Science (more time)
    • Reading During Mathematics (more time)
    • Computer Time (academically engaging?)
    • Other time:
    Total Additional Minutes Add Total Language Arts Block + Total Additional Minutes Add possible minutes + total daily time allocation Total Daily Time Allocation
  • Focus on Academics
    • Engaged Time
    • Critical Factor
    • Time students actually spend performing an academic task
    • Students are sitting alone doing things they don’t understand
    • Increasing Engagement
    • Doesn’t have to be cute!
    • Unison responses
    • Partner Activities
    • Peer Tutoring
    • Cooperative Learning
  • Demonstration
  •  
  • David Alex Elmer Rob Angelina Pat George All SD Charles David Alex Rob Peter All SD Jeffrey George Charles David Elmer James Alex Rob Pat All LIS Jeffrey George Charles David Elmer James Alex Rob Pat All NA S1 Ralph Jane Bud Wendy Claire Abby Ralph Jane Abby Bud Wendy Paris Ralph Claire Hank Abby Bud Wendy Ralph 70 - 5 Jane 65 - 5 Bud 122 - 5 Wendy 92 - 5 All D All D All IND Jeffrey Charles James Peter Paris Hank Sam Jeffrey Paris Sam Hank James George Elmer Claire Angelina Pat Peter Sam Jane Angelina All INS Paris 28 - 1 Hank 28 - 1 Peter 26 - 1 Angelina 33 - 3 Claire 52 - 1 Abby 48 - 4 Sam 31 - 1 1 out of 4 D 2 out of 5 D 3 – 4 out of 5 D 2 out of 4 D
  • Jeffrey Peter Blending, Word Building & Comprehension Claire Abby Jane Fluency & Reading Comprehension David Alex Rob Ralph Bud Wendy Enrichment: Comprehension & Vocabulary Basic PA and GK Skills, Listening Comprehension James Pat Charles * Needs PA Angelina Sam Hank, Paris Elmer George
  • Grouping Patterns
    • Teachers who get the best outcomes use multiple grouping patterns to accommodate student’s academic diversity.
      • Whole Group
      • Small Group
      • Peer pairing
      • Cooperative projects
    • Dependent on the the activity and student ability
    • Eye on increasing active engagement.
  • Grouping Practices
  • Daily Small Group Lessons
    • Can include multiple tracks.
    • Each track will be visited for only a brief time.
    • Amount of new information should be reduced.
    • Most of each lesson should be review and generalization.
  • IAG provides over 100 pages of research based activities
    • Grouping Students
    • Cumulative Daily Review
    • Book and Print Awareness
    • Phonemic Awareness
    • Word Study
    • Fluency
    • Vocabulary
    • Comprehension
    • Spelling
    • Writing
  • 4.15, 4.16, 4.17 Listed left to right-comparable Onset-rime blending Rhyming and alliteration IAG Activities Skills in Order of Difficulty Phonemic Awareness 4.7 Listed from top to 4.9 bottom in order of 4.6 difficulty. 4.11 4.10 4.8 IAG Continuum
  • IAG Continuum Word Study – Graphophonemic Knowledge
    • Easy : Green
    • - Letter-Sound Correspondence
    • Less Easy: Blue
    • - Onset-Rime Blending
    • - Phoneme Comparison
    • Less Difficult: Red
    • - Phoneme Blending
    • - Elision
    • - Phoneme Segmentation
    • Difficult: Orange
    • - Chunking
    IAG ACTIVITIES 5.16 (letter-sound correspondence ) 5.19 (onset-rime blending)
  • 4.9 The Ship is loaded With… Have students sit in a circle and make sure you have something to toss. To begin the game say, The ship is loaded with cheese. Then toss the (bean bag) to someone else in the circle. The person must make a rhyme from the sentence. Example: The ship is loaded with peas. (fleas, trees, bees, etc.)
  •  
  • IAG Continuum and Teacher Lesson Planning Sheet 1. 2. 3. 4.15, 4.16, 4.17 IAG Activities (Phonemic Awareness) 4.7 4.9 4.6 4.11 4.10 4.8 4.12 5.33 1: Basic Skills A 1-4 4.9, 4.12, 4.15
  • 1: Basic Skills A 1-4; B1-3;7 E1 4.09, 4.12, 4.15, 5.8, 5.14, 7.5, 8.1, 8.2
  • Schedule for Small Group Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Group 1 20 minutes Group 1 15 minutes Group 1 15 minutes Group 1 25 minutes Group 1 20 minutes Group 2 20 minutes Group 2 20 minutes Group 3 20 minutes Group 2 20 minutes Group 2 20 minutes Group 3 20 minutes Group 4 25 minutes Group 4 15minutes Group 3 15 minutes Group 4 20 minutes Group 2 15 minutes
  • Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Devon Jacob Sam Candy, Ray Mary Jerome Jose Todd, George Amy Lucy Lena Susan, Carlos Taylor Dawn Wanda, Maria Simon, Daniel Todd Susan Wanda Robert Candy Daniel Lucy Amy Devon Jacob Jose George, Simon Sam Ray Carlos George Lena Carlos Dawn Ray Taylor Susan Robert San Jerome Wanda Daniel, Maria Devon Mary Lucy Amy Taylor Simon Maria Lena Carlos Candy Mary Todd, Dawn Jacob Jerome Jose, Robert Paired Reading Mary &Daniel Jerome and Lucy Devon & Simon Jacob & Wanda Ray & Taylor Candice & Amy Todd & Lena
  • The Differentiated Classroom
    • Look for :
    • Routines
    • How classrooms are arranged to facilitate differentiation
    • How teachers use many techniques for increasing academic engagement during both teacher directed and student directed instruction  
  • A Differentiated Classroom Projects Table Computers Class Library Projects Table Chalkboard Small Group Teacher’s Materials Conference Chair Cabinets 24 Students Desk Planning Board
  • Teacher-Directed Student-Directed
    • Gives immediate and specific feedback
    • Reteaches as necessary
    • Teaches to mastery
    • Clear expectations for student behavior
    • Clear academic objectives
    • Read, write, discuss, and practice critical skills
    • Multiple and varied opportunities to practice
    • Interactive
    • Engaging
    • Differentiated
    • Read, write, discuss, and practice critical skills independently
    • Accountable for their own learning
  • Grouping Arrangements
    • Teacher-Directed
    • Whole group
    • Small group
      • Same Ability
      • Mixed Ability
    • Individual
    • Student-Directed
    • Work stations
    • Peer activities
    • Collaborative groups
    • Independent work
  • Increasing Academic Engagement During Teacher-Directed Instruction
    • Increase every student’s opportunity to respond to the teacher.
    • Use techniques other than calling on one student at time.
  • Techniques: Check for Understanding
    • Everybody Questions
    • Thumbs-Up, Thumbs-Down
    • Use of White Boards
    • Response Cards
  • Academic Engagement During Student-Directed Instruction
    • Work stations
    • Computers
    • Peer-assisted learning
    • Collaborative group routines
  • Ideas for Work Stations
    • Partners
      • Partner reading
      • Word study
      • Vocabulary
      • Writing
      • Literature analysis
    • Technology
      • Software (differentiate for specific learners)
      • Computer searches
      • Editing
    • A work station is not always completed in a special location in the room.
    • Most stations can be completed at students’ desks.
    • Some stations will need to be completed somewhere else in the room.
    Work Stations
  • What about the students with whom the teacher is not working?
    • Want to see lowest students getting “double dose.”
    • Instructional routines for the students who are not being taught directly by the teacher.
    • Every student knows routines.
    • Objectives support other aspects of instruction.
    • Students are partnered.
    • Students are reading and discussing text selection following specific routines.
    • Should be active, but not a zoo!
  • Work Stations
    • Objectives support other aspects of instruction.
    • EASY IDEAS – All Using Peer Pairings
    • Letters-Sounds and Outlaw Words Partner Review.
    • Buddy Reading
    • Listening Station
    • Writing Station
    • Spelling Station
    • Technology
  • The Listening Station
    • Students listen to a story book at a listening station as pairs. More that one pair can listen to a story.
    • Students apply already taught comprehension strategy such as:
      • Sequencing notes
      • Story Sequence
      • Story map.
  • The Writing Station
    • Reading-Writing connection is solidly proven.
    • If they can read about it, they can write about it.
    • Use comprehension strategies to plan writing.
    • Spell it as your hear it.
  • Teaching Students to Write Sentences
    • Definition of a sentence:
    • A sentence names a who or what and tells what the who or what is doing
    • Model:
    • Use the rule to write a sentence from a picture
    • Include punctuation rules
    • Distinguish sentences from nonsentences
  • Composing a Sentence From a Picture (who or what) (tells what the who or what is doing)
  • Writing with the Development of Details Students develop writing through the use of appropriate details.
        • Add to sentence development
        • Adding details to a content web
        • Revision and Editing
  • Adding to Sentence Development
    • Combine simple sentences into compound sentences (use of ‘and’ and ‘but’)
    • Introductory clauses (moving around the part that tells when)
    Example: The king counts his money before breakfast.
  • Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies (PALS) All students are paired with other students of the same class or instructional group. Each pair has a coach and a reader. Coach and reader jobs are reciprocal. First reader is higher performing reader.
  • Peer Partners
    • All students in class are paired with peers.
    • Partners should be different learner types.
      • Those needing more intense reading instruction paired with typical readers
      • Typical readers paired with advanced readers
  • Peer Pairing Scheme
    • Rank-order your students in terms of reading skill.
    • Split them in half (more skilled half and less skilled half).
    Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student 13 Student 14 Student 15 Student 16 Student 17 Student 18 Student 19 Student 20 Student 21 Student 21 Student 23 Student 24
  • Peer Pairing Scheme
    • Pair the top-ranked student in the more skilled half with the top-ranked student in the less skilled half.
    • Continue this process until all of your students have partners.
    • Consider individual needs and personalities.
    • Reassign partners every four to five weeks.
    • Do not change partners in response to student requests or complaints
    Other Important Guidelines for Pairings
  • Story Sharing
      • Pretend Reading
      • Read Aloud
      • Retell
    3 Activities
  • Importance of Distributed Practice
    • Provides for success.
    • Getting the answer right is very reinforcing.
    • Ensure less error.
  • Every Minute Counts
    • Allocate more time to reading
    • Choose activities for their academic value
    • Use strategies that increase active engagement in reading
  • Review of What We Learned
    • In this section you learned:
    • how to plan differentiated instruction using student assessment data,
    • how to use flexible grouping arrangements,
    • techniques to increase academic engagement during both teacher directed and student directed instruction,
    • how to arrange your classroom to facilitate differentiated instruction.
  • Reflections on Effective Differentiated Instruction
    • Currently Do:
    • New Techniques:
    Pledge: I commit to implementing the following 2 new techniques in my classroom:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Signature_____________________
  • Remember...
    • Most reading difficulties can be prevented.
    • To provide targeted student instruction, student progress must be assessed and evaluated continually.
    • You are the best intervention strategy your students have.
    • (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)